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Dioxin and Human Health
The exposure of dioxins and humans occur through a variety of avenues, but in particular, it is through dietary means. In particular, such contamination occurs through the consumption of milk, dairy products, fish, and meat. The effects due to dioxin "include enzyme induction, immunotoxicity, developmental effects" (Kogevinas, 331), which are all dependent whether exposure is acute or chronic. The positive correlation between medical and health effects, and dioxin revelation result in elevated incidences of cancer and non-cancerous illnesses and conditions.
The documented occurrences between cancer mortality and people affected from exposure of dioxins are in a positive manner. In both, males and females, there were incidences of contaminants affects the neoplasms of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system. There were elevated risks for breast cancer in both sexes, along with endometrial cancer and testicular cancer. There has been an excess risk for cancer in other endocrine organs, and people died from tumors of the suprarenal glands. Furthermore, there have been increased risks in individuals having lymphoma, multiple myeloma, soft-tissue sarcoma, lung cancer, liver cancer, and endometrium. Those who were exposed to dioxins two or three times more than recommended were the group with the greatest health risk.
In a study led by Bertazzi, involving a twenty-year mortality study after inhabitants were exposed to dioxins in Seveso, Italy, such aforementioned carcinogenic health effects were observed. The investigation involved people in high-exposed zones, which were labeled as A and B. In zone A, there was one who died from melanoma, and two from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. As well, there was a significant increase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD. In the 5-9-year period, there was an increase in mortality due to digestive, lung, myeloma, and bladder cancer, and there was a death due to circulatory disease. After fifteen years, there was a significant increase in lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In the 1-10-year period, there was an elevated incidence of circulatory disease, and after the incidence, mortality increased from respiratory disease, but mostly due to COPD. In females exposed to dioxins in zone A, there was an excess occurrence of myeloma, colon, and other digestive cancers. In the second decade, there was an increase of stomach cancer while in the 15-20-year period; there was a single case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Furthermore, there was an elevated risk for hypertension and COPD. In males, there was an increase in mortality rate due to lung cancer, and there were suggestive elevated risks for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectal cancer. As well, after fifteen years, men experienced an increased incidence of respiratory disease.
In zone B, inhabitants endured an increased occurrence of rectal cancer, and significant elevated incidence of Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and myeloid leukemia. However, there was a moderate increase in diabetes and chronic ischemic heart disease. In the 5-9-year period, individuals experienced lung cancer and other digestive cancers, along with an increase in Hodgkin's disease. Furthermore, the occurrence of non-Hodgkin's disease revealed a modest increase but at a later period. In the 15-20-year period, Bertazzi's research revealed two who died from melanoma, thus resulting in a high risk ratio. The observation period exposed the consistent mortality increase due to conditions related to lymphatic and hemopoietic neoplasms. The risk of multiple myeloma was increased in the 5-9-year period, and also in the 10-14-year period. The number of deaths due to leukemia was above expectations, while myeloid leukemia was at its highest in the longest latency period. In the 5-9-year period, it was reported there was an increase in the incidences of diabetes, COPD, and chronic ischemic heart disease. In the 10-14-year period, there was an elevation in digestive cancers, especially in stomach and liver cancer. As well, there were twelve cases of lymphatic and hemopoietic neoplasms occurrence, along with an increase in mortality due to Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia. In the 10-15-year period, there was a moderate increase in COPD, and after fifteen years, diabetes occurred in abundance. At the end, males experienced a moderate increase in mortality due to cancer, especially rectal cancer. As for females, the mortality rate was due to digestive cancers.
In both zones, the 0-10-year period, there was an elevated rate of Hodgkin's disease. In the 5-10-year period, mortality rate peaked due multiple myeloma, while in the longest latency period; incidences were…[continue]
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