Communicable Disease Measles Although Measles Has Been Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

Communicable Disease: Measles

Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the air quality index is poor. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Part A:

Measles is a severe, but vaccine-preventable disease that is capable of causing extensive morbidity and mortality on a global basis (Warrener, Slibinskas, Chua et al., 2011). The measles virus (MV) is described by Warrener et al. As "an enveloped RNA virus classified in the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus [which] is the most transmissible virus known in humans" (2011, p. 675). Notwithstanding the enormous amount of resources that have been devoted to vaccination programs in many countries, the measles virus continue to represent a serious public health threat on a global level, especially in developing countries (Warrener et al., 2011).

In spite of aggressive measures to counter the disease through the widespread use of measles vaccine (whether as a single antigen vaccine or as a constituent ingredient in the triple vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), there were still 278,358 reported cases of measles and approximately 164,000 fatalities caused by measles worldwide in 2008 alone (Warrener et al., 2011).

Although measles has largely been eliminated from the Americas, vaccine coverage is highly variable between World Health Organization (WHO) global regions and measles continues to be endemic in the African and Southeast Asia regions, where vaccine coverage is currently less than 80% (Warrener et al., 2011). Although measles has been virtually eradicated from the Americas, as of early August, more than 180 cases of measles in the United States had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011; this total was the largest number of measles cases reported since 1996 and was fully twice the number of cases reported in all of 2008 when the disease reached its last spike (Johnson, 2011). The majority of cases have been brought into the United States by travelers and spread to others who lack immunity to the illness (Johnson, 2011).

Currently, Africa and Southeast Asia account for the vast majority (94%) of all global measles deaths; however, outbreaks continue to take place in other parts of the world (Warrener et al., 2011). These incidence of these outbreaks in other parts of the world is expected to increase in the future as a result of the measles virus being introduced into areas where vaccine coverage has slipped below optimal levels and an susceptible population has developed (Warrener et al., 2011). According to Warrener and his associates, "Most regions have elimination goals and elimination strategies based on the maintenance of high vaccination coverage, for which political commitment is required. A key component of elimination plans is surveillance to monitor impact" (2011, p. 676). This point is also made by Johnson (2011) who emphasizes, "Maintaining high immunization rates with the mumps-measles-rubella, or MMR, vaccine is the cornerstone of outbreak prevention. The vaccine is recommended routinely for all children at age 12 months to 15 months, with a second dose at ages 4 to 6" (p. 2).

Prior to the introduction of the first measles vaccine in 1963, nearly all children got measles before their 15th birthday. The virus caused pain and suffering, including as many as 500 deaths each year and 48,000 hospitalizations. According to the National Network for Immunization Information, the vaccine has led to a 99% reduction in the incidence of measles in the United States (Johnson, 2011).

It is important for clinicians to secure confirmation of a measles diagnosis through…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Communicable Disease Measles Although Measles Has Been" (2013, January 22) Retrieved November 29, 2016, from

"Communicable Disease Measles Although Measles Has Been" 22 January 2013. Web.29 November. 2016. <>

"Communicable Disease Measles Although Measles Has Been", 22 January 2013, Accessed.29 November. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Communicable Diseases Community Nursing

    Communicable Disease/Community Nursing 2003 SARS Outbreak In November 2002, the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was reported in the Guangdong Province in China (Lau and Peiris, 2005). Over the next few months, SARS cases were reported in over two dozen countries in Asia, South America, Europe, and North America (CDC, 2004a). The biggest concentration of SARS cases appeared in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Canada (Totura and Baric, 2012).

  • Environmental and Global Health Issues

    Environmental and Global Health Issues Environmental & Global Health Issues Communicable disease outbreak: Measles Until recently, it was thought that measles had been entirely eradicated in the United States, thanks to the success of the national vaccination program. According to the CDC, "measles was declared eliminated from the United States in 2000" (Measles outbreaks, 2012, CDC). However, that proud statement has been amended, as cases of measles have once again begun to reassert

  • Department of Health and Human

    In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised

  • Healthy Individual Is Infected With a Bacteria

    healthy individual is infected with a bacteria or virus, the body identifies the virus as an invader, and therefore produces the antibodies, which is the human body's immune system, to destroy the virus to assist the person to recover and become healthy. Meanwhile, vaccination is the process of stimulating the active immune system to fight disease in the body, and vaccine will boost the body active immunity to fight

  • Smallpox Medical Epidemiology Smallpox

    6). What doctors do know is that the young, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems are far more likely to suffer adverse effects or become contaminated should an epidemic break out. These populations are also far more likely to develop the disease or suffer from side effects of vaccination which may include a heart attack (Annas, 2003). Many suggest the risk is unknown, because the disease is nearly eradicated,

  • Vaccination Policies

    Ethics of Public Health Policies Public health concerns necessarily introduce a tension between the individual and the greater good, which may have different resolutions depending on the ethical perspective that one uses to assess them. As a society, the United States has determined that certain public health policies so promote the greater good that they should be considered even if they infringe upon private liberties, or, in some cases, pose a

  • American Urban History Public Health Public

    Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily. In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas. The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service.

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved