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Forensics and DNA: Graphology
Graphology entails the study of an individual's handwriting as theory or practice when it comes to inferring an individual's character, attitudes, disposition from their handwriting, graphology is generally termed a pseudoscience .this term is at times incorrectly used in reference to forensic document examination. Graphology has been marred with a lot of controversy for over a century. Supporters of graphology point out the anecdotal evidence of very many positive testimonies as the reason as to why it is used for evaluation of personality, most of the empirical studies has failed to show how valid the claims made by these supporters are. Handwriting analysis is a very tedious and methodical process which is based and relies on extensive knowledge of how people use letters, which characteristics of the letter formations are unique and the psychological process behind the specific handwriting. Ways through which an individual's fine…
AlleyDog.com. (2009). Forensic Psychology. Retrieved February 13, 2014 from http://alleydog.com/topics/forensic-psychology.php
Ramsland, K.(2014). Literary Forensics. Retrieved February 13, 2014 from http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/literary/2.html
Thomas, J.A.(2002). Graphology Fact Sheet. Retrieved February 13, 2014 from http://www.ntskeptics.org/factsheets/graphol.htm
Male and Female Pelvic Girdles
The pelvis is the large bone structure located at the bottom of the spine, which consists of the sacrum, the hipbone, and the coccyx. There are several significant differences between male and female pelvic girdles, most of which are related to childbearing. According to Alcamo and Bergdhal (2003), the female pelvis is rounder, wider, and shallower than the male pelvis to allow the woman to accommodate a growing fetus and also, to allow exit of the baby through the pubic bones during childbirth. In contrast to the male pelvis that has a sub-pubic angle of less than 90o, the pubic arch of the female pelvis is less than 90o. The male sacrum is narrower, longer and straighter; and it also has a more pronounced sacral promontory than the female sacrum.
The information provided shows that a typical male pelvis has a width of 16," a…
Agur, A.M., Dalley, A.F. & Grant, J.C. (2013) Grant's Atlas of Anatomy. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Alcamo, I.E. & Bergdahl, J. (2003). Anatomy Coloring Workbook. New York, NY: Princeton Review Publishing, LLC.
At the time that yrd was tried in 1985 DNA technology was not capable of forensic analysis of biological evidence however; in 1997 a comparison was conducted of yrd's DNA with the bodily fluid in the rape kit that had been collected at the time of the incident resulting in yrd's exoneration for this crime. The importance of proper preservation of biological evidence is highlighted in this case and not only for the purpose of obtaining a conviction but also for the purpose of ensuring that the wrong individual is not charged, found guilty and sentenced to prison for a crime that they did not commit.
VI. Most Common Applications of lood Evidence
The work of George Schiro entitled: "Collection and Preservation of lood Evidence from Crime Scenes" states that prior to the documentation and collection of blood evidence the value of the evidence must be recognized by the crime…
Catalin, Marian; Andrei, Anghel, and Mitrasca, Oana (nd) Modern Methods of Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for Human Identification by DNA Analysis. Biochemistry Department, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Timisoara. Online available at: http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~k_aufderheide/Forensic_Science/Web_Documents/Catalin_Andrei_Mitrasca.pdf
Jones, Cynthia E. (2005) Evidence Destroyed, Innocence Lost: The Preservation of Biological Evidence Under Innocence Protection Statues. The American Criminal Law Review. 1 Oct 2005. Online available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/laws/1047368-1.html
Ladd, HC and Ladd, C. (2001) Preservation and Collection of Biological Evidence. Croat Med J. 2001 Jun;42(3):225-8. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11387627
Schiro, George (nd) Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence From Crime Scenes. Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory. Online available at: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/blood.html
Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA
DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…
Calaluci, J. (2010). Guide to Forensic Pathology. New York: CRC Press.
Dvorsky, G. (2012, October 1). How forensic pathologists used maggots to identify an "unrecognizable" body. Retrieved from io9.com: http://io9.com/5947925/how-forensic-pathologists-used-maggots-to-identify-a-badly-burned-body
Norrgard, K. (2008). How ethical is it to keep a database of convicted felons' DNA profiles? Can we rely on DNA fingerprints for conviction? Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology. Retrieved from Nature.com: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/forensics-dna-fingerprinting-and-codis-736
Rosner, D. (2004, May 20). How does DNA Fingerprinting Work. Retrieved from thenakedscientist.com: http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/dalyacolumn8.htm/
Forensics is a very important part of a crime scene investigation. There used to be a time when murders or crimes were left unsolved due to the lack of evidence. However with the advances in technology and research in forensics, crime solving has become a lot easier. The branch of science, which helps out in finding out important evidence, is known as Forensics Chemistry. Forensics Chemistry employs methods, which help in finding clues, which couldn't be found in any other circumstances. We can simply call it the application of a brand of chemistry at the scene of a crime. This is a science which helps us investigate chemical substances and can help trace the cause of the death of a human being by finding useful evidence. However it's not important that the crime scene may be a site of murder or theft. It could also be due to…
Neufeld, Peter L. & Colman, Neville 1990, 'When Science Takes the Witness Stand', Scientific American, vol. 262, no. 5, May, pp. 46-53
Coelli, Andree 1989, 'One Chance in 165 Million', Australian Law News, September, pp. 22-6
Scutt, Jocelynne 1990, 'Beware of New Technologies', Legal Service Bulletin, vol. 15, no1, February, pp. 9-12.
Introduction to Forensic Chemistry
, 2007, p. 153).
The research showed that DNA evidence can be a valuable tool for the criminal justice system, but the effectiveness of such evidence depends on a number of factors. Among the more salient of these factors was the need to ensure that the DNA sample is collected and stored properly, and that it is transported to a testing facility in a timely and appropriate fashion. Other issues that emerged from the research included the need to maintain a strict chain of custody for all DNA evidence, as well as the need to ensure that the results of DNA testing were interpreted in an informed manner. Finally, the research was consistent in emphasizing that although DNA evidence can help prove innocence and guilt, the accuracy of such evidence depends on the type of DNA testing protocol that is involved and how these results are used in the…
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bridges, a. (2007). Falsely accused: DNA evidence proves rape accusation was a lie. The Forensic Examiner, 16(4), 83.
Dann, B.M., Hans, V.P. & Kaye, DH (2007). Can jury trial innovations improve juror understanding of DNA evidence? Judicature, 90(4), 152-153.
Gahn, L. (2005, March). DNA evidence collection procedures. Law & Order, 53(3), 72-73.
Forensic Case Study
The abduction of Enrique Camarena
The abduction of Enrique Camarena presents numerous interesting and unusual features regarding the gathering of forensic evidence. Many of obstacles that arose over the course of the investigation can be traced to the fact that the DEA Special Agent was apprehended in Mexico, where U.S. laws about preserving evidence did not apply. The Mexican police force (at least at the time of the abduction in 1984) was much more prone to corruption and bribery by persons engaged in illegal drug trafficking than U.S. law enforcement. ather than seeing to assist the DEA in bringing the murderers of Camarena to justice, the Mexican police often acted as obstacles, not assistants.
The real perpetrators of the murder of Camarena concocted a scheme with certain select members of the Mexican policy whereby Camarena's body (and the body of Capt. Alfredo Zavala, a Mexican…
Collecting evidence from human bodies. (2001). CA Department of Justice. Retrieved:
Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
atchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.
In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal ureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage…
Allert, L. & Becker, M. (2003). Death investigation: Nursing on the cutting edge.
Retrieved March 26, 2007, from: http://www.forensicnursemag.com/articles2811lifedeath.html .
Batchen, M. (2005). Forensic Nurse Death Investigators. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.lifeloom.com .
Hufft, a.G. & Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2000). Forensic nursing: An emerging specialty. Nursing now: Today's issues, tomorrow's trends (pp. 427-448).
Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).
Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…
43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…
Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology (2003) Using DNA to Solve Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_exsum.htm
DNA Forensics (2006) Human Genome Project. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Online available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml
Genetic Testing - Patient Privacy and Discrimination Considerations (2007) American Cancer Society. Online available at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_6X_Genetic_Testing_-_Patient_Privacy_and_Discrimination_Considerations_5.asp?sitearea=
Guidelines for Genetic Testing (2003) Genetic-Medicine Related Societies. August 2003.
Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks
DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA databanks offer an effective means of controlling crime. Genetic information on criminals is being collected and stored in many states as a means of identifying current and future criminals. Statistics support the notion that collecting DNA information on criminals helps reduce crime. Case in point, the Division of Forensic Science has managed an average of 37 "hits" per month, where hits refer to a situation where DNA analysis of a crime scene has resulted in suspect matches from previously convicted offenders and subsequent arrest (DCJS, 2004). In Virginia the DNA databank database contains more than 200,000 of criminals (DCJS, 2004).
Proponents of DNA banks argue that DNA identifying information should be collected on larger segments of the population to better control…
DCJS - Department of Criminal Justice Services - DNA Databank Statistics (2004)
Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.dcjs.org/forensic/information/dna.cfm?menuLevel=1
Escanaba, Thomas L. "Strands of Justice: Do DNA databanks infringe on defendants' rights?" February 1998. Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/july98/dna_databanks02.html
Fridell, Ron. "DNA Fingerprinting: the Ultimate Identity." New York: Franklin Watts: 2001.
Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual
Assault Cases. Journal of Forensic Science 9/2003 Vol.48, No.
The precision of DNA technology allows law enforcement authorities to definitively identify perpetrators of sexual assaults from microscopic amounts of their
DNA collected from victims using a cotton swab. It has enabled the FBI to establish the Combined DNA Index System ("CODIS"), a nationwide DNA data bank and identification system modeled in principle, after the AFIS automatic fingerprint identification system.
It is estimated that crucial DNA evidence collected in approximately half a million unsolved rape cases awaits scientific processing, partly because of the complexity and time consuming nature of technical aspects of the techniques involved. The U.S. House of Representatives has already passed legislation in the form of the DNA Sexual Assault Justice Act that would allocate a quarter of a billion dollars to the problem. The Senate is expected to do likewise.
Chief among the…
Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom
Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before…
Anderson, S.J. & Volker, J.X. (2008, Winter). The forensic marketing case study methods.
SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 4-9.
Buker, H. (2012). Fraudulent forensic evidence: Malpractice in crime laboratories. El Paso,
TX: LFB Scholarly.
In 1866, Mendel discovered that there are "recessive" and "dominant" traits in plants, paving the way for understanding how genes work in predictable ways, and plowing the ground for later science, although his work wasn't "discovered" until 1900. In 1944, three scientists at the Rockefeller Institute in New York discovered that DNA is the carrier of the genetic information within the body.
In the early 1950s, scientists were by now aware that DNA was genetic material and that is was an acid made up of sugars, phosphate groups, and "equally matches bases," the Dolan center points out. That was all well and good, but the big question remained: HAT AS NATURE'S GENETIC CODE?
The man most responsible for "breaking the genetic code" was MARSHALL NIRENBERG in 1961; but "breaking it" (or identifying it) was only part of the puzzle. And then in 1965, NIRENBERG (working at the National Institutes of…
About.com. (2006). Definition for DNA. Retrieved 16 October, 2006, from www.about.com.
De Duve, Christian. (2006). The Origin of Life: chemistry and replicability imply that life
Is Likely to Arise wherever conditions mimic those that surrounded its birth on Earth.
Taipei Times. Retrieved 15 October, 2006, at http://www.taipeitimes.com .
Justification of a Forensic Unit
Our Agency has just received $3 million grant from the federal government because of the efficient method that the unit employs in running the department. Additionally, the City Council has agreed to continue assisting the unit with additional funding at the end of the three years provided the department is productive and serve the citizens well. However, the department requires presenting a different budget from the previous budget. This proposal will create a new budget for the forensic unit to describe where all the funding will be allocated. The budget will consider the specialized personnel for the unit because smooth running of the unit depends on the specialized personnel.
Mission Statement of the Specialized Unit
The specialized forensic unit will deliver highest quality forensic services to all our customers, and our unit will deliver accurate service through analysis and the state of art technology. We…
Bureau of Forensic Service (2009). California Crime Laboratory Review Task Force. California Department of Justice.
Police Executive Research,(2002). Police department budgeting: A guide for law enforcement chief executives. Washington, D.C: Police Executive Research
Spence, D. Webster, B. & Connors, E.(2009). Guideline for Operating a new Police Department. U.S. Department of Justice.
DNA Cold Case
Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases
Our federal, state and local law enforcement agencies are charged with the responsibility of bringing justice to every case that comes before them. Especially in the case of homicide, the importance of finding resolution through identification and prosecution (where possible) of perpetrators, is a top priority. This is true even as a considerable amount of time lapses since the emergence of a given case. hen an investigation reaches an impasse, exhausts its leads and ultimately finds itself without a trail to follow, it becomes a cold case. Cold cases typically find their way to the backburner as law enforcement agencies focus on solving crimes with more immediately available evidence. It is thus that cases go 'cold,' leaving investigators with no apparent directions to turn for resolution.
However, today, with the emergence and continued refinement in use of DNA evidence, many cold…
Gast, P. (2013). Cold-case murders of 4 females brought back to life by new images, DNA tests. CNN.com.
Goldstein, S. (2013). Arizona sheriff hopes DNA, facial reconstruction, will help crack 32-year-old cold case. New York Daily News.
National Institute of Justice (NIJ). (2012). Cold Case Investigations and Forensic DNA. NIJ.gov.
U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). (2011). Solicitation: Solving Cold Cases with DNA. NCJRS.gov.
The subject of DNA fingerprinting has become a prominent issue on several fronts. The applicable paradigms involved include law enforcement, privacy concerns and immigration, just to name a few. A few questions and concerns about DNA will be included in this repot including what precisely DNA fingerprinting is, how it is done, the step-by-step methods of fingerprinting, how DNA is compared on an electrophoresis (EPG), what precisely EPG is, whether the author of this report agrees with DNA fingerprinting everyone for medical reasons, why DNA is considered potential evidence in a court of law and whether the author of this report aggress with the government wanting to DNA-fingerprint everyone so that they can learn about disease propensity and other pieces of information. hile DNA fingerprinting has and will continue to render a large amount of benefit, the privacy and other rights of people to be fingerprinted are a…
Aarli, Ragna. "Genetic Justice And Transformations Of Criminal Procedure." Journal Of
Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 13.1 (2012): 3-
21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.
Ai, Bingjie, et al. "The Elimination Of DNA From The Cry Toxin-DNA Complex Is A
Understanding the structure and function of DNA has allowed scientists to uncover truths about the origin of human life on planet earth. In "Ancient ussian's DNA Sheds Light on Neanderthal Interbreeding," Dunham (2014) discusses one of the recent discoveries in human genetic history. A DNA sample was extracted from the tibia of a Homo sapiens called "Kostenki man" because of the village in which the skeleton was found. Because so much is now known about DNA, it is possible to take samples from 37,000-year-old skeletons. The article also shows that DNA remains intact in the bones of living creatures thousands of years after they die. Moreover, the article is about the fact that the DNA samples from Kostenki man show that some 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had interbred with Neanderthals, who had "colonized the region thousands of years earlier," (Dunham, 2014). As a result of these findings, researchers…
Alberts B, Johnson A., Lewis J, et al. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science.
Dunham, W. (2014). Ancient Russian's DNA sheds light on Neanderthal interbreeding. Reuters. Nov 6, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-science-genome-idUSKBN0IQ2QK20141106
Forensic Sciences in the USA and the United Kingdom
Over the last two decades, the forensic science has assisted in producing valuable evidence that has contributed to a successful conviction and prosecution of criminals and exoneration of innocent citizens. Typically, an advanced in forensic science and DNA technology have been a great assistance for law enforcement agency for an identification and prosecution of criminals. In the United States and the UK, many cases that have been formally unsolved have now been solved based on the great assistance of the forensic science investigators. (National esearch Council, 2009). Forensics or forensic science is a field of investigation drawing different scientific disciplines in law, criminal and civil services. This practice requires an application of scientific knowledge, quantitative, qualitative and empirical skills to collect and analyze data that will assist in presenting evidence in a tribunal or court of law. However, the method the…
Butler, J.M. (2015). U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 18: 4 -- 20.
Goulka, J.E. Matthies, C. Steinberg, P. (2010). Toward a Comparison of DNA Profiling and Databases in the United States and England. Technical report (Rand Corporation).
House of Common (2013). Forensic Science. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.
Mallett, X. & Evison, M.P. (2013). Forensic Facial Comparison: Issues of Admissibility in the Development of Novel Analytical Technique. J Forensic Sci, 58 (4):859-865.
Afterwards I poured the liquid through a strainer, just as it had been done with the peas in the given demonstration and I noticed that the poor substance was even thinner than the one obtained at the blender. I added 35 ml of liquid detergent and then I swirled. I waited around 9 minutes and then I moved the object of my research into three test tubes, being aware of the fact that the detergent had continued the task of the blender and has broken the sacks of the cells, allowing the DNA to be found. I poured the substance in such a way that only 1/3 of each test tube would be filled, and then I added pineapple juice, which played the role of the enzymes cutting the proteins.
After that I started to stir the mixture, making sure that my action would detain the success of my experiment…
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…
Johns, L.G., Downes, G.F., Bibles, C.D. (2005). Resurrecting Cold Case Serial Homicide Investigations; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 74 No. 8). Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Markey, J. (2007). After the Match: dealing with the New Era of DNA;
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10). Yost, J., Burke, T. (2007). Veterinary Forensics: Animals Curtailing Crime; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10).
The problems and future of DNA Testing
The scientific soundness of the DNA test has not been doubted at all. Courts have increasingly relied on the outcomes of DNA tests. The common man is at a loss to understand the complexities of the method, and as a result in jury trials it is not taken as standard proof but approached with hesitancy. Jurors are ignorant of science and the 'principles of modern genetics' and can get quite confused by all the jargon and confusing tactics of lawyers who are more interested in their cases rather than scientific truth. ("DNA Fingerprinting and Forensics," 2006) Thus the very process that can throw light on the proceedings and produce unfaultable evidence gets mired in sticky debates. The actual concern about the DNA test is not a confused jury but the process of collecting the data and analyzing it. There is no…
Aronson, Jay. D. (2007) "Genetic Witness: Science, Law, and Controversy in the Making of DNA" Rutgers University Press.
Champod, Christophe. (2004) "Fingerprints and Other Ridge Skin Impressions"
Lazer, David. (2004) "DNA and the Criminal Justice System: The Technology of Justice"
In 2002 the crime lab in the state of Mississippi found that the semen in the victim's body belonged to two different men and neither of them was Kennedy rewer. alko concludes by stating: "Forensic scandals have been troublingly common of late, with phony experts, fake results, and incompetent testing recently uncovered in Virginia, Maryland, Kansas, Illinois, and Texas, to name just a few. Courts need to take a more active role in weeding out the Michael Wests of the world before they ever take the witness stand. ut professional organizations also need to be more vigilant about policing their own. Dr. West's peers should more vocally have questioned his methods long before he was permitted to testify more than 70 times in courts across the country. One would think they'd step up their standards to protect the integrity and reputation of their profession. ut these continuing scandals suggest another,…
Danger to Society: Fooling the Jury with Phony Experts (nd) Chapter Three. State of Texas Law Review.
Bite Mark Evidence Dispute in Murder Cases (2008) CNN.com Crime. 29 Feb 2008. Online available at http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/29/bite.marks.ap/
Bowers, C. Michael and Johansen, Raymond J. (2001) Digital Rectification and Resizing Correction of Photographic Bite Mark Evidence. Forensic Science Communications. July 2001. Vol. 3 No. 3. Online available at;
Opportunities abound in the forensics industry today, and the experts suggest that this trend is going to continue to increase in the future. The term "forensics," though, can be applied to a number of different fields; however, all of these disciplines share a common feature in that their work products are specifically used in courts of law or for other legal issues that can mean the difference between life and death in many cases. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1990), the term "forensic" means "belonging to courts of justice," while "forensic engineering" means "the application of the principles and practice of engineering to the elucidation of questions before courts of law" (p. 648). Genetic forensics refers to the diagnosis of otherwise unknown biological material based on analysis of proteins or DNA; this branch of forensics has resulted in hundreds of death row prisoners being freed after they were exonerated through…
Avise, J.C. (2004). The hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine, and the environment. New York: Oxford University
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Braga, M. (2004, June 10). Tracking data on dead. Sarasota Herald Tribune, D1.
Change them often; (2) Use disposable instruments or clean them thoroughly before and after handling each sample; (3) Avoid touching the area where you believe DNA may exist; (4) avoid talking, sneezing, and coughing over evidence; (5) Avoid touching your face, nose, and mouth when collecting and packaging evidence; (6) Air-dry evidence thoroughly before packaging; and (7) Put evidence into new paper bags or envelopes, not into plastic bags. Do not use staples." (National Institute of Justice, 2007)
V. Future of CODIS
The work entitled: "Communication, Documentation and Information Services" states that in the future CODIS will "continue to place a major emphasis on upgrading technology in all areas of its responsibility." (Vest of Research, nd) in a National Institute of Justice report entitled: "The Future of Forensic DNA Testing: Predictions of the Research and Development Working Group" published in November 2000 states that "technology projections for 2010" include transition…
Combined DNA Index System CODIS (nd) Fast Facts from the DPS. Online available at http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Fast_facts/Codis.pdf
CODIS (2007) SAIC. Online available at http://www.saic.com/justice/codis.html
Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents. (2007) President's DNA Initiatives. Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/mass_fatalities/
Using DNA and Other Resources to Identify Missing Persons (2007) President's DNA Initiative Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/m_person/.
After completion of standard measurements and photographs of the victim, the hands were separately bagged to preserve any evidence contained thereon. Subsequent forensic examination and analysis disclosed organic evidence in the form of human skin and blood identified as originating from the same source as the other blood and tissue samples as those not associated with the victim. Thirty-six strands of hair, subsequently positively identified with the victim were recovered from the external clothing, as well as nine strands of human hair not identified with the victim.
Inorganic Evidence Collected:
Shoe imprints were preserved in standard casts and subsequently identified as originating from a size-12 Timberland® men's workboot. Minute quantities of blood were also recovered from within the prints before casting but of insufficient quantity to determine type other than being from a human source. A ballpoint pen and a partial roll of blue tape, subsequently identified as standard "plumber's…
Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Criminal Justice in Todays SocietyAbstractThe modern-day society has evolved, and so are the security and social issues that face it. To determine the specific challenges that face todays society and thus, the criminal justice system, it requires a critical and analytical research study that will filter through the information available and determine the thematic areas that emerge as critical for modern-day criminal justice. Research for this study was done through a systematic literature review method. This research method was considered to be the most appropriate for the current research and the research question. Analysis of the information presented through the reviewed materials showed that several issues are characteristic of todays society that the criminal justice system has to address or factor in its operations to realize its mandate. These issues emerged as common from the reviewed materials; i) rehabilitative and restoration, not just punitive criminal justice, ii) racial equality, iii)…
BibliographyArgun, U. & Daglar, M. (2016). Examination of routine activities theory by the property crime. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(1), 1188.Bennett, M. W., & Plaut, V. C. (2017). Looking Criminal and the Presumption of Dangerousness: Afrocentric Facial Features, Skin Tone, and Criminal Justice.UCDL, Rev.,51, 745.Daly, K. (2012). Aims of the criminal justice system.Crime and justice: A guide to criminology, 289-406.Epperson, M., & Pettus-Davis, C. (Eds.). (2017).Smart decarceration: Achieving criminal justice transformation in the 21st century. Oxford University Press. LeClerc, B., & Savona, E. U. (Eds.). (2016).Crime Prevention in the 21st century: insightful approaches for crime prevention initiatives. Springer.Lee, N., & Loton, D. (2019). Capstone purposes across disciplines.Studies in Higher Education,44(1), 134-150.Manaliyo, J.C. (2016). Barriers to community participation in crime prevention in low-income communities in Cape Town. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 8(1).Matthews, R. (2020). New times, new crimes: Notes on the depillarization of the criminal justice system. Critical Criminology.Owusu-Bempah, A. (2017). Race and policing in historical context: Dehumanization and the policing of Black people in the 21st century.Theoretical Criminology,21(1), 23-34.Ransley, J., & Mazerolle, L. (2009). Policing in an era of uncertainty.Police Practice and Research: An International Journal,10(4), 365-381.Schmalleger, F., Donaldson, S., Kashiwahara, K., Koppal, T., Chase, S., Brown, A., ... & Marash, D. (2014).Criminal justice today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Tompson, L., & Belur, J. (2016). Information retrieval in systematic reviews: a case study of the crime prevention literature.Journal of experimental criminology,12(2), 187-207.
The Death Penalty should not be considered as something that people desire, but as a form of punishment whose purpose is to deter crimes from being committed. Those who support this form of punishment believe that this is the only way that society can make sure that people who consider committing serious crimes can be stopped. There is a strong sentiment that those who commit the kind of crimes that would warrant the death penalty should not be put into prison for life. It is believed that this still presents these people with the opportunity to offend again.
Anderson, David. (2008). Arguments for the Death Penalty. etrieved May 25, 2010, from Web
Death Penalty Arguments: Deterrent or evenge. (2001). etrieved May 24, 2010, from Web
Hinton, Patrick. (2009). The Pros and Cons of the Death Penalty. etrieved May 25, 2010, from Suite 101 Web site:…
Anderson, David. (2008). Arguments for the Death Penalty. Retrieved May 25, 2010, from Web
Death Penalty Arguments: Deterrent or Revenge. (2001). Retrieved May 24, 2010, from Web
On June 14, 2007, a man covered in blood waved down a passing motorist on Interstate 55 in Illinois. He had gunshot wounds in the arm and leg. It was 5:40 in the morning in Channahon Township, Illinois. Nearby, the man's 2004 Ford Expedition carried the dead bodies of the man's wife and three children, ages 12, 11, and 8. They had all been shot to death. After pulling over, the motorist phoned 911, and the man was rushed to hospital. It was Christopher Vaughn, 32-year-old cyber crime and computer security investigator.
The police questioned Vaughn in hospital. Vaughn's initial statement revealed an outlandish story he would cling to during the course of his defense. Vaughn claimed that his wife asked him to pull over, then suddenly pulled out a gun, shot at him, killed her three children, and finally shot herself dead. The police did not believe Vaughn…
An, J.H., Shin, K., Yang, W. & Lee, H.Y. (2012). Body fluid identification in forensics. BMB Reports. Retrieved online: http://188.8.131.52/W_files/ksi3/02618129_pv.pdf
Boyle, L. (2012). Computer security expert 'shot dead his wife and three children in family SUV so he could move to Canada and live alone. Daily Mail. 20 Aug, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2191188/Christopher-Vaughn-case-Trial-dad-accused-killing-wife-kids-begin.html
Fisher, J. (2012). Christopher Vaughn Murder Case: A Matter of Ballistics and Blood Spatter Analysis. Retrieved online: http://jimfishertruecrime.blogspot.ca/2012/09/christopher-vaughn-murder-case-matter.html
Haggerty, R. & Walberg, M. (2012). Pathologist testifies in Vaughn case. Chicago Tribune. Sept 5, 2012. Retrieved online: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-09-05/news/ct-met-christopher-vaughn-trial-0906-20120906_1_gunshot-christopher-vaughn-vaughn-case
Dahmer Forensic Analysis
Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer
Crime Scene and Discovery
Never before has egregious police incompetence hindered the apprehension of a serial killer as in the case of Jeffrey Dahmer. When police were called to investigate an alleged domestic disturbance between Konerak Sinthasomophone and Jeffrey Dahmer on May 27, 1991. Although two women came to the aide of Sinthasomophone and urged police to look further into the alleged dispute, the police ignored their pleas and Dahmer was able to convince them that Sinthasomophone was his 19-year-old lover; if police had bothered to check Sinthasomophone's identification they would have seen that he was in fact only 14 years old (ardsley, n.d.). Having convinced the police that Sinthasomophone and he were in the midst of a lovers' quarrel, Sinthasomophone was released into Dahmer's custody and by the end of the night, Sinthasomophone would become Dahmer's 13th victim (ardsley, n.d.). Dahmer would proceed…
Bardsley, M. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from TruTV: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/dahmer/index.html
Benedict, J. (2004). No Bone Unturned: Inside the World of a Top Forensic Scientist and His Work on America's Most Notorious Crimes and Disasters. New York: Harper Collins .
Copeland, L. (2002, May 31). Skeleton Keys: Smithsonian Anthropologists Unlock Secrets in Bones of Ancestors and Crime Victims. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from Washington Post: http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/planes/evidence/washingtonpost_skeletonkeys.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/jeffrey-dahmer/crime.html
The second is the methods of work that must follow a quality certified system.
Overall System Design
Since the work relates to scientific study, a scientific temperament and better equipped laboratory is a must. For each section of the system dealing with major and minor investigations, appropriate equipments, modern electronic gadgets and data processing systems must be provided and they must also be upgraded frequently. The personnel must be trained in the use and proper management of digital forensic laboratories and high technology crime detection and investigation. These must be installed and maintained on turnkey approach. One suggestion is to contract a company which has experience in setting up the lab and turn over the installation to them. For example, the Pyramid Company provides turnkey contracts for setting up such Laboratories and Centres. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012) Such service providers would provide for the commissioning of equipments and tools as specified…
ASCLD/LAB-International (2010) "Program Overview" Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from http://www.ascld-lab.org/documents/AL-PD-3041.pdf
CSTL. (2000) "Quality assurance standards for Forensicnda DNA Testing Laboratories"
Forensic Science Communications, vol. 2, no. 3, Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from http://www.cstl.nist.gov/strbase/QAS/Final-FBI-Director-Forensic-Standards.pdf .
Forensic Access. (2011) "Quality management and quality standards support to the police:
John Wayne Gacy, Jr.
Crime Scene and Discovery
When the police were called to search John Wayne Gacy's home in Des Plaines, Illinois on December 13, 1978, they were not aware that their investigation into the disappearance of fifteen-year-old Robert Piest would lead them to uncover some of the most grisly murders committed in the United States (Evans, 2007). Piest was last seen leaving a pharmacy where Gacy, then working as a contractor, had recently completed a remodeling job (Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney, 2012). Three hours after his disappearance, his mother, Elizabeth Piest, notified the Des Plaines Police Department and Lt. Joseph Kozenczak was tasked with leading the investigation (Sullivan & Maiken, 1983, p. 7; ell & ardsley, n.d.). During his initial investigation, Lt. Kozenczak learned that Gacy had recently offered Piest a job and proceeded to go to Gacy's home, located at 8213 Summerdale Ave, to…
Associated Press. (2011, October 13). Detectives exhume bodies of eight unknown victims of 'Serial-killer Clown' John Wayne Gacy in bid to identify remains. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Mail Online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2048363/John-Wayne-Gacy-Detectives-exhume-bodies-8-unknown-victims.html
Bell, R., & Bardsley, M. (n.d.). John Wayne Gacy, Jr. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from TruTV.com: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/8.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (2005). John Wayne Gacy: Killer Clown. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Crime and Investigation Network: http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/john-wayne-gacy-killer-clown/arrest.html
Donovan, D. (2011, November 29). Another Gacy victim identified thorugh DNA evidence. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Daily Herald: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20111129/news/711299790/
Green iver Killer
In 1982, the remains of a number of young women started to show up in the area surrounding Seattle. These women were all relatively young and shared a lifestyle, prostitution and street life, that made them easy targets for a killer. Before the slayings officially ended in 1998, a total of 42 women would be thought to be potential victims of the Green iver Killer with the potential for many more being added to the list. Some believe that as many as 90 women may have been murdered by Gary idgeway. idgeway eluded police for almost two decades, even though he was a suspect in several of the disappearances, and was finally caught as a result of DNA evidence garnered from some of his earliest victims. This paper looks at the early life of Gary idgeway as it applies to the case, the murders themselves, how forensic…
Douglas, J. (2007). Interviewing murderers and suspects: Learn about the crime and the killer. The Forensic Examiner, 16(2), 44-51.
Guillen, T., & Smith, C. (2003, Nov 6). What went wrong? Police at first failed to notice a pattern. The Seattle Times. Retrieved from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/local/greenriver/1987/part1.html
Lackey, B., Jones, C., & Johnson, J. (2005). Gary Leon Ridgeway: Green River Killer. Retrieved http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Psyc%20405/serial%20killers/Ridgway,%20Gary %20-%202005.pdf
Lewis, J.A., & Cuppari, M. (2009). The polygraph: The truth lies within. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 37(1), 85-92.
Genomes and Comparative Genomics
Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.
The Role of DNA
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…
Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56
Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist
Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist
TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
Improving the Science of Fingerprinting: A Literature Review
Fingerprints are one of the most commonly employed tools that we have in investigating crime. This powerful forensics methodology has contributed to the solving of countless criminal cases and has been used as convicting evidence in courts of law. However, as this literature review shows, even the use of fingerprints is in a state of evolution as we gain ever greater and more accurate tools in the struggle to investigate and solve crimes.
At the outset of the discussion, the text by Neumann (2012) helps to dismantle the notion that fingerprints are infallible as a way of drawing identity. According to the research provided by Neumann, fingerprints achieve a certain statistical probability that makes identity matches likely but not certain beyond a doubt. This finding helps to underscore the critical imperative of continuing forensics research, such that we may come in…
Hess, E. (2010). Facial Recognition: A Valuable Tool for Law Enforcement. Forensic Magazine.
Hildebrandt, M.; Kiltzm, S. & Dittmann, J. (2013). Printed fingerprints at crime scenes: a faster detection of malicious traces using scans of confocal microscopes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8665.
Merkel, R.; Breuhan, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Vielhauer, C. & Brautigam, A. (2012). Environmental impact to multimedia systems on the example of fingerprint aging behavior at crime scenes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8436.
Neumann, C. (2012). Fingerprints at the crime-scene: Statistically certain, or probable? Significance, 9(1), 21-25.
At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.
Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…
Palmer, G. (1998). "Forensic Analysis in the Digital World." Accessed 16 November 2009. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:mSArrV3VjMQJ:www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/9C4E938F-E3BE-8D16-45D0BAD68CDBE77.doc+forensics+scientific+method&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari
Shodor. (2009). Forensic Science. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.shodor.org/workshops/forensic/
Vogt, W. (2009). "Forensic investigation." Paradigm. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.paradigmconsultants.com/content.asp?secnum=60&pid=73
Young, T. (2009). "Forensic Science and the Scientific Method." Heartland Forensic Pathology. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.heartlandforensic.com/writing/forensic-science-and-the-scientific-method
Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare problems, their symptoms, and consequences are equally fatal. Charcot Marie Tooth disease is among the inherited neuropathies, which has significantly shown potential and fatal consequences to people. Notably, the disorder does not have any known cure, but there are numerous therapies to control the disease. Although this is the current case, advancements in medicine, are gradually bearing fruits because experts have discovered a way to diagnose some types of these deadly disorders. Other types of neuropathy disorders include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNNP), hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN), and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN or hereditary sensory neuropathy). In a second part of this paper is an experiment to detect HaeIII in given human DNA samples. Owing to…
Brown, W.M. (1980).Polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA of humans as revealed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 6, pp. 3605-3609.
Murphy, M.S. et al. (2012). CharcoteMarieeTooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes and guidelines for genetic testing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 83, pp. 706-710
Orita, M et al. (1989). Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 86, pp. 2766-2770.
Saporta, S.D. A et al., (2011).Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) Subtypes and Genetic Testing Strategies. Ann Neurol, 69(1), pp. 22 -- 33
" This category of identifiers, is however, weak. There are apparently a list of indicators such as name and address that have to be removed from the database in order to use the DNA evidence without notifying the person. When these markers are removed, the evidence is considered public. Yet there are potentials for those markers to resurface and privacy can never be ensured. Even though Angrist is in favor of a public pool of DNA evidence for the lofty goals of science, he agrees, "de-identification is increasingly difficult." It is becoming hard to disconnect names, dates, and places from the hemoglobin and NA. Science appreciates access to DNA because it can link certain traits with others and thereby advance scientific knowledge.
Although it is important to protect a person's privacy regarding DNA, it is too difficult to do so given the rampant greed in the biomedical industry and the…
Angrist, Misha. "Genetic privacy needs a more nuanced approach." Nature. 6 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-needs-a-more-nuanced-approach-1.12363
Nature. "Genetic Privacy." 17 Jan 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-1.12238
The Washington Times. "Editorial: Preserving Genetic Privacy." The Washington Times. 21 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/feb/21/preserving-genetic-privacy/
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Water is very important for life. Indeed, the processes of life, both external and internal even, at the cellular and the molecular level, are governed by water. Without water, most living organisms suffer from what is known as water stress.
This water stress can be due to the loss of water or dehydration. Desiccation is a special case of dehydration where drying takes place in air. Alternatively, another form of water stress is due to the excessive accumulation of salts. This is relatedly called osmotic stress. Osmosis seeks to reduce this accumulation by moving fluids across a concentration gradient. While most living beings cannot survive without water, lesser species belonging to the eukarya group -- that includes both bacteria and a more primitive organism archaea show remarkable tolerance to water stress.
Responses to water stress takes place at a supracellular level as well as a cellular…
Bartels, D., & Salamini, F. (2001). Desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. A contribution to the study of drought tolerance at the molecular level. Plant Physiol, 127(4), 1346-1353.
Billi, D., Friedmann, E.I., Hofer, K.G., Caiola, M.G., & Ocampo-Friedmann, R. (2000). Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66(4), 1489-1492.
Breeuwer, P., Lardeau, A., Peterz, M., & Joosten, H.M. (2003). Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J Appl Microbiol, 95(5), 967-973.
DiRuggiero, J., Santangelo, N., Nackerdien, Z., Ravel, J., & Robb, F.T. (1997). Repair of extensive ionizing-radiation DNA damage at 95 degrees C. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. J Bacteriol, 179(14), 4643-4645.
While black men can be incredibly diverse-looking, she may focus on those features that tend to differentiate them from white men. This is a risk in any cross-racial identification, where someone may notice differences from their own ethnic group, but fail to look beyond those features that stand out as "other" in his mind, which makes any person in that racial group a possible suspect.
In fact, it is impossible to overplay the role that misidentification has played in so many wrongful convictions. It is difficult for many people to realize that DNA evidence did not play a role in older convictions; the technology simply was not available. Furthermore, when DNA evidence first became available, it was a new technology that was not fully understood by all of the actors in the criminal justice system. In those early times, there were investigators, prosecutors, and fact finders who would believe a…
Innocence Project. (2011, October 21). New Orleans man wrongfully incarcerated for 30 years exonerated of rape that new DNA evidence proves he didn't commit. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/New_Orleans_Man_Wrongly_Incarcerated_for_30_Years_Exonerated_of_Rape_that_New_DNA_Evidence_Proves_He_Didnt_Commit.php
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…
Alvarez Cobelas, M., J.L. Velasco, a. Rubio, and C. Rojo. (1994). The time course of phytoplankton biomass and related limnological factors in shallow and deep lakes: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 275/276:139-151.
Anya, M. (1996). Phytoplankton biodiversity.(Marine Biodiversity) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Biomass distribution of phytoplankton" (2006). [Available online] www.astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/balance.gif
Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639.
Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.
The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…
1. Berning, Jacqueline R. And Suzanne Nelson Steen. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Gaithersburg: Aspen Publications, 1998.
2. Campbell, Neil A. And Jane B. Reece. Biology: Sixth Edition. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2002.
3. Ronzio, Robert, PHD. The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health: Second Edition. New York: Facts On File Inc., 2003.
4. Ryan, Monique. Complete Guide to Sports Nutrition. Boulder: VELO Press, 1999.
This places a significant burden upon the labs and the forensic experts that prosecutors depend on to produce forensic evidence. The article explains that there is a serious problem associated with crime lab ethics, which has been heightened in recent years. The article asserts that many crime labs have been cited for sloppy procedures and producing erroneous evidence (Morrison and Roane, 2005). The fact that crime labs are not required to be accredited adds to the problem because there are not any standard procedures that govern the management of the labs. Under new laws all federally funded crime labs will have to be accredited by 2006 but currently 30% of the federally funded crime labs do not have any accredidation (Morrison and Roane, 2005).
The article also reports that many experts such as crime lab technicians, coroners, forensic anthropologists and police chemists have been fired for presenting erroneous evidence in…
Botluk, D., Mitchell B. 2005. "Getting a Grip on the 'CSI Effect': The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law. http://www.llrx.com/features/csieffect.htm
Morrison D., Roane K.R. (2005) The CSI Effect.. U.S. News. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/050425/25csi.htm
Prosecutors feel the CSI Effect. February 10, 2005. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/02/10/eveningnews/main670360.shtml
Rincon, P. (2005). CSI shows give "unrealistic view." BBC News. Retrieved August 13 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4284335.stm
Michigan vs. Tyler, the Supreme Court decided that "fire fighters, and/or police and arson investigators, may seize arson evidence at a fire without warrant or consent, on the basis of exigent circumstances and/or plain view"
This may only occur during the extinguishing operations or immediately after, otherwise a warrant or the owner's consent is necessary. This came as a response to an accusation of "conspiracy to burn real property," where the prosecutors had collected and used evidence of numerous days after the firefighting operations. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant, as evidence was collected without warrant in the subsequent days.
I think the process used by a gas chromatograph (heating, etc.) is not appropriate for separating sand granules and the gas chromatograph cannot identify sand grains as a substance. In my opinion, something like filtration should have been used to separate sand from the rest of the…
1. Ramsland, Katherine. Trace Evidence. On the Internet at http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/trace/1.html?sect=21
2. Pierce, Dwain A. Focus on Forensics: Latent Shoeprint Analysis. On the Internet at http://www.totse.com/en/law/justice_for_all/latshoe.html
3. Expert Law. On the Internet at http://www.expertlaw.com/library/pubarticles/Criminal/Drunk_Blood_Alcohol.html#Q16
Criminal Justice System
Challenges of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) to law enforcement
Law enforcement agencies view the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) the most harmful street gang in the U.S. The aggressive nature of MS-13 members have led to a variety of killings and terrible beatings. Various trials held in New York and Maryland have led to significant jail terms even extending to life imprisonment for MS-13 members. The FBI was first attracted by violence, but proof of the gang's escalating level of organization has drawn public attention. Organization is an indicator of a future where MS-13 is will be a transnational network of criminals extending from the United States to suburban communities in a multitude of U.S. towns (Mandel, 2013).
Despite functions of violence, it is worrying to note that MS-13 movement is improving its structure and organization. Many major security experts are comparing it to the illegal groups of the 50s…
Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information Warfare How To Survive Cyber Attacks. New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
Mandel, R. (2013). Global Security Upheaval Armed Nonstate Groups Usurping State Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Scheck, B. (2010). 250 Exonerated, Too Many Wrongfully Convicted: An Innocence Project Report On The First 250 DNA Exonerations In The U.S. New York: Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.
Siegel, L., & Senna, J. (2009). Essentials of Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Authors present the results of a national law enforcement technology survey and comparable forensics technology survey that was conducted by the RAND Corporation to assess the effectiveness of this support and constraints to applying forensic technologies at the state and local level. Authors devote several chapters to different types of forensic analyses, including what types of techniques are best suited for various types of crimes and the evidence that may be present. A discussion concerning the types of evidence, including controlled substances, firearms, explosives, fire debris, bullets, footwear, vehicle tire marks, latent fingerprints, blood, gunpowder residue and so forth that are typically encountered in different crime scenes is followed by a useful description concerning how and why specific forensic technologies are used. Authors also present a description concerning how computer-based technologies are facilitating the application of these forensic investigatory methods to achieve higher conviction rates by providing improved testing results.…
Watterson, J., Blackmore, V. & Bagby, D. (2006). Considerations for the analysis of forensic samples following extended exposure to the environment. The Forensic Examiner, 15(4),
Authors are all forensic scientists who present a timely discussion concerning the harmful effects that extended exposure to the environment can have on forensic evidence, including its analysis and the interpretation of test results. Because crime scenes may produce less-than-optimum samples of DNA, blood and other molecular-based evidence based on environmental factors such as sunlight, rain, and microorganism growth, authors provide a review of the relevant literature to explain how these constraints must be taken into account when conducting forensic investigations and analyses. In particular, authors emphasize that biomolecular substances such as enzyme and DNA analyses are adversely affected by these environmental factors. While these biomolecular materials may remain amenable to forensic analyses over time if they are properly stored and maintained, extended exposure to environmental elements can cause them to degrade in ways that confound even the most sophisticated technologies. Authors also present a discussion concerning how both biological and non-biological samples are affected by exposure to environmental factors, and how toxicological tests to ascertain time and cause of death can be hampered by these effects. Authors point out, though, that it is possible to interpret the results of forensic analyses of even degraded biological samples if forensic scientists are cognizant of the processes these samples tend to undergo as they degrade. Although some types of samples such as paint chips and glass fragments may not be adversely affected by extended exposure to the environment, other substances such as volatile ignitable liquids tend to evaporate altogether, making time of the essence in gathering evidence and conducting suitable testing protocols. Authors also emphasize, though, that there remains a dearth of timely and relevant guidance in the literature concerning the interpretation of biological samples that have experienced extended exposure to these environmental elements and call for additional research in this area. Taken together, this journal article presents useful guidance for forensic scientists who are confronted with degraded samples as a result of extended exposure to the environment, and note that the nature of crime means that these types of samples will be far more common in forensic scientists' experience than the pristine samples with which they may have been trained.
e should be thankful for this amazing technological development," (Hatch, 2000).
The death penalty must be altered, not abolished. In all new cases, if DNA evidence is not provided as conclusive for the conviction of the arrested, then capital punishment should not even be a consideration. There are already appeals processes in place for those who presently serve on Death Row, and in many of these cases, the inmates have pleaded for DNA testing. This should be executed on a case-by-case basis, pending the jurisdiction of the local judicial system. It was found in the research for this analysis that many of the authors who approve of using DNA testing for exoneration, oppose DNA evidence that has been presented during the time of trial. Much like those who oppose the death penalty and those who support it, there will be continued debate over this new science, which is offering legendary…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2010). DNA Testing and the Death Penalty. Retrived April 16, 2010, from www.aclu.org.
Banner, Stuart. (2002). The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge, MA:
Hatch, Orrin G. (June 13, 200). Post-Conviction DNA Testing: When Is Justice Served?
Sinclair Billy Wayne, & Sinclair, Jodie. (2009). Capital Punishment: An Indictment by a Death-Row Survivor. New York, NY: Arcade Publishing.
Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).
Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.
Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…
With the advent of technology, there are other tests apart from Blood Type present to rule out a crime. If today, the assailant's blood type does not match the blood on the crime scene, it does not necessarily prove him guilty. Forensics studies have indicated that there are two types of people on this planet regarding secretion of ABO proteins in body fluids. There are the secretors, and then there are nonsecretors. In cases of rape, the fluid usually tested is semen. The thing to note is that if that person is a secretor, only then his blood antigens will be present in the semen. If the semen is negative for any antigen that can either mean that the person is type O or is a non-secretor (Lyle, 2011) Furthermore, there are thousands and millions of people who have the same blood type. Due to this reason, DNA testing…
Flaherty, C. (2013). Cops: black mob kidnaps, rapes teen girls. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.wnd.com/2013/11/cops-black-mob-kidnaps-rapes-teen-girls / [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Gross, S.R., Jacoby, K., Matheson, D.J., Montgomery, N. & Patil, S. (2005). Exonerations in the United States 1989 through 2003. The journal of criminal law and criminology (1973-), 95 (2), pp. 523 -- 560.
Innocenceproject.org. (2014). The innocence project - know the cases: browse profiles:bennett barbour. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Bennett_Barbour.php [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Johnson, S. (1984). Cross-Racial Identification Errors in Criminal Cases. CORNELL L. REV., 69 (934), 935-36.
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…
Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.
Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/
McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004. http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/scopenotes/sn22.html
Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/mcclean/plsc431/students99/miller.htm. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
When Madeleine McCann's parents put her down to sleep and went out to eat with friends while on holiday in Portugal in at a tapas bar approximately 50 meters from their apartment, they never thought that their 3-year-old daughter would be snatched from their room. While the McCann's immediately reported their daughter's disappearance to Portuguese authorities, massive procedural errors including failure to secure the crime scene, contaminating the scene, and failure to collect evidence have impeded efforts to locate or determine if Madeleine was alive at the time of her disappearance. Portuguese and Scotland Yard continue to probe into Madeleine's disappearance six years after her disappearance as new evidence and eyewitness testimony surfaces.
Madeleine McCann's Disappearance
Madeleine McCann was less than a week from turning 4-years-old when she disappeared from the apartment her family was renting while on holiday in Praia da Luz in Portugal on May 3,…
Allen, V. (2007, 16 November). Madeleine: How the police ruined the forensic evidence in her bedroom. The Daily Mail Online. Accessed 19 August 2013, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-494203/Madeleine-How-police-ruined-forensic-evidence-bedroom.html
Gammell, C. (2007, 5 September). Madeleine police handed forensic evidence. The Telegraph. Accessed 19 August 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1562217/Madeleine-police-handed-forensic-evidence.html
Grice, E. (2013, 15 April). Kate McCann: 'It's dreadful living with this void.' The Telegraph.
Accessed 19 August 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/madeleinemccann/9995377/Kate-McCann-Its-dreadful-living-with-this-void.html
Without a body, how would investigators be able to bring Ian Simms to justice? When Helen McCourt disappeared on February 9, 1988, investigators interviewed several individuals near the George and Dragon pub in Billinge, Lancashire who reported hearing screams and loud noises coming from Ian Simms's apartment. When investigators approached Simms's, they sensed something was wrong based on Simms's behavior and fabricated stories. Simms's behavior prompted investigators to impound his vehicle where they collected evidence tying him to McCourt, and which later allowed them to further investigate his home, which they found was bloodstained indicating that a violent and deadly struggle had taken place and that Simms's involvement in McCourt's disappearance was undeniable. Over the next few weeks, clothing and other items belonging to McCourt and Simms would be found along the banks of nearby rivers, which were analyzed and connected to Simms via dog hairs, carpet fibers,…
Evans, C. (2007). The Casebook of Forensic Detection: How Science Solved 100 of the World's Most Baffling Crimes. New York: Berkley Books. Retrieved 5 August
2013, from http://books.google.com/books?id=adKcM055ERoC&pg=PT90&lpg=PT90&dq=evans+ian+simms&source=bl&ots=m8nLle-_-s&sig=VYKVUQoMJIT31tn6RbzUtSwpQac&hl=en&sa=X&ei=L0IAUo7KIKS6yAGDzoH4AQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=evans%20ian%20simms&f=false
McCourt, M. (2011, December 1). I'll never stop searching for my daughter as told to Fiona Duffy. Express: Home of the Daily and Sunday Express. Retrieved 5 August 2013, from http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/286994/I-ll-never-stop-searching-for-my-daughter
advances in technology. The Internet has brought the idea of instantaneous global communication to a reality; smaller and smarter chips are now included in inexpensive Smart Phones, and our ability to understand and manipulate data has vastly increased. New technologies can certainly offer law enforcement a number of new tools that aid in their job. Essentially, these can be divided into different segments, all of which are useful during different situations:
Aviation Technology -- Helicopters and light planes have both improved and become more cost effective, although they are still more appropriate for larger urban areas. They are able to help with traffic issues, and with the addition of cameras and nigh vision, help track suspects or increase surveillance on large events or potential gang related activities. They are also able to be equipment with special weapons (SWAT), firefighting, and emergency medical equipment (Langton, 2009).
Biometrics -- Biometrics is a…
Communications Technology. (2007, November 13). Retrieved from National Institue of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/topics/technology/communication/welcome.htm
Types of Less Lethal Devices. (2008, July 11). Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/technology/less-lethal/types.htm
Body Armor. (2012, September 13). Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/technology/body-armor/welcome.htm
Harries, K. (1999, December). Mapping Crime: Principles and Practices. Retrieved from NCJRS.GOV: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/nij/mapping/ch1_18.html
On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local high school, named Crook County High School. The information given to me prior to my arrival at the scene is as follows:
Upon arrival to the scene, school security guard William Parkins and responding Officer Edward ichardson of Crook County Police department provided some information to me. Parkins provided to me the name of the victim, Marc Hollingsworth. Officer ichardson informed me that Hollingsworth's mother, Karen Lynn Griesel Hollingsworth, was already notified and currently en route to our location. Parkins then told me that student and girlfriend of the victim, Amber Johnson, had been the one to find Hollingsworth's body after seeing his red 2000 Ford F150 in the back row of the school parking lot. Soon before seeing him,…
Bend Bulletin. (2007, February 14). Marc Adam Hollingsworth. Retrieved January 19, 2011
Fisher, B. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Saferstein, R. (2004). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science. Upper Saddle River,
Dexter (The television series)
There is an increase of interest in Hollywood movies and television series set to expand on crime investigation. There are arguments as to how realistic these representations on the screen are in regards to real life experiences and this is what we aim to discuss in this paper with a focus on the television series, ?Dexter, ? which is still running almost eight years after its first appearance on screen. We will be focusing on what appears more realistic in regards to how forensic science is presented in the series while also directing the focus on Hollywood's distinct trademark. We will also look at how such TV series may influence real life and affect people's expectations.
When ?Dexter, ? The television series, started airing in 2006, there already were a few other serial television shows that embedded forensic investigation. But, this time, there was something new…
Babiak, P., Folino, J., Hancock, J., Hare, R.D., Logan, M., Mayer, E., Meloy, J. (July 2012). Psychopathy An Important Forensic Concept for the 21st Century. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/july-2012/psychopathy-an-important-forensic-concept-for-the-21st-century
Salzberg. (2010, December 13). The Pseudo-Science of Dexter. [Web Log Post]. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/The_PseudoScience_of_Dexter.php
Security Technology in Next Five Years
Globally security concerns have placed great pressure on the survival of human life and had threatened the daily life, confidence and dignity of societies at large. To resolve the security concerns and overcome with this disastrous obstacles, security technological advancements have been made in many facets. Human life is playing its vital role in moving the world to a secure place where families, businesses, trade, educational system, media, governance, art and science thus all fields of life is affected by the security concerns (Sen, 2002). Now the big question here is how technological development can contribute towards the security concerns especially in the areas of biometrics, forensics and physical security.
Although, there has been intensive increase in human security as the consequences of technological development, the historical background of technology has not rooted much confidence in the societies that further technological development will reduce…
Magarinos, C. (2001) Human Security and Science and Technology. Inauguration Statement of the UNIDO Director-General, 10 October, 2001. United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
McGinn, R (1991) Science, Technology and Society. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Paris, R. (2001). Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?,International Security, retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/016228801753191141
Sen, K. (2002). Basic Education and Human Security. Report of the Kolkata Meeting in Commission on Human Security Bangkok, Thailand. Compiled by Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University. Retreived on July 21, 2011 from http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/sympo0007_s.html
That is simply because individual in the same family are much more likely than unrelated individuals to share similar foundational experiences by virtue of their exposure to similar parenting and resources in their immediate environment throughout their early lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). Just as hesus monkeys tend to adopt maternal behaviors and elements of personalities of their mothers irrespective of their genetic inclinations, so do human infants and growing children and adolescents internalize and adopt various aspects of the behaviors and reactions exhibited by their parents and other significant adult behavioral role models in their lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007).
The quality of resources available to siblings (such as food, medicine, educational opportunities, etc.) is generally very similar within biological families (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). To the extent these factors contribute to the development of behavior, it is extremely difficult if not impossible…
Gerrig, R., and Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. Prentice Hall.
Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and Behavior: Nature - Nurture Interplay Explained. Wiley-
Steen, R.G. (1996). DNA and Destiny: Nature & Nurture in Human Behavior. De Capo.
As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).
In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…
opportunity create evaluate impression evidence. As read textbook, pattern evidence, part, examined naked eye. Select learning activities base assignment. a. Create impression patterns choice.
Impressions: Footprints and tire marks
The first of the forensic impressions I selected for my analysis consisted of footprints. "Impressions occur when two objects come in contact with one another, and one object leaves behind distinguishing markings on or in the other" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). A footprint is classified as an impression because it has depth (three-dimensional character) in material space (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). "A positive impression is identical to the object that made it, whereas a negative impression is its mirror image. The shoe prints left in the mud are negative impressions; they are negatives of the shoes' soles. In this scenario, the positives would be the shoes' soles" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 214). In this instance, the impression of the…
Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Murray. (n.d.). Footprints can play an important role in solving crimes. Footprint lab.
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004: