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Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).
There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. With the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the World Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of Islamic laws.
To a certain degree, one could attribute the terrorist element in Afghanistan to the fact that the U.S. got actively involved in the country during the Cold War, assisting the Mujahedeen movement with weapons and military advices. Even with that, it was virtually impossible for someone to predict that a number of Mujahedeen individuals would later raise arms against the very people who helped them in eliminating Soviet influence from their country.
The purpose of this paper is to follow the evolution of terrorism in Afghanistan from the time when the Taliban movement became one of the most influential political groups in the country and until the present day. In spite of the fact that the Afghan terrorist threat has significantly decreased as a result of the international intervention that began in 2001, there is still a lot of tension in the territory and Afghan terrorism has influenced a great deal of individuals both locally and internationally, making it even more difficult for authorities to effectively fight terrorism, with groups like Al Qaeda (that largely developed its policies in Afghanistan during the Cold War) continuing to exercise pressure in the world. The international response to the September 11 events succeeded in overthrowing the Taliban government in charge of Afghanistan, but it failed to defeat the Taliban insurgency, which persists on influencing the country as a whole and the concept of terrorism. In spite of the fact that they apparently lost influence in the territory, terrorists are thriving in exploiting its drug-producing potential and in promoting their image around the world.
2. Nature and Trends of terrorism in Afghanistan
As they actually influence foreign groups through promoting terrorist ideologies, terrorists in Afghanistan are apparently supported by outside forces in conducting rebellious missions. Afghan terrorists are generally interested in achieving their goals and are virtually indifferent regarding the people who fall victim to their actions. Given that terrorists normally behave similarly, regardless of their background, it is only safe to assume that it would be absurd to relate terrorism as a whole to a particular group or nation. Even with that, people are inclined to believe that terrorists originate in the Muslim world, which is presumably devoted to fighting non-Muslims through every means possible (Ministry of Foreign Affairs -- Islamic Republic of Afghanistan). It would of course be illogical to support such thinking, since just as terrorists do not discriminate concerning the targets they choose when they perform a terrorist act, the general public should not put across prejudice when relating to certain individuals. In order to employ an efficient tactic in fighting terrorism, international authorities need to unite in eliminating its influence, events that are likely to trigger terrorist behavior, and virtually everything related to the concept.
Afghan terrorism is largely successful because the government in Afghanistan is unable to put its power into effect. In spite of the fact that it experienced a steady progress ever since the overthrow of the Taliban government, the contemporary government is still weak and corrupt. Afghans actually have the power to defeat the Taliban faction but given that they observe their own government's incapability to control affairs in the country, they are unenthusiastic about supporting a cause they do not believe in. One of the best examples demonstrating that the Taliban group is still strong in the country whereas the government is weak is the fact that the opium poppy business is thriving, financing terrorism. When concerning the Afghan drug business, "information from the DEA showed that of the agency's 21 high-value targets, 17 have links to the Taliban and that 16 of the 17 are grouped in the country's volatile south" ("DEA's Targets Tied to," 2007, p. A06). Afghanistan has come to be the world's largest producer of opium, with poppies being cultivated at a record level. In addition to fighting terrorism, international authorities also have the mission of putting an end to the country's drug industry. However, matters are delicate, given that some fear that destroying poppy cultures in Afghanistan would only result in influencing more individuals in joining the Taliban group. "About 92% of the world's heroin comes from opium poppies grown in Afghanistan according to the 2007 World Drug Report. Last month, Gen. Dan McNeill, head of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force, estimated that Afghanistan's rampant opium poppy cultivation was funding up to 40% of the Taliban-led insurgency and, he said, the figure likely was low and could reach 60%" ("DEA's Targets Tied to," 2007, p. A06).
Considering that the Taliban political group was linked to the Mujahedeen movement, the international public was initially inclined to support it when it took power in 1994. However, conditions in the country became critical as it became clear that the new government was not interested in respecting international laws and that it solely wanted to impose a tyrannical interpretation of the Qur'an. Even though the rest of the world did not officially express its disapproval toward the ways of the Taliban faction until September 11, 2001, Mullah Omar's refusal to extradite Osama Bin Laden was essential in influencing the international public in becoming determined to remove the Taliban government from Afghan leadership. While most people considered the Taliban threat to be no longer present consequent to the success experienced during Operation Enduring Freedom, a great number of Taliban combatants blended into the Afghan crowd, only to emerge later, better prepared to deal with the international control forces in the country through concealing themselves (Afsar, Samples & Wood, 2008).
The rise of the Taliban cannot be properly defined by a historical moment; however, "the Taliban emerged as a force in Afghan politics in 1994 in the midst of a civil war between forces in northern and southern Afghanistan. They gained an initial territorial foothold in the southern city of Kandahar, and over the next two years expanded their influence through a mixture of force, negotiation, and payoffs. In 1996, the Taliban captured Kabul, the Afghan capital, and took control of the national government" (Kaplan and Bruno, 2008). The fact that the United States contributed to their rise is relatively wide known and acknowledged. They were financed by special agencies and through different means in order to insure their stability against the soviet intervention. However, the fact that they used terrorist means to gain political control of the country was an uncalculated effect, given the fact that the Taliban regime has been accused and convicted with evidence of having harbored Osama bin Laden, the mastermind of the attacks from 9/11 (Kaplan and Bruno, 2008).
Terrorism came to be considered a new threat to the national security but not necessarily in the sense history saw it before. State terrorism now included the global facet of international life in the sense that globalization plays an essential role, one which national states cannot control due to its complexity. The connections between different terrorist factions around the world are instant and communication is now available in every corner of the world. This aspect makes it difficult to counter attacks on the national security and threats represented by terrorism supporting political factions. The American invasion in Afghanistan registered immediate and comprehensive results as the Taliban regime did not put a fierce opposition. However, after the two months of war, the most difficult part was the reconstruction of the country taking into account all its aspects, from political to the civil society (Jalali, 2003). Most of the times, in modern wars waged for the liberation of a nation from a despotic rule, the challenge is represented by the need to reconstruct the political, economic, and social apparatus in order to avoid the power vacuum which would reduce the country to its status ante.
3. Theoretical explanations
The general theoretical and practical belief is that the United States, given its political, economic, and in the end, ideological supremacy, "can and should seek peace, reform, and security for the region simultaneously, while continuing to buy Arab oil" (Dunne, 2004). Therefore, taking this aspect into account, the general theoretical point-of-view is that the U.S., in effect, is acting in…[continue]
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