1000+ documents containing “variable”.
Variable vs. Absorption Costing
Whether to use variable or absorption costing would depend on the type of decisions the information is being evaluated for. Variable costing provides a better understanding of the effects of fixed costs, allows better understanding and ease in using cost control methods, provides information for CVP (cost volume profit analysis), and is closer to cash flows (Variable costing vs. absorption costing, 2012). Absorption costing is used in financial statements, recognizes importance of fixed costs, and shows less fluctuation in net profit when sales or production volumes fluctuate (Advantages and Disadvantages of Absorption Costing System, 2012).
Decisions for competitor pricing is best evaluated under the variable costing to ensure that all costs are paid in a timely manner. Also, decisions based on controlling inventory and production volumes or determining cash flow would best be made with variable costing. Absorption costing can be used for decisions concerning the effects of….
Advantages and Disadvantages of Absorption Costing System. (2012). Retrieved from Accounting for Management: http://www.accounting4management.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-absorption_costing.htm
Variable costing vs. absorption costing. (2012). Retrieved from Accountingformanagement.org: http://www.accountingformanagement.org/variable-vs.-absorption-costing/
The influence of certain factors on data analysis is always going to be a consideration (or at least should be) when studies are conducted, or projects undertaken. Researchers are considered to have bias under almost every circumstance, and as such should be reminded that the bias must be disclosed and considered when data is gathered and then analyzed. The validity of the data is also at stake; as one recent study determined "the validity of a (nonrandomized) observational study is often questioned because of unknown/unmeasured factors, which may have confounding and/or effect-modifying potential" (en-Chung, 2014, p. 1). So, determining the validity of the data is oftentimes seen as a way to measure the strength of the data overall. Therefore, of course conclusions of validity will be affected. Confounding takes place when the variables are not fully considered, so additional consideration must take place as well. hen there is correlation between….
Validity of fecal occult blood test in the National Cancer Screening program, Korea, PLoS One, Vol. 8, Issue 11, pp. 1 -- 7
Wen-Chung, L.; (2014) Detecting and correcting the bias of unmeasured factors using perturbation analysis: a data-mining approach, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 1 -- 15
GSS codebook or GSS variable search as a reference following is the list of 5 potential topics I would like to explore for the research project:
Drug use and addiction,
Old People and
In this section 5 independent and 5 dependent variables have been identified from the GSS list. These variables have been chosen since they are connected to the topics chosen in the previous section:
Dependent Variable: Dealing with drug addiction
Independent Variable: Government spending
Dependent Variable: Corporal Punishment
Independent Variable: favor spanking to discipline child
Dependent Variable: Mental Health
Independent Variable: Government responsibility: provide health care for x
Dependent Variable: Old People
Independent Variable: Government spending on retirement benefits.
Dependent Variable: Spending on law enforcement
Independent Variable: Halting crime rates
Variable Name and Short Descriptions on each
In this section, each variable has been given a name and a short description. The topics have been positioned in terms of beliefs/attitudes or behaviors.
Dealing with drug addiction and government spending:
Gascon, G. And Foglesong, T. (2010). New Perspectives in Policing - Making Policing More Affordable: Managing Costs and Measuring Value in Policing. National Institute of Justice.
Global Initiative to end all Corporal Punishment (2013). Summary of research on the effects of corporal punishment. Taken from: http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/pages/pdfs/Summary%20of%20research%20on%20the%20effects%20of%20corporal%20punishment%20April%202013.pdf
ICMA. (2012). Facts on State And Local Government Pensions. Taken from: http://www.csa-nyc.org/sites/default/files/PublicPensionFactSheet110125.pdf
SAMSHA. (2010). National Expenditures for Mental Health Services & Substance Abuse Treatment: 1986 -- 2005. Taken from: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA10-4612/SMA10-4612.pdf
To investigate these, each explanatory variable can be used in isolation to determine their specific impact upon the crime rate.
The research can be conducted by first conducting an investigation of existing literature and statistics to determine the likelihood of each variable. Values can then be assigned to each variable to indicate the greatest to least likelihood.
Qualitative research can then be conducted regarding the greatest likelihood of each explanatory variable. This can be done by means of surveys, questionnaires and interviews to both criminology professionals, political leaders, and the general public.
The study design will then follow a sequence led by the specific explanatory variable chosen. Gun control, for example, can be used as the first explanatory variable to be confirmed or denied by the study results.
The selection of a variety of explanatory variables, as well as the various types of research method will be implemented to minimise selection bias. Furthermore,….
It is known that the researcher recorded whether or not the subject remembered a given sentence. However, there is no explanation given with respect to partial memory of a sentence. ithout that, we can only guess that the researcher used a binary scale (yes/no) to measure whether or not the subject remembered a given sentence.
Schmidt and illiams (2001) conducted a study entitled "Memory for humorous cartoons." The purpose of this study was to further test the effects of humor on memory, this time using cartoons. The research question is basically the same -- what is the effect of humor on memory. The independent variable was again the humor level of the cartoon. This time the study also used serious cartoons and "weird" ones, adding a further subjective variable into the equation. The response of the subject was again the dependent variable, again as measured by memory. Given that cartoon….
Total variable costs = # of workers * daily wage + other variable costs
TVC = (50,000*80) + 400,000
TVC = $4,400,000
Average variable cost = TVC / units of output
AVC = $4,400,000 / 200,000
AVC = $
Average Total cost = (TVC + TFC) / units of output
ATC = ($4,400,000 + $1,000,000) / 200,000
ATC = $
Worker Productivity = units of output / number of workers
WP = 200,000 / 50,000
WP = 4
The total and average variable costs do not change if there is a change in the fixed costs so, nor does worker productivity:
TVC = $4,400,000
AVC = $
WP = 4
The average total cost does change. The new figure for average total cost is:
ATC = ($4,400,000 + 3,000,000) / 200,000
ATC = $
Under the first scenario the profit is calculated as follows:
Profit = Revenue -- VC -- FC
P = (200,000 * 25) -- (4,400,000) -- (1,000,000)
P = 5,000,000 -- (5,400,000)
P = (400,000)
For the second scenario, the….
attributes of operational variables as used in empirical research. In addition, information is provided about experimental designs, probability, experimental bias, the placebo effect, and pseudoscience.
Identify a variable for scientific study that can be operationally defined. One of the most common variables that is operationally defined in psychology is intelligence. Intelligence is measured through the use of standardized tests, and reported according to the test outcomes on verbal and other scales. Intelligence is a difficult construct to pin down, so associating the construct of intelligence with the instrumentation that will be used to measure the variable known as intelligence provides a measure of control and agreement about just what is meant by intelligence in a particular study..
Create an operational definition for the variable. The operational definition of intelligence is that intelligence is an attribute and capacity of the human mind that is measured by intelligence tests. Using the Stanford Binet….
Fixed and Variable Costs
In accounting, there are really two types of costs that affect business expenses: Fixed and Variable. They may be thought of in general as a system in which fixed costs form the base and variable costs ride on top, but may increase or decrease based on individual organization differences and structures (See figure 1). Fixed costs are expenses that are not dependent upon the goods or services produced by the organization, but are costs that occur on a regular basis, regardless of what the business does. In other words, these costs are "fixed" over time -- often referred to as overhead. For example, regardless of production, an organization must pay rent, utilities, insurance, etc. each and every month (Hansen, D., et al., 2009).
Variable costs, in contrast, change over time in proportion to the goods or services provided by the business. They are also known as marginal costs….
Gish, W. (2013, April). Relationship Between Fixed & Variable Costs Used in a Flexible Budget. Retrieved from The Motley Fool: http://wiki.fool.com/Relationship_Between_Fixed_%26_Variable_Costs_Used_in_a_Flexible_Budget
Hansen, D., et al. (2009). Cost Management: Accounting and Control. Mason, OH: Cenage/SouthWestern.
$ over time
Units over time
Financial Accounting-Variable Costing
How is managerial accounting different from financial accounting?
Managerial Accounting refers to the processes in application by the company or business organization to identify, measure, analyze, interpret, and communicate vital information in relation to pursuing the mission, objectives, goals, and vision of the entity. Managerial Accounting is also the cost accounting. Financial Accounting is the act of providing relevant information on the financial position and performance of the company using financial statements to the external users or investors on a cyclic basis. Financial Accounting and Managerial Accounting differs in relation to their applications. They also differ in the context of the interests they serve while enabling the company to meet its needs. Managerial Accounting enables the company to obtain vital information to help managers within the company to make crucial decisions about the firm. This indicates that managerial accounting is critical for internal purposes. Financial Accounting offers significant….
economic variables, pull data for as many years as possible and transform it into charts, explain each variable with a little background information and explain about what your variable measures and explain a bit about the history of your data. Explain what the data represents and cause and effects of increases and decreases.
Producer Price Index (PPI) Commodities.
The Producer Price Index (PPI) Commodities is the official measure of producer prices in the U.S. It is the instrument that measures the average changes in prices that producers receive for their labor.
Until 1978, the PPI was known as the Wholesale Price Index, or WPI. It is published by the Statistics and complied by the Federal Government and remains one of the oldest systems of statistical data. Its historical origin lies in the 1891 U.S. Senate resolution which authorized the Senate Committee on Finance to investigate the effects of the tariff laws "upon….
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Consumer Price Index - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)." http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpifaq.htm
BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 14 Producer Prices, Background:
Investopedia Economic Indicators: Employee Cost Index (ECI)
Brazil's climate is largely tropical. There are occasional droughts in the northeast and flooding in the south, according to the CIA Factbook.
8,514,877 sq km (CIA Factbook, 2010).
Located in Latin America, Brazil is mostly flat with rolling plains, although it has some hilly areas as well as tropical jungles (CIA Factbook, 2010).
Infrastructure, joint ventures, justification:
Although hard-hit by the economic crisis, Brazil's agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service industries have allowed it to enjoy great prosperity, in comparison to its neighbors.
Currently, its exports in coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus and beef are rebounding (CIA Factbook, 2010). However, concerns about sustainability and a drive to eat more locally may threaten these agricultural exports in the future, making joint ventures with Brazil an uncertain prospect. The possible exception is coffee. Coffee is a necessary export for most of the world, and has become an 'affordable luxury' even when times are hard.
Brazil. (2010). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved August 8, 2010 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
Canada. (2010). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved August 8, 2010 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html
Israel. (2010). Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved August 8, 2010 at http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Facts+About+Israel/Land/the+LAND-+Geography+and+Climate.htm
The United Kingdom. (2010). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved August 8, 2010 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uk.html
Hiring Variable Pay Plan" Chapter 12. In a (4-8) page paper, address questions . Remember evaluate HVP program proposed. In paper: Include a summary situation. Assess attractiveness HVP program applicants receive offers, deciding attractive
If I were an applicant, the high-risk HVP plan would be attractive to me. The plan still provides a base salary, yet it offers the potential for extremely high bonuses -- up to 60%. Salaries are initially negotiable, allowing for a great deal of flexibility to bargain 'up' during the hiring process, even if the salary is technically below market value. As someone with a great deal of confidence, I feel that I could make the high-risk plan work for me. Also, there is an additional 10% bonus for top talent during the first few years of employment, which would make my salary even higher, if I qualified. The likelihood of profiting is strong, given….
independent variables give researchers ability to perform more complex experiments. When researchers manipulate multiple variables and determine the effect of each individual variable can also lead to an understanding of the how the variables interact with each other. Several levels observed by researchers concerning independent variables give opportunity to measure individual independent variables fully and succinctly with manifold conditions or treatments. These operations do not exist as equally exclusive.
A test with numerous independent variables might possess one or more independent variables alongside numerous levels. Together several independent variables its numerous levels let researchers acquire more information that is then derived from a single experiment, keeping the sum of required participants small. The question of is one the best is all dependent on what the researcher attempts to ascertain from the study.
If researchers seek to better comprehend behaviors of an individual factor versus a one of a multi-level independent variable….
Bloom, H. (2005). Learning more from social experiments. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Fritchey, G. (2014). SQL Server query performance tuning (p. 435). Apress.
Jaccard, J. (2001). Interaction effects in logistic regression. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Nguyen, H., Kosheleva, O., Kreinovich, V., & Ferson, S. (2009). Trade-off between sample size and accuracy: Case of measurements under interval uncertainty. International Journal Of Approximate Reasoning, 50(8), 1164-1176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijar.2009.06.013
Some small discounts in pricing is applied to anyone who purchases these day passes in advance, in bulk, but by and large users pay as they enter and use the roadways in central London (Santos and Shaffer 166-169; Litman 2).
ithin the first year, there were already impressive effects in London. Travel speeds were measured to be 21% faster than before the pricing scheme was implemented. Congestion was reduced by 30%, the volume of traffic decreased by 15%, and there was a total reduction in travel times by 15% (Santos and Shaffer 169). Factoring in the rather significant startup and maintenance costs for the first year -- in excess of five hundred million pounds -- the pricing scheme still had a net profit of fifty million pounds, which was shunted back into improvements for mass transit (Santos and Shaffer 177).
These benefits are significant, especially since such dramatic gains were made….
Abboud, Leila and Clevstrom, Jenny. "Stockholm's Syndrome: Hostages to Traffic, Swedes Will Vote on High-Tech Plan to Untangle Snarls with Tolls." Wall Street Journal 29 Aug. 2006: B1.
Cervero, Robert. "Road Expansion, Urban Growth, and Induced Travel: A Path Analysis." APA Journal 69.2 (Spring 2003): 145-163.
Chan, Sewell. "Driving around Manhattan, You Pay, Under One Traffic Idea." The New York Times 11 Nov. 2005. 23 Apr. 2007 http://www.itdp.org/PR/NY_congestion.html .
Hensher, David a. And Puckett, Sean M. "Congestion and Variable User Charging as an Effective Travel Demand Management Instrument." Transportation Research 41 (2007): 615-626.
In terms of credit limit, on average the applicants who received the most credit were in their forties and fifties. In the mid-range of credit, applicants were from all ages levels. At the low end of credit, applicants ranged from their twenties to their forties on average. For applicants in their twenties, age seemed to put a cap on how much credit they could receive. For example, the most credit received by an applicant in their twenties was $10,600. The few applicants in their fifties who received minimal amounts of credit also had incomes at the very low end.
Marital status has some impact on the amount of credit received. In the middle of the credit range, the marital status of successful applicants is mixed on average, whereas the vast majority of applicants at the high end of credit received were married. As with the high end, at the low end….
Variable vs. Absorption Costing Whether to use variable or absorption costing would depend on the type of decisions the information is being evaluated for. Variable costing provides a better understanding…Read Full Paper ❯
Epidemiology The influence of certain factors on data analysis is always going to be a consideration (or at least should be) when studies are conducted, or projects undertaken. Researchers are…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
GSS codebook or GSS variable search as a reference following is the list of 5 potential topics I would like to explore for the research project: Drug use and…Read Full Paper ❯
To investigate these, each explanatory variable can be used in isolation to determine their specific impact upon the crime rate. The research can be conducted by first conducting an…Read Full Paper ❯
It is known that the researcher recorded whether or not the subject remembered a given sentence. However, there is no explanation given with respect to partial memory of…Read Full Paper ❯
Managerial Accounting Total variable costs = # of workers * daily wage + other variable costs TVC = (50,000*80) + 400,000 TVC = $4,400,000 Average variable cost = TVC / units of output AVC…Read Full Paper ❯
attributes of operational variables as used in empirical research. In addition, information is provided about experimental designs, probability, experimental bias, the placebo effect, and pseudoscience. Identify a variable for…Read Full Paper ❯
Fixed and Variable Costs In accounting, there are really two types of costs that affect business expenses: Fixed and Variable. They may be thought of in general as a system…Read Full Paper ❯
Costing Financial Accounting-Variable Costing How is managerial accounting different from financial accounting? Managerial Accounting refers to the processes in application by the company or business organization to identify, measure, analyze, interpret,…Read Full Paper ❯
economic variables, pull data for as many years as possible and transform it into charts, explain each variable with a little background information and explain about what your…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Brazil Climate: Brazil's climate is largely tropical. There are occasional droughts in the northeast and flooding in the south, according to the CIA Factbook. Topography: 8,514,877 sq km (CIA Factbook, 2010). Located in Latin…Read Full Paper ❯
Hiring Variable Pay Plan" Chapter 12. In a (4-8) page paper, address questions . Remember evaluate HVP program proposed. In paper: Include a summary situation. Assess attractiveness HVP…Read Full Paper ❯
independent variables give researchers ability to perform more complex experiments. When researchers manipulate multiple variables and determine the effect of each individual variable can also lead to an…Read Full Paper ❯
Some small discounts in pricing is applied to anyone who purchases these day passes in advance, in bulk, but by and large users pay as they enter and…Read Full Paper ❯
In terms of credit limit, on average the applicants who received the most credit were in their forties and fifties. In the mid-range of credit, applicants were from all…Read Full Paper ❯