Crime in the Beginning the Main Focus Article Review
- Length: 7 pages
- Sources: 6
- Subject: Sports - Drugs
- Type: Article Review
- Paper: #68215282
Excerpt from Article Review :
In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.
When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental health, social environment and the ability to make decisions also play a very important role in the risk of addiction to the drugs. Cognitive functioning decides if a person would initially be willing to try a substance that is illicit. However, once tried the chances of the person coming back to the substance increases as the chemistry of the brain changes and it wants additional use of the substance.
There are a number of variables that can be found in most of the people who abuse drugs. Some of these variables are no self-control, poor power of decision making and the tendency to take high risks (Pinel, 2009). In contrast to the reward hypothesis concerning dopamine, it is said that the addicts continue using the drug they prefer even after they have become immune to its effects. Therefore, even if the addict stops feeling the same high that he/she felt the first time that they used the drug they keep on coming back to it in search for that same feeling. It should also be noted here that there are many people who try different kinds of drugs but not all of these people get addicted to the drugs. However, if the basic cause for trying drugs is reward then all the people who try the drugs should become addicted to them.
The main reason why it is important to study this field is the fact that the relation among the use of substance and crime take into consideration both the co-occurrence as well as the association that is there between the crime and substance use. In order to examine the co-occurrence we have to take notice of the level of involvement crime with drug use or drinking. According to the victimization survey results as well as the official statistics it can be seen that alcohol has proven to be more of a factor when it comes to being involved in the crimes.
Nevertheless, it has to be kept in mind that like many of the other phenomenon, a lot of variation can be found in crime's co-occurrence as well as the substance use which also varies according to the location and tribal affiliations. If we want to study the relation between the substance use and crime, it is important that the literature review done in the future specifically take notice of the correlation studies which would help in getting to know about the extent of criminal behavior associated with the levels of substance use.
Dependent Variable - Crime
Independent Variable - Halting the rising crime rate
Control Variable - Dealing with drug addiction
The crime rates can be understood in a better manner if the overall drug addiction patterned is monitored carefully. There are a number of perspectives that have been created to explain in a proper manner the relationship that exists between criminal behavior and substance use. Although the general perception is that criminal behavior occurs as a result of the substance use or vice versa but the relationship between the two is a lot more complicated. The problematic kind of substance use can interact with some of the other social determinants or the individual circumstances and might indirectly be associated with the criminal activities in few of the cases, while, it might also be that the use of drugs or illicit substances be a part of the criminal activity. The interaction hasn't always been very clear among these two social issues and due to this lack of clarity complexity is found in the research literature.
The reason why this tentative hypothesis has been constructed is the presence of a clear affiliation between the increase in criminal behaviors within individuals and the drug use.
Questions in the GSS Codebook:
82) There are a number of problems being faced by us in this country and none of these problems can be solved in an inexpensive or easy manner. I will be naming a few of these problems and I would like for you to tell me if you think that a lot of money is being spent on them, the right amount of money is being spent or too little money is being spent. E. Halting the rising crime rate (NATCRIME) (GSS Codebook, 2010)
1) Too little
2) About right
3) Too much
8) Don't know
9) No answer
83) There are a number of problems being faced by us in this country and none of these problems can be solved in an inexpensive or easy manner. I will be naming a few of these problems and I would like for you to tell me if you think that a lot of money is being spent on them, the right amount of money is being spent or too little money is being spent. F. dealing with drug addiction (NATDRUG) (GSS Codebook, 2010)
1) Too little
2) About right
3) Too much
8) Don't know
9) No answer
Abstracts for Supporting Literature
A report that was made by Makkai and Payne (2003) majorly focused on the use of illegal drugs and the criminal careers of total 2,135 male offenders who had been incarcerated in the prisons of Tasmania, Western Australia, Northern Territory and Queensland in the mid-2001. Generally, these offenders fell in the age brackets of twenties to thirties, had 1 in 4 chances that they will be local, low education level and had high levels of previous contact with the justice system for the criminals. On average, these were the most serious and chronic offenders that had been taken notice of by the police as well as the courts.
In order to develop successful prevention strategies it is important to understand the offending patterns of these people. The use of drug is also considered to be an important factor when it comes to the offensive behavior. Throughout their criminal careers a number of violent and property offending behaviors were reported by these offenders. Even with this variety found in their offensive attitudes it is still possible to classify about three quarters of these offenders into a kind of crime type. These types are:
"Regular multiple offenders (15 per cent);
Regular violent offenders (eight per cent);
Drug sellers (seven per cent);
Regular property offenders (27 per cent);
Homicide offenders (five per cent);
Regular fraud offenders (eight per cent); and •
Drug buyers (seven per cent)" (Makkai and Payne, 2003).
According to a recent study that was conducted in Idaho (2010) there exists a complex relationship between crime and drug abuse. Not all of individuals who use drugs get addicted to them nor do all of the drug users get involved in violent crimes. Economic as well as social concerns such as premature deaths, crimes, loss in productivity and illnesses are all the factors that get affected by drug and alcohol abuse. In this report emphasis will be put on the trends related to drugs that are present in Idaho as well as the present research. All this will help us in understanding the relation that exists between crime and drug abuse.
First of all we will be exploring the relationship that exists between crime and drugs; also we will be exploring the reasons for addiction to drugs in the light of the current research. Secondly, the results of various surveys that were conducted to observe the trends of substance abuse in Idaho will be discussed. Thirdly, an analysis will be done on the data that is coming from justice system for the criminals; this data will include information from the juvenile to the adult arrests, drug courts, number of offenders involved in the treatment and their morality, incarceration and traffic crashes. A final synopsis will also be given which will show what all this data actually means for Idaho (Idaho State Police, 2010).
It was asserted in a recent study (2009) by the Alberta health Services that there exists a complex relation between the criminal behavior and substance use and that there…