Variable Essays (Examples)

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Conceptual Fit

Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17583743

Conceptualization and operationalization of variables

Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.

Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.

Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…… [Read More]

References

Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:

Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.

Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.

Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
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Accounting Assessment of Costs and

Words: 1275 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95779138

One example has been the printer market; firms will often subsidize the printers that are sold, with the aim of creating long-term profits by the ongoing sale of the printer cartridges (Thompson, 2007). The cellular telephone market also operates in a similar manner, with mobile phone service suppliers subsidizing the cost of the handsets in order to gain a contract from a customer, the cost of the subsidy is offset against the profit that will be gained on the service contract. Therefore, the firm will need to look at the impact that ending production may have on the sale of other goods. However unless there is a complimentary item then it would appear some changes may need to take place.

If there is a loss with the fixed costs of $1,000,000 it is will be expected that higher fixed costs will increase the loss.

Assessment with fixed costs at $3,000,000…… [Read More]

References

Gillespie a, (2010), Business Economics, Oxford, Oxford University Press

Seal, Will; Garrison, Ray H; Noreen Eric W, (2011), Management Accounting, McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Thompson JL, (2007), Strategic Management; Awareness and Change, London, Thompson Business Press.
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Crime in the Beginning the Main Focus

Words: 1861 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68215282

Crime

In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.

When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…… [Read More]

References

Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.

GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from:  http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp 

Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
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Linear Regression Examples

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66685519

Linear egression

Predictions and Hypothesis Testing

What benefit does a variable provide when developing and examining models?

Statistics can be used to describe a phenomenon or conduct hypothesis testing, but statistics can also used to predict outcomes (Hanneman, Kposowa, & iddle, 2012, p. 7). To enable predictions to be made, variables are required in the statistical model. Variables allow researchers to model the mathematical relationship between two or more phenomenon. For example, the relationship between tree circumference and the number of leaves could be described by the two variables girth and leaves. This relationship may or may not be causal, but it could be correlational. If a causal relationship is suspected, then maybe reducing the number of leaves inhibits expansion of tree girth. In this case, leaves would be the independent variable and girth the dependent variable. If the model is valid, then the tree girth could be predicted for…… [Read More]

References

Atmospheric pressure and other state variables. (n.d.). Retrieved 6 May 2014 from  http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g110_w08/lecture_notes/pressure/pressure.html .

Hanneman, R.A., Kposowa, A.J., & Riddle, M.D. (2012). Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Basic Statistics for Social Research. Somerset, N.J.: Jossey-Bass.

Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. (n.d.). Chapter 2: Simple linear regression. In Research Methods II: Multivariate Analysis. Retrieved 6 May 2014 from  http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/tropej/online/ma.html .

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). What are the coronary heart disease risk factors? Retrieved 6 May 2014 from  http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hd/ .
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What Has Affected Poverty in Haiti

Words: 3527 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53245960

poverty challenges in Haiti. Haiti is one of the poorest nations in the Western hemisphere and the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The nation's demographic statistics reveal the effect of extreme poverty. This condition has significantly reduced life expectancy to 49.2 years. This is highly contributed by high infant mortality rates due to poor health services and general high death rates. Despite the slow population growth rate and extreme poverty, Haiti is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with approximately 95% of the population made up of black people. Extreme poverty in Haiti and the challenges that this condition causes to the people are the main reasons for carrying out this study. The research explores the political, economic and social structures of Haiti in relation to the poverty level. It is…… [Read More]

References

International Monetary Fund.2008. Haiti Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Washington D.C: IMF Publications.

Verner. D. 2007. Social Resilience and State Fragility in Haiti. Washington D.C: Recycled Paper.

International Monetary Fund. 2001. International Monetary Fund: Staff Country Reports. Washington D.C: IMF Publications.

Lundahil, M. 2013. The Political Economy of Disaster: Destitution Plunder and Earthquake in Haiti. New York: Routledge Publisher.
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Making Decisions Based on Demand and Forecasting

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93292366

Demographics of Raleigh, NC

Demographic and independent variables relevant to complete a demand analysis include population size and Average income per household. An area with a high population size is most likely to have potential for demand of products, According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2010) the there are 403,892 people in Raleigh, NC. In line with this, the population must be able to have disposable income to buy these products. The relationship between product demand and income is a good indicator of Gross Domestic Product. It is the broadest measure of income generated in the economy. However in demand analysis, personal or household incomes are useful. The income per capita of Raleigh is estimated at $29,771 (Sperlings Best Places, 2010). Therefore, it is critical for a serious business to consider these two demographic factors in demand analysis and estimation. The economy must be an active one in order for…… [Read More]

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Baker 2000 The Measurement of Project Effectiveness an

Words: 1444 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61117020

Baker, 2000).The measurement of project effectiveness, an element of project impact evaluation, is crucial for the success of every proposed project. In this section, we present the method/mechanism for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The process starts with the identification of the project users (Ventilation associated pneumonia patients), gathering data to be used in determining if the user received output, identification of process of transmission and ends up with the change process. This is indicated in the flowchart model (see figure 1.) which provides for an elaborate systematic way of examining the process within the proposed project and the outcome of the proposed project. The evaluation of the outcomes is the major purpose of the framework even though the outcomes can never be seen in total isolation of the proposed project "mechanics" (including transmission, project reception as well as use).At certain points in the project evaluation framework, it…… [Read More]

References

Apisarnthanarak A, Thongphubeth K, Sirinvaravong S, et al.(2007) Effectiveness of multifaceted hospitalwide quality improvement programs featuring an intervention to remove unnecessary urinary catheters at a tertiary care center in Thailand. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28(7):791 -- 798

Baker, JL (2000). Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty: A Handbook for Practitioners. A Handbook for Practitioners.  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTISPMA/Resources/handbook.pdf 

Gawlinski A. (2007)Evidence-based practice changes: measuring the outcome. AACN Adv Crit Care. Jul-Sep;18(3):320-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 180195

Hugonnet, S., S. Harbarth, H. Sax, R.A. Duncan and D. Pittet. (2004). "Nursing Resources: A Major Determinant of Nosocomial Infection?" Current Opinions in Infectious Diseases 17: 329 -- 33.
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Health Factors Influencing Support of

Words: 2984 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75826212

It is a well acknowledged truth that memory related diseases like Alzheimer's are common in older people rather than younger ones. Memory tends to becomes less competent with age. It might take longer to learn new things or remember familiar words or names. Many measures can be adopted to reduce the increasing adverse effects of memory like eating a healthy diet, including physical exercise as a part of daily routine and by being social. Despite of adopting these measures to reduce the effects of growing age on health, these problems cannot be eradicated completely. Young people are more energetic and are less viable to diseases because of the strength of their immune system. They have a stronger defense system against diseases because of the age. There is a strong relationship between age and support of health. Aging is inevitable. It is tend to occur but applying few important measures cannot…… [Read More]

References

Annandale, E., & Hunt, K. (2000). Gender Inequalities in Health. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Athenstaedt, U. (2002). Gender Role Self-Concept, Gender Role Attitudes and the Participation in Gender-Typed Vocational and Leisure Sport Courses . Psychologische Beitrage, 33-45.

Manuck, S.B., Jennings, R., Rabin, B.S., & Baum, a. (2000). Behavior, Health, and Aging. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Norton, F.E. (1946). Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution. Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company.
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Making Decision Based on Demand and Forecasting

Words: 974 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91467784

Parkville Maryland

Parkville is located in the state of Maryland in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Parkville is mainly located in the County of Baltimore with parts of it in Baltimore City County. Parkville is bordered to the south by Carney, which is primarily in the City and to the north by Perry Hall, Hampton, Overlea, and Towson, to the west, north and east. There are several Pizza establishments in the area an indication of demand of the product. However, it is important to establish the demand of the product using statistical analysis. In conducting this analysis, it is critical to take into consideration the demographics of the area including population and income per capita.

According to the United States Census Bureau (2010), the population of Parkville had gone up to 69752 from 69100 over the past decade. The Median Household Income in Parkville is $54,373 and can be socio-economically referred…… [Read More]

Reference

Jian, S., & Yan, L. (2011). MGMT Panel. Guangdong University of Finance.

United States Census Bureau. (2010). Population Census. U.S. Population Report.

Wood, M. (2012, July 6 ). P values, confidence intervals, or confidence levels for hypotheses? Retrieved November 7, 2012, from http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0912/0912.3878.pdf
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Theoretical Models and Path Diagramming

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63513936

Path Diagrams of Research Models

Business

This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of coworkers influence employees' engagement with their jobs. In a sample of 1,422 departments of an insurance firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors explain variance in individual work engagement over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people are more engaged with their work. Implications are discussed.

Hypothesis 1: Coworkers' OCB is positively related to work engagement.

Hypothesis 2: Coworkers' competitive behaviors mediate the positive relationship between coworkers' OCBs and focal employee work engagement.

OCB (+1) WORK ENGAGEMENT

OCB (+2) COMPETITVE BEHAVIORS WORK ENGAGEMENT

The OCB's are the independent variables. The employees' competitive behaviors are the mediators. The…… [Read More]

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Economics There Are a Number

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24372749

hen I understand what drives people to buy bottled water, I will be in a better position to forecast demand. I expect disposable income, distribution saturation, cleanliness and taste of tap water and price of bottled water will all factor. ith this information, I could understand the price elasticity of demand, for example, or the elasticity of demand relating to any other variable. Going international I would focus on the same, but I would also understand the currency exchange dynamics and the image that my country or region has overseas. In general, however, the types of information I need would be mainly the same, with respect to marketing. ith respect to culture (marketing message) or other such variables unrelated to the economics of the decision, there are undoubtedly some different forms of information that I would need.

Second student: I would want to know what the trends are for bottled…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Investopedia. (2011). Economics basics: Elasticity. Investopedia.com. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from  http://www.investopedia.com/university/economics/economics4.asp 

No author. (2011). Demand forecasting. Author unknown. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from 10.212.115.113:81/.../Managerial%20Economics/Demand/Demand%20Forecasting.ppt
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Candy Factory

Words: 2379 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68107327

incurred in the Candy making process.

Candy Making Process

Process of making candy is a long process. The process involves blending and mixing of pounds of chocolate, milk & cream, sugar, candy coating and other ingredients to make candy that would be acceptable to customers. From the brief explanation of the candy making, it is revealed that the production process of candy involves combining the three factors of production such as land, labor, and capital to produce the final products.

In the Candy making, there is a need to set aside the financial resources that would be used to:

purchase the raw materials or the ingredients;

purchase the equipment to make candy;

rent or purchase the land to build the factory or lease the existing factory;

pay direct and indirect labor;

purchase office equipment;

settle other miscellaneous payments such as the telephone bills, water bills and others

After the owner…… [Read More]

References

Fryatt, E.H. (1999).Candy Making Basics. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.UK.

Jones, D. (2011). Candy Making For Dummies. John Wiley and Sons. USA.

Porter, M.E. (2008) The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, Harvard business Review, January.

Walther, L.M. (2011). Managerial Accounting. Create Space. USA.
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Complex ANOVA Study

Words: 774 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77118730

ANOVA study

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of variance is a term used in statistics which involves a collection of statistical models and procedures that are associated with them where the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components that can be attributed to different sources of variations. It is therefore a statistical technique that is useful for evaluation whether there are differences between average values or mean across several population groups. This model also entails that the response variable is continuous in nature while the predictor variables can be categorized. For there to be a test for statistical significance between means then there has to be a comparison i.e. analyzing variances hence the name of the model. There are various concepts in variance analysis these are; the partitioning of sums of squares .at the core of variance analysis is the fact that variances can be divided or…… [Read More]

References

Shera, J (2006). Statistical Errors (Type I, Type II, Power).Retrieved August 4, 2013 from  http://www.herkimershideaway.org/writings/type12.htm
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Decisions Based on Demand and

Words: 438 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26376530

The second factor is the independent variable being evaluated. The coefficient for determination of the population of the area is 46%. This correlation indicates that there is a high correlation between time and population. However, the correlation is this case is negative, as can be seen in the chart below.

The correlation coefficient for the overall amount spent on building and development of the community is 15%. The correlation between time and amount spent is not very close. In fact, the development appears to be highly sporadic at best. Below is a chart that represents the obtained data.

Considering the two overall factors, and the forecasting done, the population will continue to decline, as will the money spent in the community. This community is suffering financially and is not likely to spend their money on luxuries such as dining out. With this conclusion it is inadvisable that a Domino's restaurant…… [Read More]

Sources Used

United States Census Bureau. State & County Quick Facts: Clarksdale, Mississippi. Accessed October 27, 2012 at http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/28/2813820.html

United States Census Bureau. Selected Economic Characteristics: Clarksdale, Mississippi. Accessed October 27, 2012 at http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk

CLR Search. Clarksdale Demographics Summary. Accessed October 27, 2012 at http://www.clrsearch.com/Clarksdale_Demographics/MS/