" (2003) the police force from this view was held as "ideal for exerting order across the vast territories of Canada, whose sheer scale made law enforcement, public administration and the assertion of sovereignty difficult." (Newburn, 2003) the police force in this area was known as the "North-West Mounted Police" whose influence extended early [in the] twentieth century...taking on security and counterespionage services during the First World War and, in 1919, helping to break the Winnipeg general strike."(Newburn, 2003)
In 1920 this force was renamed the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and expanded throughout the 1930s. During the 1930s, this police system is described as "chaotic...replaced by one in which officers earned wages almost one third above the national average. (Royal Commission on the Police, 1960; as cited in Newburn, 2003) Following World War II changes occurred in British policing and the relationship between the police and local communities and between the government and police in what has been a time of reform for policing. During the 1980s, it is stated by Newburn that Canada was characterized by "significant urban disorders and a bitter miners' strike." (2003) Additionally, policing at this time was "very visible public order policing..." (Newburn, 2003) Simultaneously, public approval of policing was on the decline.
The work entitled: "Is the Future of Community Policing in Canada at Risk in the Wake of Recent International Terrorist Attacks and Increasing Violent Crimes Associated to Organized Criminal Activities" states that the Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is committed to the vision of 'Safe-Houses - Safe Communities'. (2008) There are stated to be five key strategies utilized toward the advancement of Community policing:
2) community revitalization;
4) customer service; and 5) problem-solving. (Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2008)
These guiding principles comprise a unique "service delivery model." (Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2008) it is stated that both internal and external clients and partners were consulted with in developing these principles, which include:
1) public accountability through realignment of policing services in reflection of the concerns and needs of the community;
2) decentralized, neighborhood services approach;
3) partnership and collaboration;
4) integrated service team approach, and client centered service delivery;
5) Consultation, transparency and participation;
6) proactive approach (anticipating and forecasting community issues;
7) community problem-solving;
8) custom designed services delivery for each unique community and culture;
9) custom designed service delivery for each community and its unique culture;
10) quality service through assessing the satisfaction and needs of client and in measuring how these needs are actually met as well as closing the gap between 'expectations and deliverables;
11) principles centered leadership;
12) advanced risk management philosophy that redefines failure, yet identifies and controls high-risk activities; and 13) a commitment to employee continuous development. (Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2008)
Stated as a solution is "sharing best practices" which will "expose those involved including the RCMP to the global problems and solutions..." identified. Specifically stated is: "It is globally recognized that the Community Policing philosophy is the fourth evolution of policing in our modern era. Although we have entered this new era, Community policing has been overshadowed of late, in the wake of recent international terrorist attacks, and organized crime activities. We cannot let the fear of violent crime dictate an erosion of the community policing model and allow us to retreat back to the comfort of the previous evolutionary phase, the "professional model." A "sharing best practices" program will allow the police agencies to share this concern with the global policing community. Now, more than ever, there is a requirement to embrace community policing as a model where community concerns can be re-assessed and citizen mobilization be enhanced to assist the police in seeking solutions." (Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2008)
One of the primary issues that police enforcement has to cope with in Canada is the policing of the Aboriginals in Canada. There are 614 Indian bands that are federally acknowledged in Canada which own approximately 2.95 million acres of trust land. The following crime statistics are stated for the Aboriginals: (1) the homicide rates was seven times higher than the Canadian average; (2) the assault rates was eight times higher than the Canadian average; (3) the sexual assault rate was seven times higher than the Canadian average; (4) the mischief (vandalism) rate was six times higher than the Canadian average; (5) the rate of total property offences was comparable to the Canadian average; (6) the rate of disturbing the peace was 12 times higher than the Canadian average; (7) the offensive weapons rate was seven times higher than the Canadian average; (8) Breaking and entering (burglary) was the single most frequent youth offence type, followed by mischief and theft; and (9) Violent crimes tended to be committed by someone known to the victim (56%) such as a relative, friend, or acquaintance, compared with 41% in cases of violence committed against non-Aboriginal people. (Savvas, 2008)
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
Policing in the United States and Canada is quite different in nature in that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Force in Canada is a national police force while the U.S. does not have a national police force. While Federal law enforcement agencies in the United States are specialized, these forces are not appropriate for civilian law enforcement. Canada is more influenced by Great Britain law enforcement principles than is the United States. Three primary issues that this study has noted concerning policing in the United States are those of: (1) death by less-than lethal weapons is high; (2) a pattern of racial discrimination exists; and (3) a system that protects the abusers when they are police officers. (Randall, 1998) Five key strategies that are adhered to by the Canadian police force are those of: (1) deployment; (2) community revitalization; (3) legitimacy; (4) customer service; and (5) problem-solving. (Richmond Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2008)
Fogal, Connie (2006) Police State in U.S. And Canada: The Radio Frequency ID Card
Parent, Rick (2006) the Police Use of Deadly Force: International Comparisons. Vathek Publishing. 2006.
Randall, Kate (1998) Police Brutality in America. 27 Oct 1998. Part 2 in a series of articles on Amnesty International's Report of human rights abuses in the U.S. The International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI).
The Growth of Our Prisons (2006) Justice Watchdog. Online available at http://www.justicewatchdog.com/donations.html
Hodgson, James F. et al. (2005) Public Policing in the 21st Century: Issues and Dilemmas in the U.S. And Canada. Criminal Justice Press 2005.