1000 results for “Variable”.
Variable vs. Absorption Costing
Whether to use variable or absorption costing would depend on the type of decisions the information is being evaluated for. Variable costing provides a better understanding of the effects of fixed costs, allows better understanding and ease in using cost control methods, provides information for CVP (cost volume profit analysis), and is closer to cash flows (Variable costing vs. absorption costing, 2012). Absorption costing is used in financial statements, recognizes importance of fixed costs, and shows less fluctuation in net profit when sales or production volumes fluctuate (Advantages and Disadvantages of Absorption Costing System, 2012).
Decisions for competitor pricing is best evaluated under the variable costing to ensure that all costs are paid in a timely manner. Also, decisions based on controlling inventory and production volumes or determining cash flow would best be made with variable costing. Absorption costing can be used for decisions concerning the…
Advantages and Disadvantages of Absorption Costing System. (2012). Retrieved from Accounting for Management: http://www.accounting4management.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-absorption_costing.htm
Variable costing vs. absorption costing. (2012). Retrieved from Accountingformanagement.org: http://www.accountingformanagement.org/variable-vs.-absorption-costing/
The influence of certain factors on data analysis is always going to be a consideration (or at least should be) when studies are conducted, or projects undertaken. Researchers are considered to have bias under almost every circumstance, and as such should be reminded that the bias must be disclosed and considered when data is gathered and then analyzed. The validity of the data is also at stake; as one recent study determined "the validity of a (nonrandomized) observational study is often questioned because of unknown/unmeasured factors, which may have confounding and/or effect-modifying potential" (en-Chung, 2014, p. 1). So, determining the validity of the data is oftentimes seen as a way to measure the strength of the data overall. Therefore, of course conclusions of validity will be affected. Confounding takes place when the variables are not fully considered, so additional consideration must take place as well. hen there is correlation…
Validity of fecal occult blood test in the National Cancer Screening program, Korea, PLoS One, Vol. 8, Issue 11, pp. 1 -- 7
Wen-Chung, L.; (2014) Detecting and correcting the bias of unmeasured factors using perturbation analysis: a data-mining approach, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 1 -- 15
GSS codebook or GSS variable search as a reference following is the list of 5 potential topics I would like to explore for the research project:
Drug use and addiction,
Old People and
In this section 5 independent and 5 dependent variables have been identified from the GSS list. These variables have been chosen since they are connected to the topics chosen in the previous section:
Dependent Variable: Dealing with drug addiction
Independent Variable: Government spending
Dependent Variable: Corporal Punishment
Independent Variable: favor spanking to discipline child
Dependent Variable: Mental Health
Independent Variable: Government responsibility: provide health care for x
Dependent Variable: Old People
Independent Variable: Government spending on retirement benefits.
Dependent Variable: Spending on law enforcement
Independent Variable: Halting crime rates
Variable Name and Short Descriptions on each
In this section, each variable has been given a name and a short…
Gascon, G. And Foglesong, T. (2010). New Perspectives in Policing - Making Policing More Affordable: Managing Costs and Measuring Value in Policing. National Institute of Justice.
Global Initiative to end all Corporal Punishment (2013). Summary of research on the effects of corporal punishment. Taken from: http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/pages/pdfs/Summary%20of%20research%20on%20the%20effects%20of%20corporal%20punishment%20April%202013.pdf
ICMA. (2012). Facts on State And Local Government Pensions. Taken from: http://www.csa-nyc.org/sites/default/files/PublicPensionFactSheet110125.pdf
SAMSHA. (2010). National Expenditures for Mental Health Services & Substance Abuse Treatment: 1986 -- 2005. Taken from: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA10-4612/SMA10-4612.pdf
To investigate these, each explanatory variable can be used in isolation to determine their specific impact upon the crime rate.
The research can be conducted by first conducting an investigation of existing literature and statistics to determine the likelihood of each variable. Values can then be assigned to each variable to indicate the greatest to least likelihood.
Qualitative research can then be conducted regarding the greatest likelihood of each explanatory variable. This can be done by means of surveys, questionnaires and interviews to both criminology professionals, political leaders, and the general public.
The study design will then follow a sequence led by the specific explanatory variable chosen. Gun control, for example, can be used as the first explanatory variable to be confirmed or denied by the study results.
The selection of a variety of explanatory variables, as well as the various types of research method will be implemented to minimise…
Johnson, J.B., Reynolds, H.T. And Mycoff, J.D. (2008). Political Science Research Methods. Sixth Edition. CQ Press
King, G., Keohane, R.O. And Verba, S. (1994). Designing Social Inquiry. Princeton University Press
It is known that the researcher recorded whether or not the subject remembered a given sentence. However, there is no explanation given with respect to partial memory of a sentence. ithout that, we can only guess that the researcher used a binary scale (yes/no) to measure whether or not the subject remembered a given sentence.
Schmidt and illiams (2001) conducted a study entitled "Memory for humorous cartoons." The purpose of this study was to further test the effects of humor on memory, this time using cartoons. The research question is basically the same -- what is the effect of humor on memory. The independent variable was again the humor level of the cartoon. This time the study also used serious cartoons and "weird" ones, adding a further subjective variable into the equation. The response of the subject was again the dependent variable, again as measured by memory. Given that cartoon…
Schmidt, S. & Williams, A. (2001). Memory for humorous cartoons. Memory & Cognition. Vol. 29 (2) 305-311.
Total variable costs = # of workers * daily wage + other variable costs
TVC = (50,000*80) + 400,000
TVC = $4,400,000
Average variable cost = TVC / units of output
AVC = $4,400,000 / 200,000
AVC = $
Average Total cost = (TVC + TFC) / units of output
ATC = ($4,400,000 + $1,000,000) / 200,000
ATC = $
Worker Productivity = units of output / number of workers
WP = 200,000 / 50,000
WP = 4
The total and average variable costs do not change if there is a change in the fixed costs so, nor does worker productivity:
TVC = $4,400,000
AVC = $
WP = 4
The average total cost does change. The new figure for average total cost is:
ATC = ($4,400,000 + 3,000,000) / 200,000
ATC = $
Under the first scenario the profit is calculated as follows:
Profit = Revenue --…
attributes of operational variables as used in empirical research. In addition, information is provided about experimental designs, probability, experimental bias, the placebo effect, and pseudoscience.
Identify a variable for scientific study that can be operationally defined. One of the most common variables that is operationally defined in psychology is intelligence. Intelligence is measured through the use of standardized tests, and reported according to the test outcomes on verbal and other scales. Intelligence is a difficult construct to pin down, so associating the construct of intelligence with the instrumentation that will be used to measure the variable known as intelligence provides a measure of control and agreement about just what is meant by intelligence in a particular study..
Create an operational definition for the variable. The operational definition of intelligence is that intelligence is an attribute and capacity of the human mind that is measured by intelligence tests. Using the Stanford…
Fixed and Variable Costs
In accounting, there are really two types of costs that affect business expenses: Fixed and Variable. They may be thought of in general as a system in which fixed costs form the base and variable costs ride on top, but may increase or decrease based on individual organization differences and structures (See figure 1). Fixed costs are expenses that are not dependent upon the goods or services produced by the organization, but are costs that occur on a regular basis, regardless of what the business does. In other words, these costs are "fixed" over time -- often referred to as overhead. For example, regardless of production, an organization must pay rent, utilities, insurance, etc. each and every month (Hansen, D., et al., 2009).
Variable costs, in contrast, change over time in proportion to the goods or services provided by the business. They are also known as…
Gish, W. (2013, April). Relationship Between Fixed & Variable Costs Used in a Flexible Budget. Retrieved from The Motley Fool: http://wiki.fool.com/Relationship_Between_Fixed_%26_Variable_Costs_Used_in_a_Flexible_Budget
Hansen, D., et al. (2009). Cost Management: Accounting and Control. Mason, OH: Cenage/SouthWestern.
$ over time
Units over time
Financial Accounting-Variable Costing
How is managerial accounting different from financial accounting?
Managerial Accounting refers to the processes in application by the company or business organization to identify, measure, analyze, interpret, and communicate vital information in relation to pursuing the mission, objectives, goals, and vision of the entity. Managerial Accounting is also the cost accounting. Financial Accounting is the act of providing relevant information on the financial position and performance of the company using financial statements to the external users or investors on a cyclic basis. Financial Accounting and Managerial Accounting differs in relation to their applications. They also differ in the context of the interests they serve while enabling the company to meet its needs. Managerial Accounting enables the company to obtain vital information to help managers within the company to make crucial decisions about the firm. This indicates that managerial accounting is critical for internal purposes. Financial Accounting…
economic variables, pull data for as many years as possible and transform it into charts, explain each variable with a little background information and explain about what your variable measures and explain a bit about the history of your data. Explain what the data represents and cause and effects of increases and decreases.
Producer Price Index (PPI) Commodities.
The Producer Price Index (PPI) Commodities is the official measure of producer prices in the U.S. It is the instrument that measures the average changes in prices that producers receive for their labor.
Until 1978, the PPI was known as the Wholesale Price Index, or WPI. It is published by the Statistics and complied by the Federal Government and remains one of the oldest systems of statistical data. Its historical origin lies in the 1891 U.S. Senate resolution which authorized the Senate Committee on Finance to investigate the effects of the tariff…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Consumer Price Index - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)." http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpifaq.htm
BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 14 Producer Prices, Background:
Investopedia Economic Indicators: Employee Cost Index (ECI)
Brazil's climate is largely tropical. There are occasional droughts in the northeast and flooding in the south, according to the CIA Factbook.
8,514,877 sq km (CIA Factbook, 2010).
Located in Latin America, Brazil is mostly flat with rolling plains, although it has some hilly areas as well as tropical jungles (CIA Factbook, 2010).
Infrastructure, joint ventures, justification:
Although hard-hit by the economic crisis, Brazil's agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service industries have allowed it to enjoy great prosperity, in comparison to its neighbors.
Currently, its exports in coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus and beef are rebounding (CIA Factbook, 2010). However, concerns about sustainability and a drive to eat more locally may threaten these agricultural exports in the future, making joint ventures with Brazil an uncertain prospect. The possible exception is coffee. Coffee is a necessary export for most of the world, and has become an…
Brazil. (2010). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved August 8, 2010 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
Canada. (2010). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved August 8, 2010 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html
Israel. (2010). Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved August 8, 2010 at http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Facts+About+Israel/Land/the+LAND-+Geography+and+Climate.htm
The United Kingdom. (2010). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved August 8, 2010 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uk.html
Hiring Variable Pay Plan" Chapter 12. In a (4-8) page paper, address questions . Remember evaluate HVP program proposed. In paper: Include a summary situation. Assess attractiveness HVP program applicants receive offers, deciding attractive
If I were an applicant, the high-risk HVP plan would be attractive to me. The plan still provides a base salary, yet it offers the potential for extremely high bonuses -- up to 60%. Salaries are initially negotiable, allowing for a great deal of flexibility to bargain 'up' during the hiring process, even if the salary is technically below market value. As someone with a great deal of confidence, I feel that I could make the high-risk plan work for me. Also, there is an additional 10% bonus for top talent during the first few years of employment, which would make my salary even higher, if I qualified. The likelihood of profiting is strong,…
independent variables give researchers ability to perform more complex experiments. When researchers manipulate multiple variables and determine the effect of each individual variable can also lead to an understanding of the how the variables interact with each other. Several levels observed by researchers concerning independent variables give opportunity to measure individual independent variables fully and succinctly with manifold conditions or treatments. These operations do not exist as equally exclusive.
A test with numerous independent variables might possess one or more independent variables alongside numerous levels. Together several independent variables its numerous levels let researchers acquire more information that is then derived from a single experiment, keeping the sum of required participants small. The question of is one the best is all dependent on what the researcher attempts to ascertain from the study.
If researchers seek to better comprehend behaviors of an individual factor versus a one of a multi-level independent…
Bloom, H. (2005). Learning more from social experiments. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Fritchey, G. (2014). SQL Server query performance tuning (p. 435). Apress.
Jaccard, J. (2001). Interaction effects in logistic regression. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Nguyen, H., Kosheleva, O., Kreinovich, V., & Ferson, S. (2009). Trade-off between sample size and accuracy: Case of measurements under interval uncertainty. International Journal Of Approximate Reasoning, 50(8), 1164-1176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijar.2009.06.013
Some small discounts in pricing is applied to anyone who purchases these day passes in advance, in bulk, but by and large users pay as they enter and use the roadways in central London (Santos and Shaffer 166-169; Litman 2).
ithin the first year, there were already impressive effects in London. Travel speeds were measured to be 21% faster than before the pricing scheme was implemented. Congestion was reduced by 30%, the volume of traffic decreased by 15%, and there was a total reduction in travel times by 15% (Santos and Shaffer 169). Factoring in the rather significant startup and maintenance costs for the first year -- in excess of five hundred million pounds -- the pricing scheme still had a net profit of fifty million pounds, which was shunted back into improvements for mass transit (Santos and Shaffer 177).
These benefits are significant, especially since such dramatic gains were…
Abboud, Leila and Clevstrom, Jenny. "Stockholm's Syndrome: Hostages to Traffic, Swedes Will Vote on High-Tech Plan to Untangle Snarls with Tolls." Wall Street Journal 29 Aug. 2006: B1.
Cervero, Robert. "Road Expansion, Urban Growth, and Induced Travel: A Path Analysis." APA Journal 69.2 (Spring 2003): 145-163.
Chan, Sewell. "Driving around Manhattan, You Pay, Under One Traffic Idea." The New York Times 11 Nov. 2005. 23 Apr. 2007 http://www.itdp.org/PR/NY_congestion.html .
Hensher, David a. And Puckett, Sean M. "Congestion and Variable User Charging as an Effective Travel Demand Management Instrument." Transportation Research 41 (2007): 615-626.
In terms of credit limit, on average the applicants who received the most credit were in their forties and fifties. In the mid-range of credit, applicants were from all ages levels. At the low end of credit, applicants ranged from their twenties to their forties on average. For applicants in their twenties, age seemed to put a cap on how much credit they could receive. For example, the most credit received by an applicant in their twenties was $10,600. The few applicants in their fifties who received minimal amounts of credit also had incomes at the very low end.
Marital status has some impact on the amount of credit received. In the middle of the credit range, the marital status of successful applicants is mixed on average, whereas the vast majority of applicants at the high end of credit received were married. As with the high end, at the low…
7 and 1.98
0.7 + 0.00 = 0.70
1.9 + 0.08 = 1.98
3. Use the continuity correction and describe the region of the normal curve that correspond to the indicated binomial probability. Make a diagram for each.
i) the probability of at least 150 passengers on your next commercial flight.
P (X ? 150) = P (X > (150-0.5)) = P (X > 149.5)
ii) the probability of no more than 6 absent students in a statistics class.
P (X ? 6) = P (X < (6 + 0.5)) = P (X < 6.5)
iii) the probability that fewer than 24 students understanding continuity correction.
P (X < 24) = P (X < (24-0.5)) = P (X < 23.5)
iv) the probability of exactly 46 marbles.
P (X = 46) = P ((46-0.5) < X < (46 + 0.5)) = P (45.5 < X <…
1. Triola, M.F. (2011). Elementary Statistics (11th ed.): Addison-Wesley Longman
2. George W.S. And Cochran, W.G. (1989). Statistical Methods (8th ed.): Blackwell Publishing Professional.
3. Graham Upton, & Cook, Ian (1996). Understanding Statistics: Oxford University Press.
In the hospital and in other health care settings, patient safety has become one of the most important considerations. This is particularly so in terms of the increasing complexity of related technology. Indeed, it is common for a person to be admitted to hospital where the patient requires a variety of tests and other technical assistance. While most members of the general public believes in the ability of technology to result in better patient care, the opposite can also be the case, as suggested by Powell-Cope, Nelson and Patterson (2008). For this reason, it is suggested that more technical personnel per patient will result in a higher level of excellence in patient care and a concomitant higher level of patient satisfaction.
Powell-Cope, Nelson and Patterson (2008) suggest that this could result in errors and adverse events. Despite, or perhaps because of, the general faith in technology to improve…
Clarke, S.P. And Dondaldson, N.E. (2008, Apr.). Nurse Staffing and Patient Care Quality and Safety. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2676/
Powell-Cope, G, Nelson, A.L., and Patterson, E.S. (2008, Apr.). Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-based Handbook for Nurses. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2686/
Stanton, M.W. (2004). Hospital Nurse Staffing and Quality of Care. Research in Action, 14. Retrieved from:
2.) the calculation that converts the wholesale price of the 12/31/2008 lipstick inventory from 11.5mm to the cost of 9.7mm is the cost of goods manufactured from cost of inventory on hand 12/31/2007.
3.) if the variable manufacturing cost per unit stayed equal in 2009 and 2010, the sales volume on nail polish after the price reduction would increase to a maximum of the projected 11.6. The variance between the budgeted and expected sales is a function of the increase in the variable manufacturing cost. However, should there be no actual increase, the variance in projected and actual sales should be reduced to zero.
.) Based on the level of annual total sales dollars needed to break even in 2008, 2009, and 2010, the approximate level of annual sales is 90% of the 2010 sales, or 28mm.
5.) Given the lump sum loan repayment in 2012, the firm is…
7) the suggested change in the allocation of fixed manufacturing costs will decrease the next years pre-tax income. Variable costs are lower than fixed costs and represent the cost of operations. Additionally variable costs are not assets as are fixed costs and therefore variable costs are not a generator of revenues but rather an expense that must be managed. Cash flow would increase under the suggested method due to the costs being mitigated with smaller figures.
8) the major issues include the declining sales and lower profit margins year over year since 2008.
Crime of ape on Men
Despite the technological, moral and intellectual advancement of our society today, there are still those among us who condemn and abhor homosexuality and the people associated with it.The daily lives of many homosexual men are overshadowed by the fear of homophobic (an extreme and irrational aversion to homosexuality and homosexual people) hate crimes. It is a reality that their fear and risk of being abused or attacked is increasing day by day (Geen, 2010). These people are facing danger from the society in many forms, from daily nuisance to serious sexual and physical stabbings. There are many incidents of crimes against homosexual men due to homophobia of other members of our society. It has been reported that in February 2010, three men were confronted by a large mob in a shopping area near Kingston and were accused of being homosexual.The New York Times reported on…
Abbey, A. et al. (2004). Assault_Experiences_Based_On_Tactics.pdf.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28 pp.323-332. Retrieved from:
Assault_Experiences_Based_On_Tactics.pdf [Accessed: 23 Mar 2013].
Geen, J. (2010). Homophobic hate crime reports rise in U.S.. [online] Retrieved from:
The variables that I chose to assess in this case for possible correlation are poverty and crime. Poverty in this case will be discussed in the context of communal poverty. In general terms, poverty could be defined as the lack of financial resources to meet basic and other needs. It could be measured in a variety of ways. One of the most prominent ways of measuring poverty levels is income, i.e. the pre-tax income a household or individual has access to against a specific standard. It would be interesting to find out what impact poverty levels have on crime rates.
LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT
Poverty: interval level of measurement. In this case, there is equal distance between two intervals. We could, for instance, have $1 - $500; $501- $1000; $1001 – $1500 in reference to household incomes.
Crime rate: ratio rate level of measurement. In this case, it is possible…
The goal to eradicate human trafficking in today's modern society is an admirable one, and one that should be attainable. As Gallagher states in a 2011 study "The TVPA lays down minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking as well as detailed criteria for evaluating the performance of states" (Gallagher, 2011, p. 381). Gallagher goes on to compare the TVPA with similar international laws and finds that on an international basis "The international machinery available to expose the many ways in which individuals exploit each other for private profit, to identify government toleration of or complicity in that exploitation and to evaluate national responses is weak and highly compromised" (p. 396). However, the same study determined that most governments are working diligently on a year-to-year basis to up their performance and take seriously the problem of human trafficking, and therefore there is a light at the end of…
Gallagher, A.; (2011) Improving the effectiveness of the international law of human trafficking: A vision for the future of the U.S. Trafficking in Persons Reports, Human Rights Review, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 381 -- 400
Wheaton, E.M.; Schauer, E.J.; Galli, T.V.; (2010) Economics of Human Trafficking, International Migration, Vol. 48, Issue 4, pp. 114 -- 141
Is maturation a possible threat to the internal validity of the study? Why or why not?
For measures of academic achievement, six months (which is the intended length of the study) is not a long enough period of time to be very concerned about maturation as a threat to internal validity. Most academic achievement tests have longer durations. Maturation is something to be considered because of the varying ages of the study participants, and the fact that we know children's brains mature at different rates and some mathematical concepts are not understood until the human brain does mature to certain levels. Moreover, since the boys will move in and out of residency, their exposure to other reading instructions methods and tutoring cannot be controlled.
Is history a possible threat to the internal validity of the study? Why or why not?
Yes. History is the occurrence of some unanticipated…
Brewer, M. (2000). Research Design and Issues of Validity. In Reis, H. And Judd, C. (Eds.) Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Wortman, P.M. (1983). Evaluation research -- A methodological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology 34, 223 -- 260. doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.34.020183.001255.
women's entrepreneurs: Evidence from an East African Economy (Ethiopia)
It is an established fact that the Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sectors can help large parts of the populace in underdeveloped economies like Ethiopia as the means for livelihood. African women are beleaguered with societal and cultural challenges and overall entrepreneurial attributes, and that is reflected in the lack of their entrepreneurship development. This study hence takes up the issues ascribed to entrepreneurship orientation in African women and the factors affecting their business orientation. Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) levels of the African women were found to lie in the lower and mid levels assessed against businesswomen elsewhere. The EO of women is found to be positively related to multiple and often diversified business interests and ownerships amongst different socio-economic strata (Gelan & Wedajo 2013). This study is comprised of 203 entrepreneurs involved in 5 categories employing random, stratified sampling method. The…
Cools, E. And Van den Broeck. H, 2007. Development and Validation of the Cognitive style indicator. The Journal of Psychology 3(14): 10-15
OECD, 2002. The Keys for Successful Women Entrepreneurs. The OECD Bologna Process, December 2002.
Wube M.C, 2010. Factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprises (the case of Dessie town)
Altinay. L., 2006. Determinants of Ethnic minority entrepreneurial growth in the catering sector. The service Industries Journal. 26(2): 203-222
Cho, Y., Song, H. (2015). Determinants of whistleblowing within government
agencies. Public Personnel Management, 44(4): 450-472.
Cho and Song (2015) examine the determinants of whistleblowing behaviors in public administrative positions in their study by basing their approach on the work of Miceli and Near, who "argued that proactive personality, less co-worker invalidation, and leverage in the specific situation lead to whistleblowing" (p. 450). However, in their research, Cho and Song (2015) find that the determining variables behind whistleblowing in public are complex and many relevant variables remain unexplored. The purpose of their study is to examine some of these variables more closely and open the door for further investigation into what causes public administration whistleblowers to go public with their information. The thesis of the researchers is that the factors leading to this activity are dynamic, interacting, complex and personal.
The methodology of the study is to test for several…
Cho, Y., Song, H. (2015). Determinants of whistleblowing within government
agencies. Public Personnel Management, 44(4): 450-472.
Quality of Work Life of Health Care Providers in Saudi Arabia
In iyadh, the quality of work life of health care providers is not as high as it should or could be, according to researchers (Alhousaini, 2006; Almalki, FitzGerald, Clark, 2012). Almalki et al. (2012) have shown that "30.3% of nurses in iyadh were not offered any training courses or continuing education programs and 65.9% were offered very short courses (1 to 5 days per year)" (p. 30). Overall, health care providers have expressed dissatisfaction with their work life (Almalki et al., 2012). Likewise, Abu-Zinadah (2006) has indicated that work life in conditions in iyadh are sub-par for health care providers and could be improved considerably through attention to work hours and other variables. In iyadh as well as in other regions throughout the Kingdom, a lack of clinical experience can negatively impact a health care providers' quality of work…
Abu-Zinadah, S. (2006). Nursing situation in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh: Saudi Nursing
Board, Saudi Commission for Health Specialties.
Al-Ahmadi, H., Roland, M. (2005). Quality of primary health care in Saudi Arabia: a comprehensive review.
Alhusaini, H. A. (2006). Obstacles to the efficiency and performance of Saudi nurses at the Ministry of Health, Riyadh Region: analytical field study. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Health.
Living Environment Options
Guide: Variables Having an Impact on the Options of Individuals with egard to Living Environments
Older adults require supportive and enabling environments. In addition to being safe and empowering, the said environments must also help in the elimination of ageism. It should be noted that in a way, the well-being of older adults is affected by their immediate living environments (Healy and Link, 2011). In this guide, a living environment will be used as a generic term indicating not only the physical place of residence but also the existing support networks in place.
Insurance and Financial esources
To begin with, it is important to note that insurance does have a significant impact on the choice of living environments. For instance, while some health insurance programs cover most of the costs incurred in an assisted living facility, some plans do not have such provisions. As Wallace (2007) points…
Cress, C.J. (2007). Handbook of Geriatric Care Management (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Healy, L.M. & Link, R.J. (2011). Handbook of International Social Work: Human Rights, Development, and the Global Profession. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, T.F. (Ed.). (1999). Handbook on Ethical Issues in Aging. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Rosenfeld, J.A. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of Women's Health (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Variable A: Number of school lunch eligible students in the school
Variable B: Amount of funding received by the school for federal and state education-related programs
Correlation: Positive Correlation
Reason: The higher the number of school lunch eligible students, the higher the rate of subsidy
Variable A: Impact of subsidy received
Variable B: Age of students at school
Correlation: Negative correlation
Reason: The subsidy had a greater degree of response in elementary schools than it did in high schools
Variable A: Number of classrooms connected to the internet
Variable B: Student performance as measured by standardized test scores
Correlation: Minimal correlation
Reason: The study came to the conclusion that "despite the noticeable increase in classroom Internet connections, the authors find very little evidence that the program has any impact on student achievement, as measured by test scores in a variety of subjects" (Golsbee and Gurayan 2005).
If the numbers or the data will not be constant, the results will not be paralleled and will surely have discrepancy on its accuracy.
Meanwhile, experimenter bias is a big threat to the accuracy and/or precision of the report's result. An example of the threat is not being able to identify all the factors that might affect the result. An experiment can be said biased if he/she has already an expected outcome in the end, hence, he/she will just focus on that outcome and what will provide such outcome. In turn, all other factors may be already neglected and will not be taken into consideration.
Independent and Dependent Variable." 2006. [online] available at: http://www.childrens-mercy.org/stats/definitions/dv.htm
Independent and Dependent Variable." 2006. [online] available at: http://www.childrens-mercy.org/stats/definitions/dv.htm
For the second research question, they are as follows: presence of a spouse (nominal), presence of a life partner (nominal), being single (nominal), divorced (nominal), has had previous meaningful relationships (ordinal), and has never had previously meaningful relationships (ordinal).
Validity is important to show that the research measures its intended variables appropriately. Concurrent validity can be proven in terms of the independent variable of a participant being married, because marriage licenses could be required to produce if the participant is claiming he or she is married.
Reliability ensures consistency in the measurement device. This can be done in terms of the dependent variable of alcoholism through the calculation and use of a reliability coefficient.
Number of Shows
The histogram would be most appropriate because it allows for numerical data to be…
The most significant variables are income, social class and then age. Life cycle comes last. This is when all of the entertainment activities are considered en masse.
3. An explanation of the statistical test that is used in this task
The statistical test which has been used in the process of selecting the superior correlation coefficient is test of statistical significance. The statistical coefficients for the various variables were determined using various techniques and then their values tabulate for use and non-use. In order to bring out the best picture of the entertainment scenario activities, the frequency of use was incorporated into the coefficients. The final value indicated the most accurate picture of the level of statistical significance of the various variables.
Hisrich, obert D. And Michael P. Peters (1974), "Selecting the Superior Segmentation Correlate," Journal of Marketing, 38 (July), 60 -- 63.
Hisrich, Robert D. And Michael P. Peters (1974), "Selecting the Superior Segmentation Correlate," Journal of Marketing, 38 (July), 60 -- 63.
The level of measurement is also a 'ratio' because it could be zero, has a value beyond merely naming the number of minutes (ordinal) and the number is not valued based upon its rank or incremental relationship to other numbers -- like ordinal and interval levels, respectively).
Continuous values can be made discrete if certain limits are imposed upon them: for example, when measuring the weight of an athlete for a weight-dependant competition, the tournament might say that all wrestlers' weights will be rounded up or down to the nearest whole number. Discrete values can be made continuous if, for example, certain individuals are measured as 'half-members:' in a school where vocational students attend academic classes for half of the day, and then leave the school to go to a trade school off-premises, for the purposes of funding, these students might be counted as.5 or half-day students.
Trochim, William. (2006). Levels of measurement. Social research methods. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measlevl.php
Independent Variables in a Study
Describe the Dependent and Independent Variables Used in a Study
Over the last several years, businesses have been working on identifying new techniques that can be used to increase productivity and the bottom line results. At the heart of this transformation, is an emphasis of objectively focusing on the problem through using scientific methods. To full understand how these ideas are a part of the business model for a number of firms requires carefully examining experimental research. This will be accomplished by looking at the way these principles will shape the business strategy for a variety of organizations. Together, these elements will offer specific insights as to how this approach can help a corporation to be more competitive and adjust to changes inside the marketplace.
Explain how an experimental research methodology can be used to solve a management problem.
The experimental research method can help…
Anderson, P. (1983). Marketing, Scientific Progress and Scientific Method. Journal of Marketing, 47 (4), 18 -- 31.
D'Abmbrose, G. (1988). Management Theory for Small Business. The Academy of Management Review, 13 (2), 226 -- 240.
Picard, R. (2009). A Structural Observation. Mathematical Methods, 32 (14), 1768 -- 1803.
Tansey, O. (2009). Process Tracing and Elite Interviewing. Methoden der Politik, 6 (24), 481 -- 496.
Interaction of Variables.
Influence upon a psychological phenomenon
One of the most alarming trends in psychology is the increase in diagnoses of autism. No singular cause has yet to be determined to explain why autism rates have increased so rapidly, although an increase in efficacy of screening, most scientists believe, cannot entirely explain the spike in cases. A correlation between the ages of the mother of children with autism has been observed. "The older a mother is when she gives birth, the higher her child's risk of autism." (De Noon 2010). For example, "women over age 40 are 77% more likely than women under age 25 to have a child with autism" while "women under age 25 are 14% less likely than women aged 25-29 to have a child with autism" (De Noon 2010). The correlation between the father's age and the likelihood of a child developing autism was not…
Autism rates much higher in children with older moms. (2012). Live Science. Retrieved:
De Noon, Daniel. (2010). Autism risk rises with mother's age. WebMD. Retrieved:
Interaction of Variables
Overeating: Interaction of variables
As obesity rates climb, there has been a proliferation of research to determine what weight loss methods are effective and ineffective. However, human beings do not live in laboratories, and multiple factors can affect their eating and exercise behaviors. Of course, some studies attempt to meticulously track how many calories subjects consume and how much activity subjects engage in over a specific period of time. But these studies are invariably of short duration, and cumbersome to administer. The result is that experimental and observational data on what promotes weight loss is often contradictory and frustrating for dieters. Overeating is caused by an interaction of multiple variables, including total calories consumed, perceptions of certain foods, and emotional 'triggers' for overeating that are not always immediately apparent.
Conventional wisdom, even amongst scientists, has been it is not what subjects eat but the amount of calories…
Study: Low-carb diet more effective than low-fat diet. (2004).Duke Medicine News and Communications. Retrieved: http://www.dukehealth.org/health_library/news/7598
Winslow, Ron. (2012). New ways calories can add up to weight gain. Wall Street Journal.
Consumers can shop the Internet while at work or at 12am in their pajamas. This constant accessibility increases the chance that consumers will engage in impulse buying. However, it also allows consumers to compare prices on different sites. This means that businesses must price their products more competitively, and offer a wider array of products so they will not see loyal customers shift to competitor sites with better (and more attractively displayed) selection. Businesses can also sell their product on websites such as Amazon.com that act as portals for a variety of enterprises.
Even smaller businesses have seen their lives transformed by the web. Once upon a time, certain small, local businesses sold only to the community. Now, an artisanal chocolate maker in Switzerland or a maple syrup producer in Vermont can use a website to sell their product to individuals all over the world, provided they have an attractive…
When expanding to foreign countries, Meadwestvaco needs to also research these political factors, as they may impact heavily upon the types of materials as well as fees and consequent income. Some countries also have competition clauses in order to avoid that foreign companies compete too strongly with domestic companies of the same nature. Meadwestvaco need to take these factors into account in order to ensure that profitable business is possible in the specific country.
There are many benefits associated with understanding buyers and markets in the foreign market. Meadwestvaco is already familiar with this principle, as can be demonstrated by its lucrative presence in China. Understanding cultural symbols, for example, has the advantage of creating a positive image (or avoid negative connotations) in the mind of the foreign buyer. Creating positive image via the active use of cultural symbols can play a large part towards driving sales.
The advantage of…
To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.
2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.
3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.
1.4.3 Reseach Questions
Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:
What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?
What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?
How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…
references and details.
- Retrievability or loopback: can be low.
- Biased selectivity, if collection is incomplete.
- Reporting bias: reflects bias of the author.
- Access: may be deliberately blocked.
independent and dependant variables in any given population. One type of research design is that of the quantitative design. In quantitative research, the goal is to determine specific relationships, and as such, all research is either considered descriptive, where subjects are measured once, or experimental, where subjects are measured before and after a specific treatment or event (Hoover, Donovan, 2004). In descriptive studies, only observation is used, whereas in experimental designs, actual manipulation of variables occurs.
This paper will focus on two types of quantitative design, those of the cross-sectional design and the longitudinal design. Both types of design are considered to be descriptive in nature, in that no manipulation of variables is done (Woolf, 1998). However, each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, each of which will be discussed.
A cross sectional design study is, as noted, a type of quantitative research design known as a descriptive design.…
Community Foundation, Silicon Valley. (2003). Giving Back: A Practitioner's Toolkit. Palo Alto, CA: Community Foundation of Silicon Valley.
Gliner, J. (2000). Research Methods in Applied Settings: An Integrated Approach to Design and Analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hoover, K. And Donovan, T. (2004). The Elements of Social Scientific Thinking, 8/e. Florence, KY: Wadsworth.
Hopkins, W.G. (2000). Quantitative research design. Sportscience, 4(1): 90-92.
reach significance, one can conclude from the analysis that there is no correlation between GE and GPAs at the end of the graduate program for electrical engineering in the Ivy League university between 2000 and 2013. In other words, when one variable changes, it does not reflect in the change of the other variable in a linear way (Lecture 5 Notes, n.d., p. 1). For significance to be shown, it would have to be seen that the variables' values were statistically correlated in a manner that could be "represented in a linear equation" (Lecture 5 Notes, n.d., p. 1).
No consistency in change signifies that there is no correlation. Thus, if one's GPA is 3.5, a reasonable guess cannot be made regarding what that individual's GE score would be. Or if one's GE score at the start of the program is x, one cannot make a reasonable guess as to…
Lecture Notes 4. (n.d.).
Lecture Notes 5. (n.d.).
The findings presented by Snowden within his study Visual Attention to Color are extremely intriguing when one considers the history of research on M. stream/P stream activity and attentional guidance. As Snowden states in the Discussion section of his article, "the current finding appears to establish conditions under which a purely chromatic signal can automatically attract attention, and thus shows that color vision can play a vital role in the guidance of visual behavior" (183), and the implications of this result are wide-ranging in terms of their potential application to the study of color vision and colorblindness. By demonstrating that the M. stream is not strictly colorblind, Snowden has opened the doors for a new avenue of visual study, one aimed at determining the link between color vision and attentional guidance. The survival instincts that drove primates to develop the adaptive traits necessary for target detection, identification, and localization still…
Snowden, R.J. (2002). Visual attention to color: Parvocellular guidance of attentional resources? Psychological Science, 13 (2), 180-184.
Price and cost variables are not fixed. At times, there are some fixed elements to these costs but in many instances these costs are subject to fluctuation. These fluctuations can derive from changes in buying power, changes in commodity prices and other considerations. Likewise, forces in the external environment can bring about changes in the prices the firm can charge. hen uncertain variables are fixed, the company can find that margins do not hold as expected, which can compromise profit. In addition, the price can be set on the basis of variables on the assumption that the costs are relatively fixed. hen these costs provide not to be fixed, the price does not deliver a strong enough margin. The impacts of these types of decisions can be far-reaching. Firms can decide to enter markets that are not profitable, and make decisions with respect to their product line-ups on…
NetMBA.com (2010). Pricing strategy. NetMBA.com. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/
J. (1985). The pricing decision: A service industry's experience. Journal of Small Business Management. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001688166
Hurwich, M. (no date). The pricing decision -- who makes it and who makes it work? SPMG. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.pricingexperts.net/The_pricing_decision_who_makes_it.pdf
Nevertheless, the conclusion of this research clearly showed that sexual preference had very important positive effects on online shopping behaviors (Koyuncu & Lien). Likewise, there have been gender-related differences identified by Janda (2008) concerning opnline behaviors. This study determined that women were more venerable to risks and perceived risks as higher compared to male shoppers, and women used the Internet less frequently and were less confident concerning their online abilities (Janda). Finally, females were found to enjoy the experience of shopping more than men and women leaned more toward the sites which provided information and education features.
The data for this gender research was gathered through surveys that were handed out. The opinions were taken from a quota sampling of different age groups. esponses totaling 404 were collected. The sample included a total of 196 men and 208 women. The median age was 32.8 years old. Another noted point was…
Crutsinger, C., Jeon, S. & Haejung, K. (2008). Exploring online auction behaviors and motivations. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 100(2), 31-40.
Janda, S. (2008). Does gender moderate the effect of online concerns on purchase likelihood? Journal of Internet Commerce, 7(3), 339-357.
Koyuncu, C. & Lien, D. (2003). E-commerce and consumer's purchasing behavior.
Applied Economics, 35, 721-726.
relationships among variables and setting limits or boundaries for the proposed study" (Writing the theoretical framework, 2013, BOLD Educational Software). In some instances, a theoretical framework may be derived from the existing literature in the form of a pre-existing theory such as feminism, functionalism, or conflict management. Or, in the case of a grounded theory approach, the theory may be derived after the research is conducted. In contrast, with the case of conceptual frameworks, there is no formal theory and the research is used to examine possible courses of action; to clarify observations, or to provide a prospective rather than a completely-formatted framework (Nalzaro 2012).
The qualitative research article by Clarkson (1996) entitled "Researching the 'therapeutic relationship' in psychoanalysis" offers a 'meta-analysis' of the discipline of psychology itself. Psychology is an arena which unites both theory and practice. Clarkson asks: "Why are there so many distinct and very different approaches…
Ascertaining the theoretical or conceptual frameworks of a study seems to get convoluted with semantics. Patton (2002) maintains "…reducing any complex and multifaceted disciplines to a singular burning question oversimplifies" (p. 80). If I did not know better, Ludwig Wittgenstein had his hand in defining these concepts. This discussion will attempt to make a distinction between theoretical and conceptual frameworks and ascertain which framework best fits the assigned article authored by Clarkson (1996).
Knight (2010) provides a clue when she asserts if a lot is known, there is often a theoretical base (para 1) & #8230; where little is known, it is a bit more conceptual (para 2). Creswell (2013) mentions "the philosophical assumptions are embedded within interpretive frameworks that qualitative researchers use when they conduct a study" (p. 22).
In the article under scrutiny, Clarkson (1996) states the conceptual framework is broadly drawn from the disciplines of psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, psychology and counseling (para. 11). Moreover, and emergence of a theory is discussed (para.11) and uncover "new knowledge" (para 7). Finally, from the beginning of the article it is asserted that no one theory is correct based on prima facie (para 1). Based on my understanding of
Leadership and Change," Burns & By (2012) examine the relationship between leadership ethics and effective organizational change. In "Coping with Job insecurity," Loi, Lam & Chan (2012) examine the relationship between procedural justice (or injustice) and job security (or insecurity). In "Gender Differences in Leadership ole Occupancy," Schuh et al. (2014) examine the relationship between power motivation and being in positions of leadership to show why women are underrepresented in positions of power. Each of these studies examines some aspect of leadership to show how individuals and organizations can approve their overall effectiveness in key measurable or qualitative areas. Each of the studies provides a strong case with reference to prior literature. However, Burns & By (2012) only analyze existing studies, whereas Loi, Lam & Chan (2012) and Schuh, et al. (2014) conduct original research using an experimental design. The studies are all important in their own ways, with Burns…
Ahmed, B., et al. (2012). Organizational ethics and job satisfaction: Evidence from Pakistan. African Journal of Business Management 6(8): 2966-2973.
Burnes, B. & By, R.T. (2012). Leadership and change. Journal of Business Ethics 2012(108): 238-252.
Carter, M.Z., et al. (2013). Transformational leadership, relational quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior 34(7): 942-958.
Loi, R., Lam, L.W. & Chan, K.W. (2012). Coping with job insecurity. Journal of Business Ethics 2012(108): 361-372.
Combination Therapeutic Exercises with Manipulation for Reliving
Pain and Increasing Range of Motion for Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain
The lumbar spine is composed of the vertebrae as well as the ligaments beside the discs, nerves and muscles. This area is a common source of pain. This is one of reasons why people visit their physicians. Around seventy percent of people who live in advanced countries will have lower back pain at some point. Each year, approximately half of adult population present with low back pain and five percent of these patients see a clinician when a new episode occurs. Out of this population, ten percent still cannot work and twenty percent have persistent pain for a year.
There is no study combining these two interventions so we may have superior results if we combined both therapeutic and manipulation because therapeutic exercise and manipulation are the most…
In See the Ball, Hit the Ball: Apparent Ball Size is Correlated with Batting Average, Witt & Proffitt () examine the ways a batters perception of the balls size impacts batting average. The research question is whether recent positive performance in the sport has a bearing on ball size perception. In other words, when players have been hitting well, do they perceive the ball as being bigger and therefore easier to hit? The textbook points out that research questions should be focused on specific relationships between variables, narrowed down from broader areas of interest.In this study, the researchers hypothesize the affirmative: players on a good streak, with a high batting average, will perpetuate their streak because they psychologically perceive the ball as being bigger in their field of vision. A bigger ball in the field of vision, even if an illusion, leads to players continuing to hit the ball more…
ReferencesTextbook.University of Wisconsin, Green Bay (2017). How can I tell if a website is credible? https://uknowit.uwgb.edu/page.php?id=30276 Witt, J. K., & Proffitt, D. R. (2005). See the ball, hit the ball: Apparent ball size is correlated with batting average. Psychological Science, 16(12), 937-938.
All of the couples shared the following conditions: both living in Israel, divorced for at least 1 1/2 years, at least one child between 2 and 16 years of age, and the mother having custody (Nehami, 2003). Furthermore, the fathers all had contact with their children after the divorce, which is not universal (Nehami, 2003). This is a very specific sample. It would be difficult to suggest that the study would generalize to all people. It might generalize to all divorced people in Israel sharing the same characteristics, which would be a significantly large population. However, different legal systems are going to show bias towards fathers or towards mothers, which changes the nature of the divorce process. In fact, in some areas, men must be the initiators of divorce, so that would not even be a variable. Therefore, in many ways, this study simply cannot be generalized to different populations.…
Nehami, B. (2003). Divorced process variables and the co-parental relationship and parental role fulfillment of divorced parents. Family Process 42, a (1): 117-31.
Conceptualization and operationalization of variables
Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.
Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.
Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…
Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:
Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.
Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.
Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
One example has been the printer market; firms will often subsidize the printers that are sold, with the aim of creating long-term profits by the ongoing sale of the printer cartridges (Thompson, 2007). The cellular telephone market also operates in a similar manner, with mobile phone service suppliers subsidizing the cost of the handsets in order to gain a contract from a customer, the cost of the subsidy is offset against the profit that will be gained on the service contract. Therefore, the firm will need to look at the impact that ending production may have on the sale of other goods. However unless there is a complimentary item then it would appear some changes may need to take place.
If there is a loss with the fixed costs of $1,000,000 it is will be expected that higher fixed costs will increase the loss.
Assessment with fixed costs at $3,000,000…
Gillespie a, (2010), Business Economics, Oxford, Oxford University Press
Seal, Will; Garrison, Ray H; Noreen Eric W, (2011), Management Accounting, McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Thompson JL, (2007), Strategic Management; Awareness and Change, London, Thompson Business Press.
In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.
When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…
Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.
Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.
GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from: http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp
Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
Predictions and Hypothesis Testing
What benefit does a variable provide when developing and examining models?
Statistics can be used to describe a phenomenon or conduct hypothesis testing, but statistics can also used to predict outcomes (Hanneman, Kposowa, & iddle, 2012, p. 7). To enable predictions to be made, variables are required in the statistical model. Variables allow researchers to model the mathematical relationship between two or more phenomenon. For example, the relationship between tree circumference and the number of leaves could be described by the two variables girth and leaves. This relationship may or may not be causal, but it could be correlational. If a causal relationship is suspected, then maybe reducing the number of leaves inhibits expansion of tree girth. In this case, leaves would be the independent variable and girth the dependent variable. If the model is valid, then the tree girth could be predicted for…
Atmospheric pressure and other state variables. (n.d.). Retrieved 6 May 2014 from http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g110_w08/lecture_notes/pressure/pressure.html.
Hanneman, R.A., Kposowa, A.J., & Riddle, M.D. (2012). Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Basic Statistics for Social Research. Somerset, N.J.: Jossey-Bass.
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. (n.d.). Chapter 2: Simple linear regression. In Research Methods II: Multivariate Analysis. Retrieved 6 May 2014 from http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/tropej/online/ma.html .
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). What are the coronary heart disease risk factors? Retrieved 6 May 2014 from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hd/ .
Parkville is located in the state of Maryland in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Parkville is mainly located in the County of Baltimore with parts of it in Baltimore City County. Parkville is bordered to the south by Carney, which is primarily in the City and to the north by Perry Hall, Hampton, Overlea, and Towson, to the west, north and east. There are several Pizza establishments in the area an indication of demand of the product. However, it is important to establish the demand of the product using statistical analysis. In conducting this analysis, it is critical to take into consideration the demographics of the area including population and income per capita.
According to the United States Census Bureau (2010), the population of Parkville had gone up to 69752 from 69100 over the past decade. The Median Household Income in Parkville is $54,373 and can be socio-economically referred…
Jian, S., & Yan, L. (2011). MGMT Panel. Guangdong University of Finance.
United States Census Bureau. (2010). Population Census. U.S. Population Report.
Wood, M. (2012, July 6 ). P values, confidence intervals, or confidence levels for hypotheses? Retrieved November 7, 2012, from http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0912/0912.3878.pdf
Path Diagrams of Research Models
This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of coworkers influence employees' engagement with their jobs. In a sample of 1,422 departments of an insurance firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors explain variance in individual work engagement over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people are more engaged with their work. Implications are discussed.
Hypothesis 1: Coworkers' OCB is positively related to work engagement.
Hypothesis 2: Coworkers' competitive behaviors mediate the positive relationship between coworkers' OCBs and focal employee work engagement.
OCB (+1) WORK ENGAGEMENT
OCB (+2) COMPETITVE BEHAVIORS WORK ENGAGEMENT
The OCB's are the independent variables. The employees' competitive behaviors are the mediators. The…
incurred in the Candy making process.
Candy Making Process
Process of making candy is a long process. The process involves blending and mixing of pounds of chocolate, milk & cream, sugar, candy coating and other ingredients to make candy that would be acceptable to customers. From the brief explanation of the candy making, it is revealed that the production process of candy involves combining the three factors of production such as land, labor, and capital to produce the final products.
In the Candy making, there is a need to set aside the financial resources that would be used to:
purchase the raw materials or the ingredients;
purchase the equipment to make candy;
rent or purchase the land to build the factory or lease the existing factory;
pay direct and indirect labor;
purchase office equipment;
settle other miscellaneous payments such as the telephone bills, water bills and others
After the owner…
Fryatt, E.H. (1999).Candy Making Basics. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.UK.
Jones, D. (2011). Candy Making For Dummies. John Wiley and Sons. USA.
Porter, M.E. (2008) The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, Harvard business Review, January.
Walther, L.M. (2011). Managerial Accounting. Create Space. USA.
Baker, 2000).The measurement of project effectiveness, an element of project impact evaluation, is crucial for the success of every proposed project. In this section, we present the method/mechanism for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The process starts with the identification of the project users (Ventilation associated pneumonia patients), gathering data to be used in determining if the user received output, identification of process of transmission and ends up with the change process. This is indicated in the flowchart model (see figure 1.) which provides for an elaborate systematic way of examining the process within the proposed project and the outcome of the proposed project. The evaluation of the outcomes is the major purpose of the framework even though the outcomes can never be seen in total isolation of the proposed project "mechanics" (including transmission, project reception as well as use).At certain points in the project evaluation framework, it…
Apisarnthanarak A, Thongphubeth K, Sirinvaravong S, et al.(2007) Effectiveness of multifaceted hospitalwide quality improvement programs featuring an intervention to remove unnecessary urinary catheters at a tertiary care center in Thailand. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28(7):791 -- 798
Baker, JL (2000). Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty: A Handbook for Practitioners. A Handbook for Practitioners. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTISPMA/Resources/handbook.pdf
Gawlinski A. (2007)Evidence-based practice changes: measuring the outcome. AACN Adv Crit Care. Jul-Sep;18(3):320-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 180195
Hugonnet, S., S. Harbarth, H. Sax, R.A. Duncan and D. Pittet. (2004). "Nursing Resources: A Major Determinant of Nosocomial Infection?" Current Opinions in Infectious Diseases 17: 329 -- 33.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of variance is a term used in statistics which involves a collection of statistical models and procedures that are associated with them where the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components that can be attributed to different sources of variations. It is therefore a statistical technique that is useful for evaluation whether there are differences between average values or mean across several population groups. This model also entails that the response variable is continuous in nature while the predictor variables can be categorized. For there to be a test for statistical significance between means then there has to be a comparison i.e. analyzing variances hence the name of the model. There are various concepts in variance analysis these are; the partitioning of sums of squares .at the core of variance analysis is the fact that variances can be divided or…
Shera, J (2006). Statistical Errors (Type I, Type II, Power).Retrieved August 4, 2013 from http://www.herkimershideaway.org/writings/type12.htm
It is a well acknowledged truth that memory related diseases like Alzheimer's are common in older people rather than younger ones. Memory tends to becomes less competent with age. It might take longer to learn new things or remember familiar words or names. Many measures can be adopted to reduce the increasing adverse effects of memory like eating a healthy diet, including physical exercise as a part of daily routine and by being social. Despite of adopting these measures to reduce the effects of growing age on health, these problems cannot be eradicated completely. Young people are more energetic and are less viable to diseases because of the strength of their immune system. They have a stronger defense system against diseases because of the age. There is a strong relationship between age and support of health. Aging is inevitable. It is tend to occur but applying few important measures cannot…
Annandale, E., & Hunt, K. (2000). Gender Inequalities in Health. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Athenstaedt, U. (2002). Gender Role Self-Concept, Gender Role Attitudes and the Participation in Gender-Typed Vocational and Leisure Sport Courses . Psychologische Beitrage, 33-45.
Manuck, S.B., Jennings, R., Rabin, B.S., & Baum, a. (2000). Behavior, Health, and Aging. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Norton, F.E. (1946). Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution. Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company.
hen I understand what drives people to buy bottled water, I will be in a better position to forecast demand. I expect disposable income, distribution saturation, cleanliness and taste of tap water and price of bottled water will all factor. ith this information, I could understand the price elasticity of demand, for example, or the elasticity of demand relating to any other variable. Going international I would focus on the same, but I would also understand the currency exchange dynamics and the image that my country or region has overseas. In general, however, the types of information I need would be mainly the same, with respect to marketing. ith respect to culture (marketing message) or other such variables unrelated to the economics of the decision, there are undoubtedly some different forms of information that I would need.
Second student: I would want to know what the trends are for bottled…
Investopedia. (2011). Economics basics: Elasticity. Investopedia.com. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/university/economics/economics4.asp
No author. (2011). Demand forecasting. Author unknown. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from 10.212.115.113:81/.../Managerial%20Economics/Demand/Demand%20Forecasting.ppt
The second factor is the independent variable being evaluated. The coefficient for determination of the population of the area is 46%. This correlation indicates that there is a high correlation between time and population. However, the correlation is this case is negative, as can be seen in the chart below.
The correlation coefficient for the overall amount spent on building and development of the community is 15%. The correlation between time and amount spent is not very close. In fact, the development appears to be highly sporadic at best. Below is a chart that represents the obtained data.
Considering the two overall factors, and the forecasting done, the population will continue to decline, as will the money spent in the community. This community is suffering financially and is not likely to spend their money on luxuries such as dining out. With this conclusion it is inadvisable that a Domino's restaurant…
United States Census Bureau. State & County Quick Facts: Clarksdale, Mississippi. Accessed October 27, 2012 at http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/28/2813820.html
United States Census Bureau. Selected Economic Characteristics: Clarksdale, Mississippi. Accessed October 27, 2012 at http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
CLR Search. Clarksdale Demographics Summary. Accessed October 27, 2012 at http://www.clrsearch.com/Clarksdale_Demographics/MS/
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Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Stasik, S.M. (2011). Emotions and emotional disorders: A quantitative hierarchical perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 11, 3, 429-442.
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