The is also based on drive-defence model which was advanced by Freud.
The second topology one includes the less common dreams whose meaning are different and should therefore be treated and handled in the light of latest theoretical frameworks as advanced by Kohut Self-psychology. He referred to these dreams as "Self-state dreams" which are experienced when the patient's psychological structure stability is in jeopardy .Such crisis or threat usually occur in different pathological states, the states can however vary from being hyper-stimulation (maniacal), to tension reduction in approach of a depressed state. This might lead to a serious problem related to the of the psychic structure's disintegration .
Kohut in (1977) stated that the act of exhibiting the elements of a dream makes up the attempt by the unconscious to tackle the psychological dangers that are related to the actual processes portrayed in the visual images in the dream
Through the process of symbolic manifestations, Stolorow (1989) pointed out that images in the dream due necessitates the covering and merging of a threat to the self and the incorporation asolid attempt to repair. The main function of the dream is therefore to protect the psychological faculty through process of concretisation in a reparative manner. This one advertently denotes a definite form that is associated to the dreadful experience that is related to self-dissolution.
Kohut did not advance a comprehensive a dream theory, however had a series of key intuitions that were organized by J. Fosshage later in his works.
Kohut insists that an individual's psychology has the capacity to self-regulate. This is however organized through comprehensive relationships with others. The self-regulatory activity occurs through images in the dream and they tend to serve a protective role for the psychology when there is a threat to its integrity
Kohut however initially limited the "self-state dreams" to a just a few of dreams, he progressively expanded this category. In the end he included these few dreams those that had positive experience of transformation which happened with the feeling of a strong, and yet very harmonic self that has been subjected to a totally new dimension. The dream therefore portrays symbolically this transformation and places it in a "concrete" state (Kohut 1979).
J. Fosshage however draws a solution that the dream do perform a complex role which involve integrating and synthesising, making a comparisons and analysis of different sources, that range from the neurophysiologic research targeted at R.E.M. sleep to the cognitive studies, and the psychoanalytic theories based on theoretical framework not having a relationship with the classical model. While referring to is own clinical experience, Fosshage asserts that the most fundamental functions of dreaming geared towards the development, servicing and the process of reintegrating the psychological domain.
Developmental function refers to the possibility of bringing together several processes of change through the ability to represent them using symbols (Fosshage,1987): by way of images the dream acquire form and then foresees the entire development functions that are still blurred to the conscious mind. Latest psychological configurations that assist in organising the psychological life of the dreamer and new relational attributes can be emerged.
To show these concepts, Fosshage narrated the dream of certain a woman in her fifties: she was very intelligent and had a successful professional life. She however was emotionally repressed and therefore had a very confined life-style. After many months of psychotherapeutic treatment, she woman dreamed that she was the driver of a certain a Porsche which was fire-red in color. The image of the Porsche car hinted to the integral and "emotive" element of her personality had begun to re-emerge and develop due to the analytical relationship she had acquired. This had however still not manifested in her conscious life.
Other important roles of the dream involve maintaining and reintegrating the psychological configuration. These are two related functions: the word "reintegration" does refer to the very serious clinical cases in which a patient fears the risk associated with the disintegration of his or her mind. In this case we can detect a very profound analogy using Kohut's ideas.He advanced a theory which stated and defined the existence of "self-state dreams." He noted that an individual can feel endangered due to a compromise of the integrity of his or her psychology. Conversely,-word "maintenance" do refer to the actual necessity of maintaining a firm and yet structured principles whose role is the act of organising an individual's psychological manifestations with an aim of guaranteeing a feeling of internal cohesion.
The dream can therefore take the role maintaining a re-equilibrium of the psychological faculties through the effective regulation of an individual's emotions. A perfect example is that it can necessitate the manifestation of certain bitter feelings that have been contained within the waking states, thereby leading to a redirection of the feeling of discomfort to the emotional state and therefore leading to the renewing of an individual's self-esteem.
In certain scenarios, the "maintenance" and "reintegration" roles can oppose the developmental roles: As an illustration, when certain crucial changes lead to anxiety, the dream may re-corroborate a former image of the self, which might be regressive but having a certain degree of familiarity and comfort as compared to the prospective perspective.
According to Fosshage theoretical advancements, dream plays other important roles: it can seek the resolution of conflicts to which the conscious is subjected to waking hours and in the process execute a problem-solving role; it can therefore aid the understanding and the learning process and can also and serve to put the memory in a consolidated state.
Freud also argued that even nightmares do not oppose the composition dreams are the censorship, the potential content of the dream manages to infiltrate to the consciousness without many changes and is realized by the ego, which in turn reacts by initiating anxiety, with the intension of waking the dreamer. Freud also quoted a different view which was somewhat different, this involved the punishment dreams. In this category of dreams the ego expected the guilt (expressed once the psyche portrays the repressed desire), and then manifested content is taken as representing state a punishment. This would then mean that it is a desire of the superego, and not that of the id.
From the work of the various theorists, it is quite evident that dreams do in fact assist in the process of mapping the therapeutic stages of a patient. This conclusion is clearly visible from the various works of theorist who over a long period of time have dedicated their research to studying the roles of dream and their interpretations.
In conclusion, Jung asserts that through the dream an individual under therapy gives to themselves and to the psychoanalyst analyst a vivid representation of their mind frame which is in fact quite different from what they can perceive in their conscious life. This claim is quite appears in line with one advanced by Kohut regarding the function of Self-state of the dreams.
J. Fosshage however admits that the analogies that utilize the Jungian theories and while at the same he that there is an element of some parallelisms in the theories: The initial parallelism is in exists between the function of compensation and how he defines "self-righting" a term he used to refer to the autonomous rediscovery process that brings along equilibrium in the mind of the patient. The second parallelism is between the developmental function that he advanced Jung's and the perspective function.
Jung also sensed that certain dreams have the ability to produce some important changes in the analytical correlation (Giannoni 2004). The elicitation of a very profound dream image can greatly change the internal world of a single member of the dyad. This has great repercussions for the analytical couple which involves the process of borrowing an idea as shown by Beebe and Lachmann.We can therefore positively confirm that the regulated interaction between patient and analyst is changed and this implies the possibility of a change.
It is therefore very crucial to point out the fact that the models advanced by Kohut and Fosshage are a significant representation of a common ground in our quest to give a dream activity a significant role in the process of healthy self-regulation of a patient's mind thereby leading to the re-equilibration of the patient's psychic activity and his or her overall psychological development.
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Blum, H.P. (1976). The Changing Use of Dreams in Psychoanalytic Practice.Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 57:315-324.
Bonime, W. (1965). A Psychotherapeutic Approach to Depression. Contemp. Psychoanal., 2:48-53
Fosshage J.L. (1987) New vistas on dream interpretation. in: Dreams in New Perspective: the Royal Road Revisited, M. Glucksman, N.Y., Uman Sciences Press