The humanistic psychology was established in early 1940s and 1950s as an option to conservative behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques. A novel method of dealing with client referred to as humanistic therapy followed the development of the humanistic psychology. This type of therapy is client-based and it focuses on how a person distinguishes the environment and the world. Several variations have since the setting up of humanistic psychology been established. Humanistic psychology puts its attention on the conscious person and appraises an individual's self-actualization concept besides putting into consideration the personal examination and mastery of self. Humanistic therapy offers therapy partly via a client's own innovative process, and it emphasizes on self-determination and free will. One of the client-centered approaches to humanistic psychology is the Rogerian Therapy developed by Carl Rogers, an American psychotherapists and a counselor. In this regard, this brief overview focuses on the history and establishment of the Rogerian Therapy.
Carl Rogers (1902-2002) received popularity for the application of his viewpoint to the form of psychotherapy he established. His type of therapy referred to as client-centered therapy, was later named person-centered therapy (Carducci, 2009). As with everything else linked to Rogers's viewpoint, an individual person is the crucial element in the therapeutic procedure. The Rogerian therapy stresses on the working link between the therapist and the client, and it entails the therapists' entrance into the distinctive phenomenological world of the client. Rogers viewed therapy as a procedure of making people free and removing blocks so as their normal development can continue and the patient becomes self-directed and independent ( Carducci, 2009). In the course of the Rogerian therapy, the patient moves from self-conception stringency to fluidity. A positive atmosphere that enhances the development of a client necessitates categorical and affirmative respect for the patient besides a show of empathic comprehension of an entirely harmonious individual during the entire therapeutic process. Understanding the feelings of a patient and their personal meaning is paramount.
Rogers's powerful conviction in the optimistic temperament of humans has its foundation in scores of clinical experience years, and operating with diverse people. The person-centered theory implies that a patient regardless of his/her problem can become better without teaching him/her anything special once the client respects and accepts her/himself.
The History and Development of the Rogerian Therapy
Rogers developed his Rogerian concept while working in Rochester Guidance Center (Kirschenbaum, 2004). During this period, Carl worked with scores of troubled adults and children, and he eventually developed his own views concerning psychotherapy and counseling. His influences were Otto Rank students whose relationship therapy changed emphasis from earlier content to a patient's self-acceptance and self-insight center of attention (Kirschenbaum, 2004). His experiences in Rochester led to description of his thinking. While working with a young boy with an impulse to set fires, Rogers noted that juvenile delinquency is traceable from unresolved sexual conflicts (Fernald, 2002). Over numerous sessions, Rogers utilized skillful interpretations and leading questions to assist the boy view how pyromania influenced his sexual impulse concerning masturbation. Rogers considered the case resolved, but when the boy was out of probation, he went out to set fires. The incident of the this boy made Rogers to became more skeptical regarding expert theories, and it was from this point he decided to be accountable in identifying novel knowledge to help people (Fernald, 2002).
On another different occasion, Rogers observed a popular hypnotherapists function with a young boy who was a bed wetter. The hypnotherapist eventually succeeded in encouraging a trance condition in the boy. However, when he started formulating posthypnotic suggestions linked to stopping bed-wetting, the young boy become defiant to the point that he no longer wanted to enter the trance state (Fernald, 2002). This behavior impressed Rogers, as he understood how human will is powerful and how clients can resist the services of a most knowledgeable therapist when it fails to support their purposes.
Rogers's concepts received further developments during his thirty-minute session with Gloria (Wickman & Campbell, 2003). Gloria, a thirty-year-old female, wanted to understand if she should be ingenuous with her daughter regarding having sex after her divorce. In the course of the session, Gloria learnt to accept herself and felt whole thereby making the session momentous and life changing (Wickman & Campbell, 2003).The session with Gloria instigated the Rogerian theory of client-centered counseling. He proposed three situations that are significant and adequate for therapeutic shift. The three conditions include legitimacy, unconditional optimistic regard and empathy. This conceptual blueprint offers the instructional basis for scores of therapist education programs (Wickman & Campbell, 2003). Rogers used the observation method to collect his concepts regarding a humanistic psychology. He identified the growth of the personality in a holistic approach. Instead of making psychological formations such as ego or id, Rogers resorted to an empirically certifiable supposition of the whole person (DeRoberis, 2006).
According to Rogers, every living thing intrinsically seeks to achieve his latent potential. If particular desirable conditions are present, the diminutive acorn becomes the might oak and a person becomes entirely actualized. This implies that an individual attain his/her selfhood and potential. Rogers had the tendency of taking a fundamental idea and amplifying it to multi-applicable proportions. In 1940s, Rogers established nondirective counseling as a response to the dominant psychoanalytical practices of directive therapy. His establishment challenged the idea that therapists understand what is good for a patient. During 1950s, Rogers renamed and reframed his theory to reflect client's prominence, calling this approach client-centered therapy (Thyler & Dulmus, 2012). In the course of this period, Rogers centered more on the client's tendency of self-actualization and less responsibility of the therapist. Between the 1950s through 1970s, Rogers focused on the situations significant to the therapeutic procedure through which the client becomes the self she or he truly is (Thyler & Dulmus, 2012). Rogers extended his theory to encounter and educational groups. Eventually, in the 1990s and 1980s, the Rogerian perspective extended to education, conflict resolution, industry and education. Amid the developing, exponentially augmenting application of the Rogerian theory, a novel name got attributed to it and it presently referred to as person-centered therapy (Thyler & Dulmus, 2012).
According to Thyler & Dulmus (2012), the relational, educational, clinical, theoretical and professional encounters and experiences in the life of Rogers had a crucial role in the creation of his distinctive approach and perspective to psychotherapy. In due course, Rogers described a psychotherapeutic as an imperative agent for optimistic self-change. Rogers adopted salient theories and concepts of his day, rejected demoralizing principles and practices, repulsed antiquated postulations and formed a theorem that now confirms its relevance. The Rogerian theory holds a fundamental premise that people get inspiration to seek therapy through their desire for constant self-actualization process (Carducci, 2009). Given that personality maladjustment is categorical of conscious recognition of intense anxiety, which signals an incongruence state, the objective of the therapy should be for minimizing this condition. In person-centered therapy, the major goal is to recombine the self-concept through assisting an individual to experience freely occurrences of the phenomenal sphere (Thyler & Dulmus, 2012). When a person can formulate judgments founded on a true organismic valuing procedure, removal of the obstacles to the self-actualization procedure takes place. However, this happens in a positive therapeutic setting. The therapeutic atmosphere plays a crucial role in person-centered therapy.
Rogers detailed different growth dimensions which include experience openness, internal locus of assessment as opposed to external approach, willingness to take part in the process, taking oneself as a subject as opposed to an objects and confidence in a person, as the major requirements of a successful person-centered therapeutic process. None of these dimensions is significant over the other (Fernald, 2002).
In conclusion, Rogers Career covered six decades and through this period, he demonstrated a vivid character…