Cardiovascular System Functions of the Term Paper

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The first heart sound is generally longer and lower than the second, producing a heartbeat that sounds like lub-dup, lub-dup, lub-dup.

Blood pressure, the pressure exerted on the walls of blood vessels by the flowing blood, also varies during different phases of the cardiac cycle. Blood pressure in the arteries is higher during systole, when the ventricles are contracting, and lower during diastole, as the blood ejected during systole moves into the body's capillaries. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters (mm) of mercury using a sphygmomanometer, an instrument that consists of a pressure recording device and an inflatable cuff that is usually placed around the upper arm. Normal blood pressure in an adult is about 120 mm of mercury during systole, and about 80 mm of mercury during diastole. Blood pressure is usually noted as a ratio of systolic pressure to diastolic pressure for example, 120/80. A person's blood pressure may increase for a short time during moments of stress or strong emotions. However, a prolonged or constant elevation of blood pressure, a condition known as hypertension, can increase a person's risk for heart attack, stroke, heart and kidney failure, and other health problems. (Cardiac Cycle, 2006)

State what is meant by stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output.

12. Relationship of Cardiac Output to Stroke Volume and Heart Rate

13. Clinical Investigations of the Heart

State what is meant by:




14. Blood a) What are the three main functions of blood?

A b) What percentage of blood is plasma?

Plasma is a pale yellow mixture of water, proteins and salts."

Plasma, which is 90% water, makes up 55% of blood volume." (56 Facts About Blood, 2005) c) What is the function of plasma?

What is Blood Plasma? Plasma is the liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended. Serum is the same as Blood plasma except that clotting factors have been removed. Plasma is translucent with a faint straw color, similar to the color of this web page. It is mainly composed of water, Blood proteins, and inorganic electrolytes. Plasma serves as a transport medium for glucose, Blood borne lipids, hormones, metabolic end products, carbon dioxide and oxygen. Plasma is the storage and transport medium of clotting factors and the protein content that is necessary to maintain the pressure of the Blood circulatory system. (Sell Plasma, 2006) d) the main constituents of plasma include 90% water: 10% dissolved substances.

A e) Solid formed elements of blood include f) the different types of white blood cells consist of Phagocytes, and Lymphocytes. Lymphocytes include B. lymphocytes and T. lymphocytes.

A g) Haemoglobin (also spelled hemoglobin), approximately 95% of the dry weight in red blood cells is responsible for oxygen transport? ("haemoglobin," 2006) h) Blood type O constitutes the universal blood donor type.

A i) Describe the chain of events responsible for haemostasis.

A j) Discuss the functions of blood under the following:

Transport; regulation and protection

Pic in other file being sent

Figure 7: Composition of Blood (Wright, 2000, p. 37)

4. Measurement of Blood Pressure k) Anaemia constitutes a condition which occurs when an individual's body possesses an abnormally low amount of red blood cells or not enough haemoglobin. (Anaemia, 2007; Wright, 2000, p. 37) l) the most common cause/form of anaemia is often a shortage of iron in an individual's diet. A diet with red meat and green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, capsicums etc., is commonly recommended to those who have anaemia as.

A m) Two other causes of anaemia include "inadequate absorption of vitamin B12 from the diet [which]... can be due to ulcers, stomach cancer, diseases of the small intestine or from the after effects of surgery," and lack of folic acid due to a poor diet and if a person drinks excessive alcohol. (Anaemia, 2007) n) Outline the 3 major steps of blood clotting.

The following figure (8) depicts how blood clots are formed, "by a series of complex reactions requiring the presence of 13 clotting factors, including calcium."

Pic in other file being sent

Figure 8: How Blood Clots are Formed (Wright, 2000, p. 37) o) Differences between a, B, AB and O. blood groups.

Under the ABO Blood typing (grouping) scheme, there are two especially important antigens called a and B. Every living human has either one or both or neither of the red Blood cells. An individual with Blood group a is so because he has antigen a. Antigen B. makes a person's Blood group B. If a person has both antigens, then they are in group AB. If they have neither, the Blood group is O." (BLOOD TYPES and COMPATIBILITY, 2005) p) Rh positive and Rh negative.

Antigens, proteins on the surface of blood cells, can trigger a response from the immune system. The Rh factor constitutes a type of protein on the surface of red blood cells. Most people with the Rh factor are Rh-positive. Those who do not have the Rh factor, on the other hand, are Rh-negative...."More than 85% of people are Rh positive."(Rh Factor, 2008) q) the general term used to describe an inherited blood clotting disorder is haemophilias. (Kay, 1972/1998) r) What are plaque deposits on the walls of blood vessels mainly composed of?

A s) Why can polycthaemia potentially cause a heart problem?

Rh Factor. (2008).

Red blood cells contain haemoglobin, a red pigment which gives blood its colour. The job of haemoglobin is to carry oxygen around the body. When red blood cells and therefore haemoglobin are low the blood fails to supply the body's tissues with sufficient amounts of oxygen. As your lungs and heart will then have to work harder to get oxygen into the blood, symptoms of anaemia, such as difficulty in breathing will begin to develop. (Anaemia, 2007) visceral pericardium) parietal pericardium and fibrous pericardium.


Anaemia. (2007). Retrieved 3 March 2008, at

BLOOD TYPES and COMPATIBILITY. (2005). Retrieved 3 March 2008, from: BLOODBOOK.COM

Cardiac Conduction System Diagram. (1996). Retrieved 3 March 2008, at

Cohen, Barbara Janson. (2005). Memmler's Structure and Function of the Human Body. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

56 Facts About Blood. (2005). Retrieved 3 March 2008, at

Function: Cardiac Cycle (2006). Retrieved 3 March 2008, at =SMSairUPH6kJ:&tbnh=101&tbnw=135&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=1&ct= mage&cd=1

The Heart. N.d. Manchester Heart Centre. Retrieved 3 March 2008, at hemoglobin." (2006). 2006 Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 3 March 2008, at

Kay, H.E.M. Inherited Blood Clotting Disorders, (1972/1998). Journal of Clinical Pathology, Retrieved 3 March 2008, at

Krause, William J. (2004). The Art of Examining and Interpreting Histologic Preparations a Laboratory... Universal Publishers. Retrieved 3 March 2008, at

The Major Parts of a Normal Heart. (2008). International Society for Adult Congenital Cardiac Disease. Retrieved 3 March 2008, at

Rh Factor. (2008). Retrieved 3 March 2008, from:

Sell Plasma. (2006). Retrieved 3 March 2008, at

Serous Membrane. (N.d.) Retrieved 03 March 2008, at

Wright, David. (2000). Human Physiology and Health. Harcourt Heinemann. Retrieved 3 March 2008, at[continue]

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