The forthcoming study will present a training program, designed to specifically address and help foster changes that need to be made in three Palm Beach, Florida CES stores which currently experience a reported increase in damages. Regardless of the instructional methods the instructional designers decide to employ, the ADDIE model or a derivative of it gives designers the foundation to construct any curriculum. Classroom lectures, as well as an organization's training sessions begin and end with the same basics in the ADDIE model. Using components from the ADDIE and a number of other models, the proposed study will develop a training program that will address current performance problems relating to damages and secure solutions to those challenges; while also equipping and empowering CES employees to package items in a proficient manner that helps ensure help ensure the safety and security of items during handling and shipment
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statement of the Problem 1
Purpose of the Proposed Study 2
Study Aim and Objectives 3
Chapter 2: Literature Review 5
Introducing the Need for Change 5
The ADDIE Model 7
FIT Model 11
The Systematic Training Model 12
Chapter 3: Methodology 16
Types of Analysis 16
1 Bloom's Taxonomy: Basic Definitions and Distinguishing Criteria 13
2 Job Aid for Selecting Media 14
3 Population Analysis 15
1. Three Phases of Change 6
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
"Quality is never an accident.
It is always the result of intelligent effort"
- John Ruskin (Goodman, 2007, p. 523).
Statement of the Problem
Unacceptable Change Mandates Change
Until this past year, damage reports for the three stores in the Palm Beach, Florida area under franchise from Caribbean Express Shipping (CES), a faux company, typically averaged five damage reports per year; two of which may have resulted in claims. This deviation, albeit, did not stimulate cause for alarm. Recent reports indicating that 22 damage reports originated from the packaging and shipping store representing CES, however, not only represents a substantial performance gap, it simultaneously translates into a threat to the reputation for quality CES strives to maintain. This challenge to CES proves unacceptable and mandates that CES immediately implement a training program to ensure that whatever changes need to be made to reverse the negative trend relating to damage reports be reversed. The forthcoming training program, designed to specifically address and help foster changes that need to be made in the three Palm Beach, Florida CES stores, will include a number of models as the foundation for the proposed training, including the ADDIE Model proposal and the FDI scale.
Probable causes related to the problem the training program will address include:
Packaging performance gaps, which may include, however, may not be limited to:
Package sealing; content cushioning.
Post-packaging performance indiscretions, which may include, however, may not be limited to:
Package mishandling; content pilfering.
The proposed training will ultimately affect not only the success of CES as a company, but also the job security of its employees. In the book, ISD from the ground up: A no-nonsense approach to instructional design, Hodell (2006) stresses that training does not proffer solutions for benefits, organizational procedures, personality conflicts, wages, or working conditions. Training can, however, prove applicable when the organization addresses the following sever key questions during analysis, as when working through the ADDIE (Analysis; Design; Development; Implementation; Evaluation) system. These questions simultaneously serve as a reality check as they help designers ensure they have focused on all the possible aspects of the course being considered.
1. What is the need?
2. What is the root cause?
3. What are the goals of the training?
4. What Information is needed, and how is it gathered?
5. How will the training be structured and organized?
6. How will the training be delivered?
7. When should training be revised? (Hodell, 2006, p. 22)
Purpose of the Proposed Study will address the primary research question: What training program could best help CES ensure the number of damage reports and claims decrease at the three stores in the Palm Beach, Florida area and help increase customer satisfaction?
Research sub-questions to support the primary research question include:
1. What instructional design models can instructional designers within the CES draw from to develop the best training program?
2. What components comprise a successful training program?
3. May want to create a third research question
Proposed Study Aim and Objectives
Proposed Study Aim
To develop a training program that will address current performance problems relating to damages and secure solutions to those challenges; while also equipping and empowering CES employees to package items in a proficient manner that helps ensure help ensure the safety and security of items during handling and shipment.
Proposed Study Objectives
Identify specific cause(s) of package damage and make this information available to the instructional designers.
Confirm cooperation of the store managers to collect accurate data.
Evaluate a number instructional design models and current literature to determine the best training program to pursue and put into practice.
Implement the developed training program to help ensure the number of damage '
reports and claims decrease, and at the same time increase customer satisfaction.
The next section of the study proposal, the Literature Review, relating to the training program proposal relates considerations CES could develop and implement for its proposed training program.
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW
"The learner must see the need for change"
(O'Connor, Bronner, & Delaney, 2007).
Introducing the Need for Change
When change occurs, O'Connor, Bronner, & Delaney, (2007) assert in the book, Learning at work: How to support individual and organizational learning, three phases transpire: Unfreezing, changing, and refreezing.
For the Phase I, Unfreezing, interventions could include:
Books, brochures, and journals
During Phase II, Changing, interventions could consist of:
Classroom-based activities (e.g., lectures, role plays)
Help desks and coaching
Manuals and job aids
Interventions for Phase III, Refreezing, could comprise:
Books and journals
Employee Councils. (O'Connor, Bronner, & Delaney, 2007, p. 302)
Figure 1 portrays one model CES could include in its training program.
Components included in as well as considerations for each phase would depend on findings from the investigative tools like hidden cameras, survey and interviews.
Figure 1. Three Phases of Change (adapted from O'Connor, Bronner, & Delaney, 2007).
The need for the change can come from within the organization as the case with CES. It can relate to behavior or be caused d by environmental forces. For instance, one possibility for CES could be that "The work environment creates conflicting priorities or requires execution of activities that may decrease performance on essential tasks" (Environmental intervention table, n.d., p. 2). As an example, filling out sales and contact reports may decrease time employees have for packaging. The environmental intervention could be eliminate task interferences; considering the following:
Setting up of work priority sheets with a procedure and facilitative verification and approval process
Assignment of tasks to individuals most capable and desirous of performing these while freeing up others to focus on remaining required tasks
Auditing of tasks being performed and elimination or reassignment of nonessential or inappropriate ones
Policy setting that rewards accomplishment of priority tasks
Automation of routine tasks
Removal of trivial tasks from key workers. Environmental intervention table, n.d., p. 2)
The ADDIE Model
Regardless of the instructional methods the instructional designers decide to employ, the ADDIE model or a derivative of it gives designers the foundation to construct any curriculum. Classroom lectures, as well as an organization's training sessions begin and end with the same basics in the ADDlE model. As noted earlier, the ADDIE model includes: Analysis; Design; Development; Implementation; Evaluation.
The analysis depicts the data-gathering aspect of instructional design when instructional designers assemble all the information they can attain regarding the project -- prior to considering anything else.
1. Frame the challenge, problem, or need into tangible action items.
2. Determine if each is an instructional or noninstructional issue.
3. Forward noninstructional Items to appropriate resources for resolution.
4. Evolve strategies for instructional issues.
5. Gather data.
6. Determine needed resources.
7. Draft a budget and timeline.
8. Obtain sign-off from manager or client (If appropriate).
9. Evaluate all analysis elements. (Hodell, 2006, p. 14)
During the design stage, the instructional designers create the blueprint for a project with all the specifications required to conduct the project. Also, during this time: "Instructional designers write the objectives, construct course content, and complete the design plan" (Hodell, 2006, p. 13)
1. Draft a design plan as your blueprint for the project:
c. Population profile
d. Course description
e. Learner and facilitator prerequisites
f. Evaluation strategy
2. Evaluate all design elements. (Hodell, 1996, p. 14)
At the development stage, materials production and pilot testing transpire so that the majority of nondesigners perceive the progress being made. Lecture notes…