Process of making candy is a long process. The process involves blending and mixing of pounds of chocolate, milk & cream, sugar, candy coating and other ingredients to make candy that would be acceptable to customers. From the brief explanation of the candy making, it is revealed that the production process of candy involves combining the three factors of production such as land, labor, and capital to produce the final products.
In the Candy making, there is a need to set aside the financial resources that would be used to:
purchase the raw materials or the ingredients;
purchase the equipment to make candy;
rent or purchase the land to build the factory or lease the existing factory;
pay direct and indirect labor;
purchase office equipment;
settle other miscellaneous payments such as the telephone bills, water bills and others
After the owner of the business has satisfied all the above named conditions, the next step is to start the candy production. However, the following department needs to be set up to speed up the candy making.
First, there is a need to set up an accounting department to manage the company finance. The accounting department manages all the costs accrued in making of candy and the revenue the company realizes from the sales of candy. Following are some of the activities of an accounting department:
Disburse payment needed to buy the ingredients for candy,
Prepare the payroll for the employee and direct labor working in the factory.
Calculate and record the revenue realized from the sales of candy;
Calculate and record the gross and the net profits realized from the candy business.
Procurement department is another department that is responsible to purchase and procure the ingredients that would be needed for candy making.
There is also need to set up the production department that would be responsible for designing, producing, and packaging of candy. Production department should ensure that the making of candy is done in a clean environment. A well-managed food plant should start from a well-designed factory. With the assistance of a civil engineer, there is a need to construct a building that would house the candy-making equipment. Finally, sales department should be in charge of all sales of all candy produced in the company.
There are several steps in candy making. The first step in candy making is to design the physical outlook of the candy. Since there are many candies sold in the market, there is a need to design a unique candy product that would be different from other candies available in the market. Moreover, the designing process should also include packaging, and packaging should be designed in such a way that it should be different from other packaging in the market. The production department should be in charge of candy design and packaging.
The next stage is to select the molds for candy. The best mold should be 8 x 10-inch plastic mold sheet. Having selecting the molds for the candy, the next step is to select the ingredients for making of candy. Depending on the type of candy to be produced and its sweetness, the necessary ingredients for the preparation of candy are chocolate, milk & cream, sugar, candy coating and other ingredients, and all these ingredients should be mixed in the mixing bowl.
The other step is to prepare the molds. It is hygienically, and good idea to wash and sterilize the molds before using them. Afterward, there is a need to melt the candy chips with double boiler. The candy chips should be allowed to boil at 115 degree Centigrade or 240 degree Fahrenheit. (Jones, 2011).Next step is to pour the melted candy into the molds, and allow the candy to cool. Depending on the type of candy to be produced, the candy ought to be ready after few minutes. Since the candy is produced to be sold in the market, there is a need to put the candy in the special wrapping foil cellophane or plastics, and these wrappers are available in different colors. After making the candy, all candy should be stored in a cool, dry place in an airtight container. (Fryatt, 1999).
To produce candy for market purpose, the company will incur costs, and there are different costs that need to be incurred before the company produces the final products.
b. Anticipated Costs in Candy Making
An organization that intends to manufacture products should understand that there is a need to incur costs before producing the final products. Costing is defined as the process of collection and interpretation of costs. In the production of candy, there are different type of costs the needs to be understood and will be implemented in the production process. To understand the costing structure of candy business, it is critical to understand the type of costs that will be incurred in candy making. In the candy business, there are fixed costs and variable costs associated to all departments.
In the candy business, the variable costs need to be incurred. The variable costs are the costs that change with the level of activities. Examples of variable costs are direct labor, direct materials, and sales commission. These costs will increase with the increase in the addition unit of output. There are also fixed costs that do not change with the change of activities. Example of fixed costs is administrative salaries, property tax, and rents. For example, suppose the Candy factory decides to lease the manufacturing facility where the Candy confectionary will be produced, and the rent is $250,000. Factory rent is a fixed cost no matter the level of production, and the $250,000 rent is an example of fixed cost. Fixed costs are illustrated in Table 1.
Table 1: Candy Fixed Cost
Units of Candy
Rent Per Unit
From Table 1, it is revealed that factory rent does not change with the increase in the production. The factory rent is an example of fixed cost. However, the factory rent allotted to different level of production decline as there is increase in production. The scalability of a business is attributed to the fixed costs. Further examples of fixed costs and variable costs are revealed in the costs associated in each department.
Candy making must be supported by the service department. One of these service departments is accounting department, which is essential component of the operation. The functions of accounting department are to properly manage all the costs incurred in making of candy and the revenues realized from selling of candy. There are costs that the company needs to allocate to the accounting department for the successful operation of the business. Although, these costs need to be recovered for the business to survive, and the costs that need to be incurred for the running of accounting department are as follows:
Direct & Indirect Costs: Direct labor is required in the candy making. The direct labor includes the employee salaries in the accounting department. The direct labor in the accounting department is an example of variable costs. The direct costs incurred in the accounting department may also involve training of the staff of accounting department, and the costs incurred in the travelling expenses. Apart from direct costs, there are also indirect costs that should be charged indirectly to the department. The indirect costs are difficult to be allotted to a specific activity, and all departments in the organizations will absorb the indirect costs. Examples of indirect costs are telephone, computer use, petrol, security, and miscellaneous office supplies.
Administrative Costs: The administrative costs arise from the general management functions, and these include the payment of executive staff in the accounting department. The administrative costs are also incurred by controlling and directing the organization. The administrative cost is an example of fixed costs.
Procurement department is responsible to procure all the materials used for making of candy. The costs associated to the procurement department are similar to the costs associated to accounting department. There are direct costs, indirect costs, and administrative costs in the procurement department. The direct costs are the costs for paying workers salary, costs to procure the ingredients for candy making. There are also direct costs such as travel expenses, telephone charges, and staff training. There are also indirect costs attached to the department which include security and miscellaneous office supplies.
Production department is one of the most important departments in the candy making.
There are several costs anticipated for candy making in the production department. The costs are as follows:
Direct labor: These are the costs for the payment of workers salaries in the department.
Direct material: Direct materials are the integral part of candy making, and the direct materials are the physical materials that are readily traced to the finished products. The costs of all these materials are traced to direct…