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The author further explains that even though there are similarities between heterosexual and homosexual relationships as it pertains to reaction and the victim remaining in the relationship. Again the author explains "homophobia does not allow mainstream service providers to have an adequate conceptualization nor the development of preventive and remedial strategies for the people involved (Toro-Alfonso and Rodriguez-Madera, 2004)."
Therapy for those effected by domestic violence
Both perpetrators, victims and children exposed to domestic violence may require some type of therapy. In many cases anger management is often required and used to assist perpetrators in dealing with anger issues. In addition to anger management some professionals also utilize Art therapy to assist hose effected by domestic violence. Art therapy involves the use of the arts (music, panting writing) to assist people in eliminating violence from the household. According to Panzer et al. (2000) places such as shelters for battered partners should have some type of art therapy to assist victims in confronting their feelings and expressing what has occurred.
According to the American Art Therapy Association, art therapy is defined as a mental health profession that uses the creative process of art making to improve and enhance the physical, mental and emotional well-being of individuals of all ages. It is based on the belief that the creative process involved in artistic self-expression helps people to resolve conflicts and problems, develop interpersonal skills, manage behavior, reduce stress, increase self-esteem and self-awareness, and achieve insight ("About Art Therapy")."
Art therapy combines several different areas including human development, psychotherapy, visual art and various models of counselling ("About Art Therapy"). The therapy is utilized for people of all ages including children, teenagers, adults and the elderly ("About Art Therapy"). In addition art therapy is utilized to address several issues including anxiety, depression, anger, emotional disorders and domestic violence. ("About Art Therapy")
As it pertains to the utilization of art therapy within the sphere of domestic violence, it is most often utilized for victims ("About Art Therapy"). These victims include those that have been abused along with children who have witnessed abuse ("About Art Therapy"). For those who are in same sex relationships in which violence has occurred art therapy could be beneficial ("About Art Therapy").
Art therapy is believed to be beneficial because it allows those that have suffered from domestic violence to express their feelings. These feelings may be inclusive of fears, frustrations and anxiety. Art therapy gives victims a voice to express their thoughts. If these thoughts are not expressed the end result could be extremely destruction.
The review of the literature on trauma/same sex domestic abuse within the GLBT community. The research found that domestic violence is a serious issue in the gay and lesbian community. The literature review also focused on the definition of abuse as in the heterosexual and homosexual worlds. The research focused on the differences between the occurrence of domestic violence in straight and gay households. The research found that while there are some similarities between heterosexual and homosexual couples in the sphere of domestic violence. However there are some unique issue that confront the gay and lesbian community as a result of societies view on homosexuality. Because homosexuality is viewed as a way of life that is outside of the norm, homosexuals that are dealing with domestic violence issues do not always receive the proper care.
Statistics and the reasons why domestic violence occurs were also a focus of the review. The research suggest that it is relatively difficult to determine the amount of domestic violence that occurs with in the homosexual community because those if the gay community are less likely to report such incidences. The research also suggest that art therapy can greatly assist victims of domestic violence.
"About Art Therapy." American Art Therapy Associationhttp://www.arttherapy.org/aboutart.htm
"Domestic Violence." National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/domesticviolence.html
McClennen, J.C.. (2005) Domestic Violence Between
Same-Gender Partners. Journal of Interpersonal violence. 20 (2), 149-154.
McClennen, J.C., Summers, B.,&Daley, J.G. (2002). Lesbian partner abuse scale. Research on Social Work Practice, 12(2), 277-292.
McClennen, J.C., Summers, B., & Vaughan, C. (2002). Gay men's domestic violence: Dynamics, help-seeking behaviors, and correlates. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 14(1), 23-49.
Panzer, P.G., Philip, M.B. And Hayward R.A. TRENDS IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SERVICE AND LEADERSHIP: IMPLICATIONS FOR AN INTEGRATED SHELTER MODEL. Administration and Policy in Mental Health.Vol. 27, No. 5, May 2000
Toro-Alfonso, J.,Sheilla RodrOGuez-Madera.(2004) Domestic Violence in Puerto Rican Gay Male…[continue]
At the same time that movement activists were pushing for the enactment of new legal measures, they were also working to develop a grass-roots community-based approach to providing direct services to victims of domestic violence. In 1979, the first domestic violence shelter in the United States was opened in an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota, staffed entirely by volunteers. Today more than 2,000 shelters and crisis centers dot the North
Domestic violence is a complex problem requiring a multiagency response. This response should include a range of advocacy, support, engagement with the criminal and civil justice systems and with other voluntary and statutory sector agencies. Domestic violence and emotional abuse are behaviors utilized by one person in a relationship to control the other person. Partners may be married or not, heterosexual, gay or lesbian, separated or dating. Abuse encompasses such behaviors as
Domestic Violence Is Domestic Violence a Learned Behavior? Unfortunately, domestic violence is a learned behavior. There are many forms of domestic violence and/or abuse: Physical, Sexual, Ritualistic, Verbal, Emotional, Religious, Silent, Elder, Economic, Using Children, Threats, Intimidation, Sibling, Cultural, Isolation, Personal, Institutional, and Witness Abuse, etc.… However, they all have the same common denominator: the perpetrator's desire to gain and maintain POWER and CONTROL in the relationship (Laws 2011). Domestic violence or
The SAFE Act not only protects victims of domestic violence, but also helps them become effective members of the country's economy. Domestic violence also account for about fifteen percent of total crimes committed in the United States. Reports from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institute of Health indicate that each year, 5, 300, 000 non-fatal violent victimization committed by intimated partners against women are recorded. Female murder
Domestic violence poses serious mental and physical health risks. In fact, it is estimated that" more than 1.5 million women nationwide seek medical treatment for injuries related to abuse each year" (Stark, 2001, p. 347(Tomison, 2003)). Those who are abused can experience mental health issues, such as anxiety attacks, posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic depression, acute stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts and ideation (Tomison, 2003)." Domestic violence in America comes with an
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is
Domestic Violence and Effects on Children In the western culture, childhood is referred to as the period of special protection and rights. When a child is brought up in a safe and nurturing environment their development is expected to unfold.When a child is born, their brain is about 25% of its adult weight, which later increases to 66% by the end of first year. During the developing stages the brain is
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