Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
DNA in Criminal Justice System
DNA in the Criminal Justice System -- DNA as Evidence
Justice and Science
Sources of DNA at Crime Scene
DNA Evidence on Trial
This paper addresses the use of DNA in criminal justice system. The research paper will cover the usage of DNA as evidence. The importance of DNA in any criminal case as forensic evidence will be discussed through case studies. The role of DNA in court rooms will also be discussed and it will also cover the role of DNA in making a case stronger for the victim. Advantages and disadvantages of DNA as evidence and DNA testing are also discussed in the paper.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is considered as one of the building blocks of the human body because it is present in the nuclei of the cell. Genes are the hereditary material of human beings present in their DNA. Estimated amount of genes in a human body is 20,000 to 25,000 genes. Every human has two copies of every gene, one of which is inherited from parents. Less than 1% of the total number of genes is marginally different between every human being; which forms the basis of DNA analysis and parenting tests. Due to the uniqueness of DNA, it is very useful if examined at a crime scene. The two common methods for identifying and describing DNA Are Restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) and STR i.e. Short tandem repeat profiling (Dr. Mandal, 2012). In this paper we will discuss the use of DNA as evidence; its significance and essentiality
Justice and Science
Fingerprints were considered to be the most important tool for law enforcement. But the use of fingerprints is in few cases in which the criminal leaves prints on the crime scene. There were other tests used for investigation like hypnosis, voiceprints and gunpowder residue on gun. But now, the science has helped the judicial system to ensure complete surety about crimes through DNA in many cases (Clarke, 2007).
Sources of DNA at Crime Scene
There are many sources of DNA at a crime scene. Blood found on clothing items can be easily processed in the laboratory. Properly preserved semen can be an excellent source of DNA. Clothing items and hair are also a source of DNA (Gahn, 2005). All of these sources are valuable only if they are preserved properly and shipped to the testing lab safely.
Collection of evidence is a very critical matter. Law enforcement personnel should to be very careful while collecting evidence from a crime scene. Valuable DNA evidence can be found throughout the crime scene like biological matter on clothes, door knobs and sheets. If these evidence items are collected and stored prudently, then they can be tested for DNA and could prove valuable for the trial. Heat, humidity sunlight and bacteria can degrade DNA very quickly therefore it is very essential to take necessary precautions while collecting DNA. Potential DNA evidence should be stored in paper bags rather than plastic bags. Properly stored evidence have had yielded much better results in the court rooms (Gahn, 2005).
DNA Evidence on Trial
In 1987, the first DNA testing was done on a double rape and murder in Narborough, England. Initially the DNA test ruled out the initial suspect, Colin Pitchfork because he switched blood samples with his friend. But someone heard the friend talk about the switch and original blood sample of Colin was tested and hence he was proven guilty (Cohen, 2003). DNA testing has improved a lot over the 20 years but still mistakes can be made which can mislead the trial. American Society of Crime Laboratory Accreditation on Board in Garner, NC says that 4240 out of 400 to 500 labs are fully equipped with DNA testing but 25 are still seeking accreditation (Briody, 2004).
In Hanover Park case, DNA of Steven B. Sower was used to prove him guilty of sexual assault of a 10-year-old girl outside Glendale Heights elementary School in July. In another case, in Naperville, police used the DNA to charge Richard g. Hess Jr. with murder and aggravated criminal sexual assault of a 23-year-old Nicole Kornely in December 1995 (Cole, 1997). The DNA evidence in these cases is easier…[continue]
Criminal Justice System in the United States In today's world, it seems that crime simply cannot be fully stamped out. Yet, that is the essential goal of the field of criminal justice. In fact, criminal justice is the pursuit of investigating crimes, as well as trying and punishing those criminals who commit them. The very essence of criminal justice is the need to protect society from crime that may otherwise harm
In addition, victims may make a written victim impact statement and present their statement to the court. Corrections: Identify 2 to 3 correctional facilities in Louisiana. Provide information about the types of facilities they are (maximum or minimum security); the types of designs; whether they are private or public; their population statistics; and their type of crime statistics. The Elayn Hunt Correctional Center is the second largest prison within the state
Juvenile Court Juvenile criminal justice system has enforced laws, which govern the rules for determining whether a juvenile criminal is eligible for a sentence or a counseling period is mandatory to alter the behaviors of such individuals. This system has been effectively placed for children less than the age of 21 who have reportedly committed crimes in various forms such as sex offenders; murderers etc. (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this
Society's View Of Criminal Justice System Society's Perception of the Criminal Justice System Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. For the most part, Americans understand that our criminal justice system is designed to prevent criminal behavior, punish offenders and
Criminal Justice IT It is becoming very clear how much of an impact the newest technological advances have on the world. For example, consider how quickly the information spread via the social media about Osama bin Laden's death. Technology innovations are also greatly impacting the criminal justice system in the U.S. By providing significant improvements in the way that agencies find, process, share and utilize information. With the present speed of
Other constitutional protections such as profiling are equally susceptible to manipulation and circumvention in the field by creative articulation on police reports. How common is wrongful conviction in our criminal justice system? Despite all the protections incorporated into legal standards, criminal procedure, and police administration, wrongful convictions are still a possibility. Most recently, the relatively new techniques made possible by DNA science have overturned several high-profile convictions of prisoners shown conclusively to
Equal Protection: Equal protection is a fundamental constitutional protection, that in modern times, guarantees the equal effect of law to all persons. In that regard, the Supreme Court has established specific suspect classes of individuals, such as membership in a minority race, whose rights to equal protection must be guarded most scrupulously, primarily because the need to do so has been more than adequately demonstrated by aspects of relatively recent
"DNA In The Criminal Justice System" (2012, December 23) Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/dna-in-the-criminal-justice-system-105560
"DNA In The Criminal Justice System" 23 December 2012. Web.20 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/dna-in-the-criminal-justice-system-105560>
"DNA In The Criminal Justice System", 23 December 2012, Accessed.20 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/dna-in-the-criminal-justice-system-105560