Other positive leaders in this regard are the "priestly" ones, who bring continuity and hierarchy to the goal, delegating to the most powerful and differentiating individuals; the "elected" leaders, who gain authority by being chosen; and the "missionaries," who have a certain kind of mission to achieve -- economic, religious, political or social service (Stewart).
The way that leaders work with individuals in both sports and at work will also reinforce their ability to stay on task; cooperate; use time, talents and resources wisely; embrace diversity; learn from each other and share accomplishments. Dennis Kinlaw, who recommends ways to coach or lead individuals for successful performance, offers what he calls a "coaching skills inventory" that breaks coaching into "shades of coaching" or different methods for driving results. For example, in one inventory, he breaks coaching into five specific categories: Contact and Core Skills, Counseling, Mentoring, Tutoring, and Confronting and Challenging
The confronting and challenging coach especially pushes the team members to expect more of themselves and others than they already do. Mediocre becomes good, good becomes excellent and excellent becomes superior. This form of coach, says Kinlaw, will
Clarify performance expectations with others. Do not assume that they know what is expected of them.
Talk about performance problems in concrete terms. Do not use subjective judgments in discussing a person's performance.
Emphasize improvement in the future. Do not dwell on past failures.
Challenge others to accept more difficult tasks. Do not allow them to believe that they have reached their limits.
Develop concrete strategies to improve the performance of others. Do not talk in generalities about needed improvement.
In all aspects, sports or organizations, people will develop and learn more in environments that give them the right optimal conditions. These include (Noted in Stewart, 295):
People grow when there is a felt need.
People grow when they are encouraged by someone they respect.
People grow as they move from a condition of lower to higher self-esteem
People grow as they move from external to internal commitment.
Further, the organizational situations that most promote this growth include:
Basic respect for worth and dignity of all people is a cardinal value.
Individual differences are recognized, and a variety of learning experiences are provided.
Each person is addressed at his or her level of development and is helped to grow to fuller potential.
Good communications prevail -- people express themselves honestly and listen with respect to the views of others.
Growth is rewarded through recognition and tangible signs of approval -- commendation, promotion, income and the like (Stewart, 296).
In the 1980s, Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman wrote In Search of Excellence, which listed eight common themes that they considered were responsible for the success of chosen corporations. These pointers were, and continue to be, just as important for any team venture including athletics. The important aspect is that effective leadership in any organization seems to be the major cause of increasing the organization's productivity and upward positioning. Leadership and organizational culture are tightly intertwined, and leaders must have a thorough understanding of the identity and impact of the company's culture to communicate and put into effect new missions and inspire follower commitment to that mission.
Looking back on those eight themes, Peters states that they are just as important for the 21st century as they were when he first wrote about them:
The 8 things that marked the good guys in the book and are still valid today are: 1. A bias for action, 2. customers first, 3. autonomy and entrepreneurship, 4. productivity through people, 5. hands-on, value- driven, 6. stick to the knitting, 7. simple form, lean staff, and 8. properties that are simultaneously loose/tight.
In addition, Peters (241) now adds ten additional areas that should be stressed in winning organizations:
1. Put people first-for real. The phrase has rolled off many a lip: "People are our most important asset." The problem: It's mostly the subject of lip service, to be sure, but not what the enterprise does or how leaders spend their time.
2. Be obsessed. The most important trait associated with mastery is attention, or time spent. If you're looking to master the talent game, put it at the top of the agenda. And keep it there.
3. Pursue the best. If you are a connoisseur of talent, you won't