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This solution also helps us to assert a response to one that might employ the existence of evil as a rational indication that God does not exist. That is, we are not any of us in a position of such divine knowledge as to discern how or why certain apparent evils may fit into the scheme of an inherently good and intelligent design. As Evans advises, it is useful to "recall that the reason given by atheists for thinking that it is likely or probable that there are pointless evils is simply this: it appears that there are pointless evils." (Evans, p. 167)
Atheism as Comforting:
A final point from our discussion is the rapid dismissal of McCloskey's resting point, that we may somehow find better comfort in knowing that the terrible tragedy and suffering in the world is random and without cause. e are better suited, McCloskey argues,…… [Read More]
In "On Being an Atheist," H.J. McCloskey discusses what it means to him to be an atheist. In doing so, he criticizes the classical argument in favor of God's existence. This is not a new criticism, as people have been arguing about whether it is possible to prove or disprove the existence of God for years. However, McCloskey goes further in his argument against the existence of God by discussing what he believes is a critical argument against the existence of God, as he is portrayed by major world religions, and that is the problem of evil. However, there are several weaknesses in his argument against God. This essay will explore those weaknesses and attempt to reach a conclusion regarding the validity of McCloskey's argument.
One of the first problems with McCloskey's argument is that he describes the arguments in favor of God as proofs, and, because of how…… [Read More]
By our very nature of being able to ask questions, we refocus on our ability to image a creator who gave us the power to self-actualize. Since we know that we can think, posit, and live, if not through our physical means, then through what we write, create, and leave for future generations, then we are not doomed to death without purpose. Man can ask questions, therefore, man can imagine the infinite. Thus, for Craig, it is atheism that is, in fact, discomfiting, and without the model of God, humanity is alone in its pain and suffering, as well as its joy and elation. Craig cannot conceive of this loneliness, therefore because we can imagine God, and we can posit the existence of all things, even the atheistic argument, then it is more comforting to know the soul is not alone (Craig, p.4).
Craig, . And Q.…… [Read More]
IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF
Article Critique "On eing an Atheist" by H.McCloskey
elief in the spiritual or supernatural is almost always expressed by the individual within such a religious belief system. And there are huge numbers of people who feel that questions which deal with faith and religion should not be questioned, examined or challenged to determine their validity. The problem with this is that since such beliefs cannot be confirmed through the senses and upon initial observation appears to contradict what is reasonable with the proposition of the supernatural, they certainly cannot be considered to be "epistemologically fundamental" concept which generally requires no examination to realize their accuracy. And, since many people tend to view all religious beliefs that exist or have ever existed, except for their own, as erroneous, it would be obvious that the subject of religious beliefs not only should be questioned…… [Read More]
An Analysis of Secular Humanism and Christianity
Secular humanists would answer the question of the origin of man by referring to the scientific field of biology, which is centered on the ideas put forth by Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution. Human beings do not have a special role or purpose in the world, they simply originated through an evolutionary process that took place over millions of years. The question of identity is less sure in atheism than Christianity. According to the Theory of Evolution, humankind has slowly evolved over many generations from primordial primate species into modern humanity, as it exists today. This is far less satisfactory than the identity of man as being created by God in the Garden of Eden.
The question of meaning of man's existence is answered by Secular Humanists by suggesting that human intelligence is simply a twist of fate, that humans…… [Read More]
The terms religion and spirituality have held separate definitions only since the early to mid-nineteenth century, so advancements in hypotheses, theories and solid scientific answers or laws have been developing at quite an unprecedented rate. Within these ten years alone, scientists have been more closely following recurrent answers within outer space, within the universe, way out from our reaches of the galaxy in which we live.
On the Cosmological argument, H.J. McCloskey claims that the "mere existence of the world constitutes no reason for believing in such a being (i.e. A necessarily existing being)." This statement came from his article entitled "On Being an Atheist" (1968). trongly claiming the title of an atheist, as opposed to agnostic or rationalist, typecasts McCloskey as a disbeliever as opposed to a doubtful unbeliever; faultily narrow-minded as opposed to completely objective; one who believes it impossible to know whether a God or gods exist…… [Read More]
Objections and counter-arguments:
McCloskey's "On eing an Atheist"
In his essay "On eing an Atheist," the author H.J. McCloskey offers a multi-layered criticism of the belief in God and specifically Christian beliefs regarding God. McCloskey addresses several frequently-cited complementary yet distinct philosophical arguments advanced by Christian believers over the centuries. This paper will first discuss McCloskey's arguments and evidence and then cite potential objections.
Arguing for God from proof (ontological)
McCloskey first argues that objective, ontological argument of 'proof' in the divine is impossible. One cannot rationally 'prove' the existence of God like you can prove 2+2 equals four is true. ecause the existence of God cannot be proved; it cannot therefore be disproved, according to the positivist assumptions regarding the scientific method which states if something cannot be conclusively proven to be false by scientific methodology it also cannot be proven to be true. Furthermore, even McCloskey admits…… [Read More]
McCloskey responds to this by asking "might not God have very easily so have arranged the world and biased man to virtue that men always freely chose what is right?" But in that case, humans would not have genuine free will. And God is justified, Evans argues, in creating free creatures who are capable of committing evil because it is better to have both free creatures and evil than not having neither. And ultimately, "it is not necessary to know God's actual reasons for allowing evil or to be able to explain why God allows the evil he does. It is sufficient to know that there are possible reasons why an all-good, omnipotent being might allow evil" (Evans, 2009, p. 167). And it goes without saying that, with the limited reasoning capability, we might not necessarily know or comprehend the reasons behind God's allowance of evil.
Finally, McCloskey rejects theism…… [Read More]
Existence of God
Philosophically there are a number of arguments that can be made in favor of the existence of God. When looking at the way in which planets, nature and human beings are put together, and when looking at human history, it is difficult not to believe there is a God.
Firstly, when looking at the physical universe, there is order. There are laws according to which things work, and according to which existence is ruled. The same is true of the universe of atoms, electrons and protons. Very specific scientific rules govern everything. This incredible mechanism for me speaks of an intelligent, thinking force behind it all. God is the intelligent creator of an ordered universe.
Secondly, order and rules can also be seen in the natural world on earth. The earth is the only planet in our galaxy that is known to contain life. The conditions on…… [Read More]
This contradicts the reason provided by McCloskey theism that only makes the life of man more difficult. If not for God, as Craig states, there will be no man and, therefore, there could be no argument that man will help each other in providing solutions to their problems. God also contributes to the knowledge of man; consequently, without God there would be no innovation or invention by man, a contradiction to McCloskey assertion.
Eden, Michael 2008. The Absurdity of Life Without God - William Lane Craig. etrieved from: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/2149706/posts
Evans, C. Stephen. 1982. Philosophy of religion: Thinking about Faith. Downers Grove, Ill.,
U.S.A.: InterVarsity Press.
McCloskey H.J., 1968. On being an Atheist. London: ationalist Press Association,
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Cosmological Argument. etrieved from:
McCloskey H.J., 1968. On being an Atheist. London: ationalist Press Association,
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Cosmological Argument. etrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cosmological-argument/
McCloskey H.J., 1968. On…… [Read More]
Health Care Free
SHOULD HEALTH CAE BE FEE?
The following debate takes place between four individuals as follows: Dr. Barker, a public health sector physician with an experience of fifteen years; Ms. Gomez, a social activist working for improving opportunities and living conditions for immigrants to the United States; Mr. Walters, a journalist who writes on social and political issues in several newspapers and self-professed atheist; and Mr. Bucelli, a modern poet and novelist with strong humanist inclinations. All four are residents of the Green Springs Community and are recognized members of the community. The debate takes place at the community hall where the debaters are taking part in the annual debate challenge where they have been given the topic Should health care be free? Ms. Gomez and Mr. Bucelli support the proposition that health care should be free for all residents whereas Dr. Barker and Mr. Walters are against…… [Read More]
As Cline points out, Buffet resembles Bill Gates who when asked about Christianity said that he is not a believer and does not attend church regularly, but finds the moral teachers of Christianity useful and inspiring (Cline 2006). Is this so bad? Both of them can teach most people about the need to work, save money and then give back to the society that nurtured them.
This seeming dispute between faith and reason is hardly new and is an illusion that is easily dispelled. After all, Christianity did not come out of a box with Luther's theses in 1517. The seeds had already been planted in the High Middle Ages/Early Renaissance as learning revived in the wake of the Crusades. This cultural awakening of the High Middle Ages raised issues that scholars such as the great Thomas Aquinas wrestled with in his classical Summa Contra Gentiles and Summa Theologica. He…… [Read More]
The free will defense suggests that God permits, but does not cause evil. Therefore, it is possible to live in a universe in which good and evil continually coexist. Human beings are blessed with the ability to make a choice that can further the objectives of God and good, or to promote the interests of evil. Although this view is logically coherent, there are clear objections to it.
One objection is that God has nothing at all to do with evil, and human beings, made in God's image, likewise have nothing to do with evil. Free will is therefore irrelevant and in fact negated. There is no such thing as free will, according to this point-of-view. All human beings have is a fate that has been pre-determined by God. Using this objection, it is easy to see how the human being is portrayed as a passive recipient of life…… [Read More]
B-Theory, one need not fear death?
There is a common assumption that all atheists fear death, given that the atheist lacks the comfort of a world which exists after this one. However, according to Robin Le Poidevin's essay "Should the Atheist Fear Death?" this is not necessarily the case. First of all, Le Poidevin points out that not all theists believe in a concrete conception of the afterlife (643). Secondly, the question arises as to why we are so fearful of the "attenuation of the effects of our life after we die" and why we "fear being forgotten" (643). Le Poidevin implies that a theist conception of the universe is in part why we regard such an eventuality as an awful thing.
Over the course of his essay, Le Poidevin makes a contrast between what he calls the A-theory and B-theory of time. The A-theorist conceives of time as being…… [Read More]
While thee may be ational and ethical objections to killing a nealy fully developed fetus, thee ae none that petain logically to teminating a pegnancy that is only hous old, much less fo peventing a pegnancy that has not even occued. Religious beliefs and values may be pefect justifications fo such decisions on a pesonal level; howeve, they cannot eve be allowed to impose those values on othes who may not shae those paticula eligious beliefs.
The United States was founded lagely on the concept of eligious feedom by those who ejected the notion that the govenment should be able to dictate pesonal eligious beliefs. The agument that eligious feedom is meant only in the naowest sense as petains to the actual assignment of eligion by the state is weak. If eligious feedom meant only that the state could not equie a specific eligion, that would still allow the state…… [Read More]
Believe About God
Looking at the atheist worldview on believe about God as a myth that people have invented to make them feel better we tend to find out whether it is impossible to have a high moral character without belief in God.
As I was getting settled into my set for a very long plane ride home a was I got to know that the person next to me was a devoted atheist who believed that God is a myth that people have invented to make them feel better, he asked me what I believed about God. Since iam a Christian I believe that God is real, the creation the origin of life and the universe gives me a concrete reason to believe in God instead of seeking real answers. Another thing is the idea of loving God is sweet and the idea that there is eternal life.…… [Read More]
Philosophy -- Plato's "The Apology"
"The Apology" is Plato's recollection of Socrates' trial, conviction, sentencing and last words to the jury. The Apology is divided into three parts. The first part, Socrates' principal speech to the jury, is his argument against old and new accusations. The second part, Socrates' "counter-assessment," is Socrates' rebuttal of the prosecutor's recommendation of the death penalty. The third part, Socrates' final words to the jury, consists of his speeches to the jurors who voted for his conviction and to the jurors who voted for acquittal.
Socrates' Principle Speech
Socrates first takes on the people who have slandered him over the years with "lying accusations" against him: that he is "a student of all things in the sky and below the earth" (Plato, Grube, & Cooper, 2000, p. 22) which is a physicalist or atheist; that he "makes the worse argument the stronger" (Plato, Grube, &…… [Read More]
The Scopes "Monkey Trial" was less about a teacher's violation of an arcane Southern law regarding the teaching of evolution in the classroom and more about the place of Christian culture, doctrine and ethics in the modern world. The trial came down to William Jennings Bryan (who had run for president a quarter century earlier) on the side of Christian culture and the atheist Clarence Darrow as Bryan's political, social and cultural antagonist. While ostensibly there to prosecute and defend John Scopes respectively, the spectacle that the trial quickly became revealed the underlying purpose of the courtroom scene: like the trials at Nuremberg that would come a quarter century later, Scopes was a "show trial," the real meaning of which was a "showdown" between the Old World ideology and the New -- or, in other words, the extent to which the Christian religion had a place in modern America.…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
Answer to an Atheist
e are mortals and cannot possible know the will of God. God does perform miracles in our lives, if we only stop to pay heed to them. If one takes a bunch of parts and random parts and pieces, gives them to a chimpanzee, and asks them to assemble a car from them, an Atheist would have one believe that eventually they would do it through random chance. There is another similar argument that if you placed 100 monkeys at 100 typewriters they would eventually come up with a Shakespeare play. Just as the Atheist argument claims that there is no proof that God exists because no on has ever seen him, there is also no proof that the monkeys will ever make a car or type Shakespeare. It has never been done and no one has ever proven that it will actually happen. At the…… [Read More]
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume offers a complex and multifaceted analysis of the concept of God. The ongoing debate between atheism and theism is resolved in part by an assertion that human beings are technically incapable of absolutely knowing or defining, or at least simply speaking about God. Moreover, the debate between theism and atheism is nullified by the fact that it is difficult, if not impossible, to define God in terms satisfying or agreeable to all parties. There are anthropomorphic gods, creator gods, gods that interact with or interfere with human lives and gods that are distant and detached. Hume argues that any argument related to theism vs. atheism is invalid unless a definition of terms is provided clearly and adhered to consistently. Yet paradoxically, any discussion of God is cloaked in "perpetual ambiguity" because of the limitations of both human language and human cognition (Hume 217). Through the…… [Read More]
Cottingham and Adams on Faith as a Virtue
Faith as a Virtue
There is presently much controversy regarding the difference between theists and atheists, as the masses have a limited understanding of each of these groups. Naturalists are particularly important in this situation, as they concentrate on performing an in-depth analysis of things before being able to express an opinion regarding these respective things. The scientific community is generally inclined to refute concepts related to a supernatural force controlling the universe and it emphasizing the importance of evidence when considering things that ideas should accept as being valid. In contrast, religious people believe that faith is actually the result of sufficient evidence that has been gathered through the years and that materialized in emotions felt by believers and in traditions that they uphold.
Theists are typically inclined to believe that atheists are unable to appreciate life to its full potential…… [Read More]
How is it possible, then, that we can come to know anything?
Methodological doubt is best represented in the first of the Meditations, "hat can be called into doubt."
In this meditation, the meditator is forced to think about everything that he has believed throughout the course of his life. He must then make a conscious decision to do away with all of these lies and begin again so that the basis of his knowledge is free of any lies.
4. hat is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?
Atheism means that there is a denial of theism (i.e., the existence of God) while agnosticism means that there is a question concerning the existence of God, a heaven, or any type of spiritual being. An atheist would believe that God does not exist and therefore does not have any control over his or her life while an agnostic would believe…… [Read More]
Even though the lines may be quite bold between democrats and republicans, the BBC found that 65% of Americans believe "churches should not endorse candidates," and 51% agree that "churches should express views on political matters" (Greene 2002-2008, graphics box).
The question of whether or not a candidate's personal religious beliefs should be used on the campaign trail is a problematic one, with two equally valid points-of-view. Those who say it should state that this is information that they need to know as voters, since religion is important to them. Those who say it should note state that this information increases fraudulent activities among campaigners and casts a frightening forecast for what the candidate may do in office. The data seems to support both sides, suggesting that voters think the candidate's religious ideas and the church should be involved in his or her bid for office. However, the…… [Read More]
David Foster allace
In his Kenyon College commencement speech, David Foster allace makes the claim that the "real value of a real education…has almost nothing to do with knowledge" (allace, 2008). Instead, allace believes that college education is about training the mind to think, giving students "not the capacity to think, but rather the choice of what to think about" -- or, as he phrases it later in the speech, "learning how to exercise some control over how and what you think." He clarifies this by painting a larger picture of how, in his opinion, the mind works. For allace, the human mind is "hard-wired" for self-centeredness, and he believes virtuous behavior consists in learning how to override the mind's "default setting" and instead redirect the attention to something else. His examples mostly pertain to things that he believes undergraduates have no experience of, like the tedium and "petty frustration"…… [Read More]
eligion as a Social Phenomenon
eligion serves both a personal and a political function. As a personal phenomenon, religion can provide psychological and emotional sustenance, mitigate grief, and provide solace in the midst of existential crises. Similarly, religion can help people to resolve complex questions related to the nature of transcendental experiences ranging from love and sexuality to the sublimity of nature. We all have a sense of "wonder" that religion helps address in its own unique language, using rituals, exercises, or symbols (Palmquist). However, the personal dimensions of religion are completely distinct from the social and political dimensions of religion.
As a social phenomenon, religion serves some core purposes including creating and maintaining a community. People who are members of a specific religious community have access to the services and camaraderie of other members of that community. Moreover, religion provides a sense of identity -- not only personal but…… [Read More]
Allestree indicates that flattery is a form of mental slavery and says that love and friendship are far too valuable to prostitute them. In addition, he believes that flattery is harmful because, by failing to point out a man's flaws, or by transmuting those flaws into assets, one condemns the man to continue in those faults. Furthermore, he points out that flatterers are often treacherous, because their affection ends when the one that they have flattered falls out of favor. In fact, when the formerly adored friend falls out of favor, the flatterers are often the first to point out their faults to those who are coming into favor.
In section nine, Allestree speaks about boasting. Boasting is not limited to people speaking bombastically about themselves, but also includes people who cannot hear talk on any subject without trying to turn that subject towards them. Therefore, it becomes clear that…… [Read More]
Socrates has been accused of not recognizing the gods of the state, and also of inventing gods of his own. In fact, this is a two-part accusation. Socrates is first being accused for not believing in the state-sanctioned religion. Of course, it is impossible to know what Socrates does or does not believe. Based on his words, though, it would seem Socrates does actually believe in the gods although may not pay them the kind of respect that the Athenian courts would prefer.
The second part of the accusation is different. Here, the state accuses Socrates of inventing new divinities of his own. Socrates is in fact not starting a new religion and he does not tout the divine authority of any deity. If the accusation is taken collectively, that is, if declaration of guilt or innocence is made on the fulfillment of both these two parts, then Socrates…… [Read More]
Therapy Values Challenge
Fortunately for both patients and therapists alike, there is not usually a huge source of discord to the level that could impede a counselor's ability to do their job. However, it can and does happen every day. Whether it be a personal connection to the patient (or someone close to them), some other obvious ethical conflict of interest or whatever, there are times and situations where something arises that precludes (or advises against) the counselor continuing to treat the patient due to this discord. A more common source of this discord, however, are situations where the values and beliefs of the patient and provider are so out of sync that it legitimately creates a real problem when it comes to the relationship between the two parties. This report will explore a hypothetical situation that would present precisely this situation and there will also be discussion of what…… [Read More]
It is only when you have the answer that you can understand the changes in the movie. The movie is clearly devoid of controversial material but it still challenges old mind-sets and fixed ideas about faith. Instead of targeting relgion as an organized insitutue, it seels to address the very nature of faith without specifically targeting Christianity.
In some ways then, the movie version is more suitable for children. It helps them ask some questions whil enjoys the magnificent beauty of the fantasy world. On the other hand, it lacks strength of the book. The book is however not suitable for children, especially pre-teens. For one, it is too heavy for them to fully comprehend or even digest and hence leaves a lot of room for explanation. But it doesn't raise some questions and many give some teens a chance to ask some difficult questions and then seek answers.
For…… [Read More]
And maybe mass suicides are the old way's means of presenting their final argument. "Whether this is truly the case or not, suicides both individual and collective are only going to increase as frenetic technological changes tear apart tradition and destabilize cultures throughout the world."
Mass suicides are a form of protesting against the changing systems of beliefs; a means of escaping the unsatisfactory world around or pathways to heaven, conducted by weak and sometimes ill minds, led by a diabolic genius who has the capability of playing with others' minds. They exploit religious beliefs in order to make a less or more well founded statement.
And religious exploitation towards the advantage of an individual or group of individuals is not a procedure we are strange from. We should however bear in mind that we are beginning to demolish universal values. And after all, what will happen to…… [Read More]
Master and Margarita by Bulgakov
Mikhail Bulgakov's novel "The Master and Margarita" is one of the brightest pieces of Soviet literature on the hand with such masterpieces as One day of Ivan Denisovich by Alexander Soljenitzin and Quite follows Don by Mikhail Sholohov.
'The Master and Margarita" impresses by the unity of philosophy, religion and satire on Soviet society. "The Master and Margarita" may be also considered as one of the greatest philosophical novels of modern times. Bulgakov touches immortal human problems in the novel: relationships of individual and society on the hand with vales of his contemporaries. Deep philosophical and ethic meaning of the novel is supplemented by bitter irony and witty sarcastic description of Soviet ussian society. Bulgakov's innovation in The Master and Margarita is obvious. Disposing vices and lawlessness of Soviet Moscow he doesn't choose a common method of justice, relying on God and good powers. Instead…… [Read More]
religious faith seems to most of us living in the United States at the beginning of the 21st century to be a purely private one. e (most of us believe) that a person's choice of religion, of congregation, of philosophy is something that each individual must decide for himself or herself. If a person finds most intellectual and emotional comfort in being a Muslim or a Jew or an atheist or a Theosophist we believe that such choices are between that person and his or her conscience alone. However, this acceptance that people must choose their own moral path in life as a purely individual choice is a relatively new idea and one that we owe very much to the beliefs promulgated by the thinkers and writers of the Enlightenment who for the first time began a systematic exploration of the ways in which questions of morality, religion and conscience…… [Read More]
eligion and Spirituality
According to Ferrell & Coyle (2010), religion and spirituality both fall under the rubric of "experiencing transcendence," (p. 14). The difference between religion and spirituality is in the ways transcendence is codified. eligions offer specific languages and modes of discourse, whereas spirituality remains more nebulous because of the lack of the need to share or express ideas with others. eligion has a social function, and can even be conceived of as a means of social control. As a sociological phenomenon, religion serves a totally different purpose and function in a person's life. Spirituality is more of a psychological than a sociological phenomenon, but unlike religion, has no bearing on community. As Judy Labonte states in her blog post, spirituality is much "broader" than religion, and it is important that nurses working in palliative care be sensitive to the personal beliefs of people, even when those beliefs do…… [Read More]
Fear of death is typically referred to by researchers as death anxiety. The phenomenon has been split into several categories. There is the fear of pain, the fear of the unknown, the fear of losing a loved one, and the fear of the consequences that may arise because of the loss of a loved one. The fear of not being able to survive is the prominent one among these fears. Many people are terrified at the fact that death is the end of one's life. Science does not help matters either. It, instead, aggravates the fear. No aspect of science has ever unveiled any element of the human body that can exist long after death. Thus, most scientists view death as biological process. This is the reason that makes many people still fear the consequences of death; even when they are devout religious believers of life after death (Hanson).
Stoicism,…… [Read More]
Responding to McCloskey
McCloskey conflates argument with proof because theists take the argument as proof—i.e., as something that cannot be refuted. For McCloskey just because they cannot be refuted does not mean that one has to accept that a deity is responsible for all creation. It is a leap of faith, in other words, that McCloskey is unwilling to take. For Foreman in “Approaching the Question of God’s Existence,” it is a leap of faith that one must take because it is reasonable, for instance in the face of the existence of evil, to surmise an opposite force of good that is the ultimate source of all goodness, including all of creation. Foreman’s faith is based on reason. McCloskey, however, would also argue that his atheism is based on reason. The difference in outcomes is that the proposition upon which each bases his rational argument is different. Foreman’s proposition is…… [Read More]
With his bold and sweeping statements about a divine mission to seek out and expose false wisdom, and his assertions that nothing short of death will stop him from completing that mission, Socrates makes it clear that, to him, the vocation of a philosopher is a dangerous one. He demonstrates an awareness that his practices have not only brought him enemies, but will likely lead to his death. However, Socrates repeatedly asserts that a true philosopher could not stop questioning, practicing, and sharing his philosophy any more than a true philosopher could willfully cease to exist. In fact, Socrates makes it clear that if he is given the option to live without philosophy or to die with it, that the only choice he could make would be to die. Socrates tells the jury, "either acquit me or not; but whatever you do, know that I shall never alter my…… [Read More]
fallacies and it is important to detect fallacious arguments and then form decisions. Below is an analysis of three such fallacies which have been described and examples are described to show why it is important to detect them.
This fallacy is on the principle that in the case there is a lack of evidence to prove it to be true, it is considered naturally to be false. An atheist might claim that as a creationist cannot prove that God exists therefore God does not exist. Similarly a creationist can say that because the atheist cannot prove that God does not exist, hence God exists. Basically this fallacy deals with the burden of proof and in the absence of any proof it labels the opposite to be absolutely true. This fallacy is used in the judicial systems that are based on the principle of "innocent until proven guilty."…… [Read More]
Bad Experience ith a Priest:
comparison of the Catholicism aspects in Scott's Ivanhoe and Twain's a Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
In reading Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, one cannot deny that the blame for the collapse of Hank's new civilization falls on the Church. Throughout the novel, Twain paints a negative image of the Church and its priests. This negative image can also be found in Sir alter Scott's Ivanhoe. Scott gives us characters such as the confused Templar and the misaligned Prior. Both writers have poor views of religion and this is evident in their unflattering portraits of the corrupt medieval church.
Scott's portrait of the Prior is not a very pleasant one. Nothing about him seems to be spiritual. hen we first meet him, his costume is basically appropriate for a priest, but it is said to be "composed of materials much…… [Read More]
Death in Everyman
The concept of death is a very complicated and often morose subject when it is covered and analyzed through the interpretations and scenarios depicted in a play, let alone a play as prominent and chilling as Everyman. However, there is usually a point and moral to these sorts of plays and Everyman is no different. While the mood of the play is somber and perhaps instills or otherwise causes feelings that are uncomfortable to think about, Everyman drives home the point that no matter one's wealth, prestige and power upon death, about the only thing that can be taken with you to the other side are one's deeds, both good and bad.
Lack of importance of Five Wits
Lack of importance of physical traits
c. Lessons for believers and non-believers
Moral of the play
Death in Everyman
Death and leading a "good life" are two subjects…… [Read More]
Ethical Dilemmas: Pornography
Biblically, God requires Christians to please Him in everything they do. Whether it is in secret or overtly, in thoughts or behaviour, Christians have a duty to portray Christ-like behaviour every moment of their life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Nonetheless, compliance with biblical teachings is not always as easy as portrayed by the Bible. In the course of their Christian walk, Christians often encounter situations of dilemma. These are basically situations in which it is not exactly clear whether doing something is right or wrong. Such situations especially arise when the Bible does not offer a straightforward solution or when the act in question appears to harm no one. Pornography is one of the issues that may present a dilemma for a Christian. Does the Bible allow pornography? Is engaging in pornography morally right given that it does not harm others? This essay discusses the ethical dilemmas…… [Read More]
1. Using the language of possible worlds, explain what it means to say that ‘p is consistent with q.’
The idea that p is consistent with q is a logical premise that supposes there is a world in which p and q can both be true. This premise contrasts with the premise that p is contradictory of q, which states that if p is true, q must be false and there can be no possible world in which both are true and neither can there be one in which both are false. The idea here is that when p is consistent with q, the world in which such a premise could be true is one in which there may be a conjunctive proposition underlying the concept or there may simply be a nullification of the linguistic theory of necessary truth.
2. What is P.S.R. (The Principle of Sufficient Reason), and…… [Read More]
The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.
A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…… [Read More]
Yes, of course. But Hick too is making an important initial assumption here: He is assuming that a test of human goodness is a necessary part of the universe. But this is only the case if one assumes the presence of a certain type of God -- one that demands that people demonstrate their faith and their ability to make the choices that God wants them to make. If one concurs with this view, then Hick's argument is a sensible and entirely believable one. But if one -- and I do -- rejects this assumption of his, the entire argument falls apart.
Evil exists in the world. This is undeniable. Cruelty also exists, as does simple bad luck. Terrible things happen for many reasons. Both Hume and Hick take the presence of evil in the world as a starting point to discuss the presence or absence of a benign God.…… [Read More]
Moral reasons therefore include one's loyalty to his or her own faith and family traditions. Emotional reasons are similar: a personal conviction in another religious tradition precludes one from accepting the gospel. Intellectual reasons are those used by atheists and usually include arguments such as the existence of God cannot be proven using the scientific method.
3. What can Christians do to address these objections and better communicate the Christian gospel?
Christians can most easily address the objections raised by the materialist or atheist communities. The scientific method has become like a religion in itself. Not everything can be proven using the tools of science. Yet even science can prove that the gospel has had a transformative effect on the lives of individuals and whole communities. Therefore, the best way Christians can address objections to the gospel is to illustrate the glory of the gospel in action,…… [Read More]
" The point made by the poet is similar to the poem above. The reference to John,
The Father of our souls, shall be,
John tells us, doth not yet appear;
is a reference to the Book of Revelations, at the end of the Bible.
That despite the promises of an Eternal life for those who eschew sin, we are still frail and have the faults of people. We are still besought by sin and temptations and there's really no escape. People are people. No matter what we say or do, we find that life is not so simple. Consider this reference, which really refers to a person's frame of reference or "way of seeing."
Wise men are bad -- and good are fools,
This is a paradoxical statement: there is large gap between spirituality and reality. Those we consider wise or bad, might make decisions that are globally profound,…… [Read More]
My erections are at a healthier state from using VolumePills™, as from before to now they are a lot stronger and healthier."
HY THIS IS a FALLACY: This is begging the question because the writer (assuming a real person actually wrote that testimonial) is expecting the reader to accept on faith that this is true, without any way to check its validity. It is also an appeal to ignorance because very few men in the general population have any scientific or medical knowledge about penis enlargement, sperm enhancement, etc.
FALLACY #4 (a): The Ku Klux Klan KKK (on its eb site) asserts that the U.S. should "Abolish all anti-gun laws and encourage every adult to own a weapon." Further, the KKK asserts that, "The cure for crime in America is not take guns off the streets but to put more guns on the streets."
HY THIS IS a FALLACY: This…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, personal experience is a powerful method of argument, especially when the credibility of the individual is not called into question. The moral argument in favor of the existence of God is weak because the existence of human morality does not in itself mean that God is the origin of morals. Rather, God has often been used as a motive to prompt people to act a certain way, according to religious scripture or doctrine. Miracles pose a significant problem for the philosopher of religion, because if an act is deemed miraculous, it supercedes the laws of nature. However, the laws of nature are always subject to God; therefore, a miracle cannot theoretically exist.
Pascal's "wager" is yet another theistic philosophy of religion, one that is based primarily on self-interest. Pascal suggested that believing in God is a "better bet" than not believing in God. The individual who believes has nothing…… [Read More]
What right do these people have to take away these rights of a child? Children without a fatherly figure are more likely to end up breaking the law.
Same sex marriage denies them the right to have the normal environment for socio-emotional development or a normal family and it is their right to start their life with a father and a mother. The children are being raised by parents who are not their biological parents. There can never be a substitute for being raised by the mother and father who brought you into the world and are your biological parents. Most human societies have honored the norm that special responsibility for children lies with the biological parents. Same sex marriage is going against this norm, and the society's values attached with this norm. Whatever else it may accomplish, marriage acknowledges and secures the relationship between a child and his or…… [Read More]
In "The esurrection of Christ," Wallace outlines an argument against the watering down of gospel by denying the resurrection. Wallace points out that many modern "Christians" are trying too hard to fit the gospel truth into the modern world, due largely to pressures from the media and the dominant culture. A denial of anything that resembles the "supernatural" is a trend among academics and all who also deny the power of faith. Starting from this premise, Wallace engages the reader in a well-constructed and organized outline of why the resurrection is central to Christian doctrine. To guide the reader, Wallace organizes the argument using numbered points so that they are easy to follow. The argument is focused on the resurrection, as a specific topic of discussion. However, the resurrection is itself a broad and deep subject. "The esurrection of Christ" is paradoxically a broad and focused argument.
Wallace's argument…… [Read More]
Socrates and the Apology
One of the main charges against Socrates revolved around the fact that he was a natural philosopher. This was so problematic as it was in opposition with the views set forth by this early society: these views believed that the society was created via the gods and a great many narratives were developed around the idea of the gods, and what they were capable of and how they impacted the natural world and how it was viewed. Philosophy, particularly Socrates' variety of natural philosophy, was viewed as being in direct opposition to these traditional viewpoints. Another charge against Socrates was one which aligned him with the Sophists. The sophists were a group of public speakers who had uncovered certain methods of persuading others that permitted them to adopt a particular viewpoint even if that viewpoint was not the best or truest one. These individuals travelled, often…… [Read More]
Phantoms in the Brain
Based on the cases presented in the book, do you believe that we have specialized neural circuitry that exists solely to moderate religious experiences? What do you think this area is for? How do you explain the religiosity of those that have unusual activity in this area?
I don't not believe that the neural circuitry exists "solely" to moderate religious experiences. I think it is probable that the area of the brain that is responsible for religious sentiments probably has other duties as well. However, with an abnormally amplified neural circuitry in this region, I think it would be natural to have religious experiences. For example, if this region had anything to do with spirituality, and it was working overload, it would naturally go to the highest spiritual experience -- which is God.
It is easy to image a lower level of spiritual feelings that might…… [Read More]
Descartes systematic approach to establishing an understanding of that which is rationally true inherently called on him to reject all assumed notions of what was true. This 'atheist' thought which he rejected would be characterized by its unfounded but universally accepted nature. By casting doubt and applying testing methods to assumed facts, Descartes sought to provide a living framework entirely governed by empiricism. Such a doctrine inclined Descartes to conclude that man could not accept himself to be capable of distinguishing between his experiences as he dreams and those which he has while awake. Descartes' assessment is derived from his own framework for the resolution of knowledge and, within the parameters that he had designed, is a functionally acceptable one. Indeed, he establishes meaningful similarities between our experiences in both realms.
Indeed, Descartes' view on dreams stems from his umbrella system of epistemology, which is instructed by the pursuit of…… [Read More]
Covert participant anthropological observations of AA and NA meetings indicate that in practice the use of theological components of the program is even more explicit than the 12 steps might indicate. During the meeting the members hold "each other's hands, and lead the membership into a recitation of the Lord's Prayer. Affixed to the Lord's Prayer is an AA ending: 'Keep coming back; it works'" (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.7). Anthropologists and critics alike have commented upon the 'cult-like' nature of AA and NA: new adherents are encouraged to leave their jobs and cut family ties to facilitate their path to sobriety; there is a ritualistic aspect to the group's meetings; a demand for purity on the part of the membership; and required adherence to all of the group's rules (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.8). The emphasis on the need to confess and tell one's stories, the need to prioritize…… [Read More]
Bulimics and anorexics are well represented at this meeting. From my understanding, Overeaters Anonymous embraces those with any type of eating disorder. I appreciate the willingness of group members to understand that it is the addictive, compulsive nature of the behavior that is the problem and not the specific manifestation. Along this line of thought, one member of the group noted his addiction to drugs as well as to food. Crossover addictions are extraordinarily common. One member indicated being a former anorexic who starved herself regularly; that was ten years ago and now she can be considered overweight. Whether or not there is a proven "addictive personality," certainly there are people for whom any pattern of behavior can become a potential problem.
From a clinician's perspective, I appreciate the formula the Twelve Steps offer. The group provides a social network. This may be the most important function of the Twelve…… [Read More]
It was also during this time that he started keeping a diary. The entry for that day is very relevant as to our attempt to understand what drove Orton to join the theater in hopes of an acting career. During the time he spent with the amateur theater company, Orton decided that he wanted to pursue a career in acting, and that his first step towards achieving this goal was to go to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art: "Last night sitting in the empty theatre watching the electricians flashing lights on and off, the empty stage waiting for rehearsal to begin, I suddenly knew that my ambition is, and always has been, to act." (Diary entry, April 13th, 1949: Joe Orton Online)
He quit the amateur acting company after his first role because he was not offered any other substantial roles. Although he got accepted into the Royal Academy…… [Read More]
But this sense of a death of nationalism, or one's personal belief is different than Nietzsche's statement because no ideology has kind of hold Christianity did upon the world when Nietzsche wrote in 19th century Europe.
Do you think we reached a point where we no longer need God?
On one hand, it is possible to see humanity's ability to engage in scientific discovery as proof of the glory of rationality as opposed to following the 'herd' of faith. But science can also confirm that human beings are not very important in the grand scheme of things, unlike most religions which are concerned with human choice and fate. Darwin's discovery that humans are descendents of primates, Mendel's realization that a great deal of our behavior is determined by our genes, even the discovery that the universe does not revolve around the earth shows us that much of our…… [Read More]
Nuland suggests can be improved if people come to understand the inexorable processes that are involved and recognize that like countless billions of humans before them, the mystery begins when they die and there is absolutely nothing they can do to alter this ultimate outcome beyond achieving this level of acceptance and understanding.
The research showed that Dr. Sherwin B. Nuland has written extensively about the history of medicine and the centrality of the death experience to the human condition throughout the millennia. Dr. Nuland's other book was Doctors: The Biography of Medicine and The Origins of Anesthesia, but he is regular contributors to magazines such as The New Yorker, The New epublic and Discover as well as peer-reviewed journals such as American Scholar, the Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences where he serves as chairman of managers as well as the literary editor for Connecticut…… [Read More]
God" in Pledge Allegiance in Schools
The Alternative Would e "One Nation Under a Flag."
(Keeping our Alleigances in Order)
The Pledge of Allegiance is one of the greatest symbols of our most wonderful and blessed nation. Just the mention of it stirs to mind images of young children developing an understanding of devotion as they together face the classroom flag and chant in unison, of diverse people of all colors and walks of life finding a common goal as they recite the pledge, and of wartime veterans and the families of fallen heroes together saluting the America worth dying for. The Pledge of Allegiance is an important unifying and morale boosting element of our nation's history. However, recently it has come under attack by those who do not understand the importance of the Pledge as it is written today and the importance of it remaining intact for future generations…… [Read More]
In both cases, He "is an impersonal force; an indefinable, all-pervading deity. Hinduism recognizes hundreds, even thousands, of lesser gods." (Evangelical.us) the same is true in uddhism, "God is an abstract. In essence, uddhism is an atheistic philosophy." (Evangelical.us) in both Hinduism and uddhism, there are stories of how the divine interacts with humans, but there is no historical proof. Only Christianity has historical proof. Since I am not Asian, I naturally want historical evidence, and I naturally want to follow a religion with a real God who cares about me as a person. Hinduists and uddhists have no sense of self-worth in the scope of the universe. "Humans, as with all living things, are just manifestations of rahman. We have no individual self, or self-worth. The world and everything on it are manifestations of rahman. Sin is committed against oneself, not against God." (Contender Ministries) This idea is opposite…… [Read More]