Sister Callista Roy initiated the Adaptation Model of Nursing in 1976. The theory has since then evolved to be one of the prominent nursing theories. The nursing theory defines and explains the nursing care provisions. The model by Roy sees an individual as a composite of systems with an interrelationship (including biological, social, and psychological). According to Haaf (2008), a person strives towards retaining a balance across the systems and the outside world, although absolute balance levels do not exist. Individuals work towards living in unique bands that they can adequately cope. The model has four major concepts of environment, person, nursing, and health and its application has six steps.
According to Kraszeski & McEwen (2010), a person is a representation of societal standards, principles, or focus. Roy's model positions the individual as the bio-psychosocial being throughout a continually changing environment. The person allows for open and adaptive systems through engaging coping skills that deal with any stressor. The theory defines the environment as circumstances, influences, and conditions surrounding and affecting the behavior and development of an individual. Roy offers a description of the stressors as the stimuli that use residual stimuli to develop touch to the stressors influencing the person.
Roy's model addresses three concepts that include the adaptation, nursing, and human being. The being is the bio-psychosocial with continued interaction with environments. In using the Roy model as the primary theoretical framework in nursing, various elements guide family assessment. The first consideration is the adaptation modes. The focus on this component elicits physiologic mode analysis to establish the extent to which the family meets its basic survival needs for all members. It also evaluates the number of family members with difficulties when meeting their basic survival needs. The self-concept mode assesses how the family perceives itself with respect to its ability to address its objectives and assist members realize their goals. According to Dougherty & Lister (2011), the scope includes evaluation on the family's values and a description of the level of understanding and companionship presented to family members. The role function mode describes the respective roles taken by each family member. It pronounces the extent to which the family roles are in conflict, supportive, or reflective of overload.
The mode includes the ability and approach of making decisions in the family. The interdependence mode substantiates the extent to which family members, as well as subsystems in a given family encounter independence in goal achievement and identification. The degree of support given by each member is a critical element while promoting the support systems of the family. It evaluates the extent to which the family is receptive to assistance and from without the family unit. According to Griffith, & Tengnah (2010), adaptive mechanisms have a regulator component where the family's physical status in terms of health is evaluated. It includes (physical strength, nutritional state, and physical resources availability). The cognate component focuses on the power base, educational levels, family knowledge base, source of decision-making, degree of openness, and ability to process. The stimuli component has a focal evaluation on the kinds of significant concerns that the family faces at a given time. It also outlines the major concerns affecting the respective members.
The contextual analysis focuses on the elements within the family structure against the dynamic environments to impinge on the way and levels to which families adapt to and cope with their critical concerns. Some of the more demanding situations include management of physical and financial resources, clinical setting, and the presence of support systems. The residual policy evaluates the beliefs, knowledge, values, and skills for a given family often considered as they attempt to cope with stages of development, cultural backgrounds, and spiritual beliefs, goals and expectations. The nurse is responsible for assessing the extent to which family's actions within a given mode lead to positive adaptation and coping to focal stimuli. In case adaptation and coping do not promote positive health, the assessment of the stimuli types emphasize on effectiveness of regulators that provide designs for nursing interventions and promotion of adaptation.
The theory emphasizes on the relevance of social integrity in its application. Interdependence mainly involves the maintenance of balances between dependence and independence in an individual's relationships with each other. According to Lambert, Long, and Kelleher (2013), the dependent behaviors are inclusive of attention seeking, help seeking, and affection seeking. The independent behaviors focus on the initiative taking strategies and mastery of obstacles. In assessing the effectiveness of this mode within family settings, nurses seek to determine the success of the family through factors of the immediate community. According to Sherwood and Barnsteiner (2012), the nurse assesses such interactions of family with neighbors as well as other community groups to establish a family support systems and significant others.
Discuss the following questions related to our professional/regulatory bodies and continuing professional development (CPD):
1. Describe the roles of AHPRA and the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australian and how they differ?
According to Tilly (2011), the National Board (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia) has licensed four-community and eight-practitioner members with meetings on a monthly basis. It works consistently towards ensuring that the public has access to midwives and nurses with appropriate qualification and meet the national professional standards. A significant achievement of this board is the establishment of a national policy addressing endorsement and registration of midwives and nurses. In achieving this, the Board addressed differences existing between previous territory and state boards and the national legislation requirements. According to Fry, Veatch & Taylor (2010), the outcomes are that midwives and nurses only have to register once, and renew yearly. On the other hand, Health Practitioner Regulation National Act as enforced within various states and territories (National Law) manages operations at AHPRA. This organization encompasses 14 health professions regulated through nationally consistent laws of National Registration and Accreditation Scheme. The group supports constituent National Boards with the responsibility of regulating respective health professions. The significant role of these National Boards includes protecting the public as well as setting policies and standards to be met by the registered health practitioners.
2. Briefly outline the current requirements for CPD for enrolled nurses within Australia?
One requirement is that all persons on nurses' register have to attend a minimum of 20 hours per year in continuing professional development for nursing. All registered midwives and nurses holding scheduled endorsements as nurse or midwife practitioners or medicines endorsements as per the National Law have to complete a minimum of ten hours yearly in training related to endorsements. According to Morrissey & Callaghan (2011), an hour of continuous learning is equal to on CPD hour. It is the role of a nurse or midwife to calculate the number of active learning hours of participation. While CPD activities have relevance to midwifery and nursing professions, the activities will be counted from each professional development portfolio. According to Healey and Spencer (2008), persons on midwives' register have to participate in a minimum of 20 hours per year for midwifery professional development. The CPDs have to present relevance to the context of practice for the nurse or midwife.
3. Is professional indemnity insurance mandatory for all nurses and what does it cover?
Under section 129 of the National Law, nurse practitioners and registered nurses must practice until they have a cover from the appropriate professional indemnity insurance firms. Registered health practitioners should not engage in health profession practice where the practitioner has been registered unless there are appropriate arrangements for professional indemnity insurance in force. It is often related to the practitioner's professional practice. Ideally, the methods secure professional practice insurance for the practitioner against civil liabilities incurred by claims that come from negligent acts, omissions, or errors in the practitioner's conduct. The scope of insurance is availed to organizations and practitioners of various industries while covering the expenses and cost of defending legal claims and any payable damages. Some government agencies act under the policies of owning government services through self-insurance based on similar reasons and matters.
4. Briefly describe the benefits of the National Framework for the Development of Decision Making
According to Roussel and Swansburg (2009), a national decision-making framework is inclusive of two distinct parts. The first presents sets of principles forming the foundation for evaluation and development of tools used in decision-making. The other contains decision-making tools and templates. One of them for nursing (enrolled and registered nurses) and the other for midwifery and recognizes differences between each profession. The underlined terms have expanded meanings to meet the decision-making tools and purpose. The goal of this framework includes fostering consistency on jurisdictions through identification of the agreed principles and tools in decision making. It also uses the policy to demonstrate the applicability of the concepts and principles in the professions. According to Cowen, Maier and Price (2009), regulation of professions is done in the interest of the public. The regulation amounts to public safety through ensuring that the…