Deviance of Homosexuality Homosexuality Deviance Research Paper

Download this Research Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Research Paper:

The definition of deviancy, its origin, as well as its negative connotations, seems to shifts from behavior to behavior.

Deviance at times seems benign and morally neutral and simply to challenge normative categories of identity, in the case of homosexuals, atheists, and women who are single and/or working. All of these categories have existed as Foucaultian character 'types' in the form of modern media stereotypes, as portrayed as the media, even though they could also be easily classified as acts or as belief systems. A woman's desire to work is technically an 'act' but cultural stereotypes attach assumptions to this decision -- such as the idea that a woman who works is callous and uncaring about her children. A homosexual is technically someone who engages in same-sex sexual activity but has been characterized as effeminate, overly sexual, predatory, or 'less than a man' although the only real deviant, contingent characteristics of a homosexual is same-sex desire.

But in other cases, deviancy may potentially threaten the social order, such as safety, in the case of individuals who kill or steal. While certain environmental characteristics may explain such behavior, it is more difficult for society to engage in relativistic analysis about these actions and still remain functional. But even in these cases, it is important to reflect that there is a subjective, constructed aspect to such 'deviance.' In the American south during the Jim Crow era, men who lynched African-Americans were not considered deviant, although today we would consider them murderers. The Victorians attempted to create constructs of individuals with particular physiology, behaviors, and characteristics who were intrinsically murderous, or a murderous 'type,' in the way that individuals who were gay were said to be a certain 'type.' While it is arguably harder to view how society could function without a stringent definition of what constitutes murder, even the definition of a murderer is far more fluid than one might initially suspect.

Taking a positivist approach to deviance, whereby the 'act' is seen as inherently bad and worthy of punishment in a trans-cultural fashion is problematic. In the case of homosexuality, which today is said by most gay people to be mainly biologically rather than culturally or psychologically constructed, the cause is uncertain and cannot be easily 'dealt' with (Goode 2008). And although some individuals are threatened by the presence of homosexual acts, there is no clear reason why this 'deviance' should be eliminated at all. Also, even if the expression of sexuality is socially constructed, the specific types of desires and choices manifested by individuals are so complex in their origin, it is impossible to imagine eliminating a form of sexual expression and identity in a positivist fashion.

The failure of positivism

Even more obviously asocial actions, such as violence, are embedded in a web of biology and social license that the positivist is hard-pressed to explain. For the positivist, social control is a rational process, but deviant behavior is not consciously chosen: "Two actions that are superficially and mechanically similar may mean very different things to the participants as opposed to the individuals who react to the participants and what they are doing. i.e. homosexuality. So, what something is, is entirely dependent on how it is interpreted by the relevant audience, including the actor" (Goode 2008). A 'normal' person who grows up in a world where violence is normal may act violently. Soldiers in wartime are encouraged to defend their country, even when their actions in other contexts would be profoundly damaging to society. One cannot distill the action from the context and say it is deviant.

Constructivists would also point out, contrary to the positivist position, that even within the same society the definitions of deviance are in flux depending on where the behavior is manifest. This is also true for sexual behaviors: amongst artists, homosexuality is often tolerated, even by the mainstream public, as can be seen in the public embrace of gay actors, talk show hosts, and musicians. However, the tolerance of a gay politician or even a teacher at an elementary school might be less all-encompassing. Tolerance of deviance can thus vary amongst subcultures as well. And higher social status, higher levels of wealth, and esteem can all cause what might be considered 'deviant' in one person to be seen as merely eccentric in another.


When a particular group is arbitrarily defined as deviant, this can have negative consequences for society as well as the individual. Homosexuality, when treated as deviant can create a 'class' of individuals who are estranged from society. Socially estranged classes of individuals are often more likely to engage in other kinds of deviant behavior. This is the "distinction between primary deviance, the initial rule-breaking act, and secondary deviance, the labeled person's response of defense, attack or adaptation to the problems caused by the social reactions to their initial deviance" (Secondary deviance, 2010, Sociology index). Another good example of this might be individuals who are defined and treated as deviant because of their ethnicity, race, or religion. One reason some groups might have a higher rate of criminality than other groups is due to labeling theory -- when the primary 'deviance' is inscribed upon them based upon arbitrary factors such as their appearance, their subsequent alienation yields them to embrace secondary forms of deviancy, such as a criminal identity. "When this does happen and a person is engaging in secondary deviance, it can be said that they are following a deviant (or moral) career - a set of roles and expectations shaped largely by the reactions of others" (Secondary deviance, 2010, Sociology index). The label of deviance thus creates additional behaviors and makes multiple layers of deviance part of the individual's identity. While it is difficult to imagine a functional society where no 'deviance' at all is conceptualized, the relativistic nature of most categories of deviance is a reminder of the need for tolerance and compassion when dealing with categories of difference that do not have a negative impact upon others.


Foucault, Michel. (1995). Discipline and punish. New York: Vintage.

Foucault, Michel. (1990). The history of sexuality: Volume 1. New York: Vintage

Gill, N.S. (2010). Standard Roman sexuality. Retrieved August 15, 2010 at

Goode. (2008, February 4). Positivism. Retrieved August 14, 2010 at

Gutting, Gary. (2008). Michel Foucault. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved August 15, 2010 at

The History of Sexuality: About Foucault. (1999). IPCE Web. Retrieved August 14, 2010 at

Orcutt, James D. (2004). Part 1: Sociological viewpoints on deviance and social control.

Retrieved August 14, 2010 at

Pontell. (2005). The discovery of child abuse. Retrieved August 14, 2010 at

Secondary deviance. (2010). Sociology index. Retrieved August 14, 2010 at[continue]

Cite This Research Paper:

"Deviance Of Homosexuality Homosexuality Deviance" (2010, August 15) Retrieved November 28, 2016, from

"Deviance Of Homosexuality Homosexuality Deviance" 15 August 2010. Web.28 November. 2016. <>

"Deviance Of Homosexuality Homosexuality Deviance", 15 August 2010, Accessed.28 November. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Deviance and Social Control Deviance

    Some examples of deviance that might be used to describe this type of challenge to the social order would be events like the Boston Tea Party, or the multitude of Vietnam War protests, one resulted in the development of the independence of the U.S. And the other ended compulsory military service in the U.S. (O'Neill, 1986, p. 350) Social control is defined as the ways in which our companions in

  • Deviance Historical Records Deviance Is the Violation

    DEVIANCE Historical Records Deviance is the violation of social norms. Norms are codes of ethics that act as guidance to people on how to live their lives. According to William Somner, there are three types of norms; Folkways are what a society considers being right with regard to culture and tradition. Issues like dressing, mannerisms are in this category. Different cultures and people have their own guidelines on dressing and etiquette. Violations

  • Deviance in Society

    Abortion is the process determining the fate of a mother and a child who is not only unwanted but also is deprived of the opportunity to view the way the world is. All issues revolving around abortion have a strong connection with ethics, the "rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession" (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary) or ethics are also defined as "a

  • Homosexuality and Serial Murder

    Gay Serial Killers Serial killers continue to hold a fascination on the American public. The crimes of this subset of murderers are frequently sexualized in nature, which perhaps adds to the titillation in media coverage. It is worth observing that many of the most widely-publicized serial murder cases of the past fifty years or so have involved gay or lesbian serial killers: Jeffrey Dahmer remains a household name even in 2014,

  • Gay Marriage Should Be Accepted

    Are television networks giving fair representation to gay marriage and gay rights? A scholarly, empirically researched article in the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media points out that while network television stories do discuss the issue of homosexuality and gay marriage, gays and lesbians are "…rarely given the opportunity to offer their own perspectives" (Moscowitz, 2010, p. 36). The research in this article involved using 93 stories taped from network TV

  • Homosexuality Parenthood and Social Deviance the Article

    Homosexuality, Parenthood, And Social Deviance The article "Lesbian and gay parenting: babes in arms or babes in the woods?" (Mccann, & Delmonte, 2005) examines the nature of parenting in connection with openly homosexual couples and the manner in which the sexual preference of parents affects their children. According to the authors, most of the objections to parenting by gay couples are entirely unfounded. Specifically, males within same-sex couples are actually more

  • Deviance Deviant Behavior Interpret the

    Furthermore, the label of deviance does not encourage society to question its supposed normalcy, although not so long ago, homosexuality or using birth control was labeled a criminal, deviant act. Finally, not all criminal acts are deviant per se, as speeding or drinking before the age of 21 and other actions that are technically violations of the law are often tolerated by the majority rather than the minority of

Read Full Research Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved