Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Elderly and their Risk of Depression
Until just recently geriatric depression was not regarded as a medical diagnosis, however, with the elderly suicide rate being the highest in the country it has now come to the forefront of medical research. There are numerous reasons for depression in anyone, at any age, but it seems to plague the elderly at a much higher rate. This is due to a variety of reasons. One factor is the health condition of elderly people who ultimately become victims of a medical ailment by sixty-five years of age. This enhances the chances of depression substantially. Another major reason for geriatric depression is the loss a spouse, in which the passing of our significant other becomes such a traumatic experience that reclusiveness, denial, and ultimately depression are resorted to.
It has been recently acknowledged that insomnia is another cause of geriatric depression, often diagnosed as a sleeping disorder instead of a major participant and contributor of depression. These are just a few causes of this dark, lonely medical misconception. As we embark on the theories of depression and the current roles of nurses' interaction with the depressed elderly, the reason for research reform becomes apparent. A few of the problems with the solution is the resistance of the elderly to acknowledge and accept proven treatments. Late-life depression affects about 6.5 million Americans age 65 and older, but only 8% to 10% receive treatment (Reynolds & Kupner, 1999). Older patients with significant symptoms of depression have roughly 50% higher healthcare costs than non-depressed seniors (Reynolds & Kupner, 1999). Thus, it becomes difficult for the elderly to maintain medical bills in addition to other medical costs.
As we analyze treatment for geriatric depression, the causes and effects of this silent predator must be understood. Depression later in life frequently coexists with other medical illnesses and disabilities. Advancing age is often accompanied by the loss of social support systems due to the death of a spouse or siblings, retirement or relocation of residence. Furthermore, depression tends to last longer in elderly adults and increases their risk of death. Studies of nursing home patients with physical illnesses have shown that the presence of depression substantially increased the likelihood of death from those illnesses (Lee, 2001). Depression has also been associated with increased risk of death following a heart attack. Clinical depression can be triggered by long-term illnesses that are common later in life, such as diabetes, stroke, heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease and Alzheimer's disease.
The most compelling consequence of depression later in life is increased by mortality from both suicide and medical illness. Bereavement depression often coexists with another dimension of emotional distress, which has been termed traumatic grief. The symptoms of traumatic grief are a combination of both separation and traumatic distress. Elderly who are depressed often have poor eating habits, so it is difficult to determine whether the vitamin deficiency is a cause or result of depression. As a result, doctors often recommend that depressed patients try to improve their eating habits and take a multivitamin along with other treatment. However, appropriate treatments for this phenomenon still need to be developed and tested.
Accordingly, the role of the registered nurse (R.N.) lends itself an increased responsibility as well as accountability. This role of service is so essential to quality healthcare that many have turned to private home-nurses for their end-of-life care. The interactions between nurse and patient play an important role in receiving the best possible treatment for the patient. A nurse assesses all available information on the patient, acts as the liaison between doctor and patient, and when the doctor is not around, acts as the primary caregiver. These responsibilities become even more essential when the nurse does routine check-ins, monitors all vital signs, and speaks to the patient on a frequent basis. This is the key to diagnosing geriatric depression; a simple conversation can enable a nurse to determine some revealing components to depression.
For example, useful questions a nurse asks their patient is "Are you sad?" "Are you sleeping poorly?" And "What have you enjoyed doing lately?" The responses to these questions give a glimpse into the state of mind of the patient. These questions obviously do not determine whether the patient should be diagnosed as depressed but it allows the possibility to be further explored and assists in a future diagnosis of depression. Results of a study of 33 registered nurses that worked with elderly…[continue]
"Elderly And Their Risk Of Depression Until" (2005, January 29) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/elderly-and-their-risk-of-depression-until-61359
"Elderly And Their Risk Of Depression Until" 29 January 2005. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/elderly-and-their-risk-of-depression-until-61359>
"Elderly And Their Risk Of Depression Until", 29 January 2005, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/elderly-and-their-risk-of-depression-until-61359
Changes in the brain such as decreased adaptive capacity, neurotransmitter and receptor changes, cognitive impairment, and dementia increase the risk of depression, as more factors enter the equation and the patient becomes more depressed, the likelihood of a suicide attempts increases (McFarland, 2005).As previously mentioned, diagnosing depression in the elderly can be a challenging task due to all of the factors involved. When considering if an individual is depressed,
In this regard, Sheve adds that, "For these people, assisted living may be the answer. Assisted living facilities fill a gap between complete independence and around-the-clock care. It's an option for those who are 'mostly abled' and who still want (and can safely live with) a high degree of freedom and independence" (para. 4). Not surprisingly, the continuum of care required for the elderly is closely associated with the
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999). It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits. There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first
Osteoporosis Pathophysiology: Osteoporosis Presentation of the disease Osteoporosis is a disease in which the body fails to regenerate enough bone to replace the bone mass that is lost when the body reabsorbs the tissue as part of the natural cycle of bone regeneration. "Bone is living tissue, which is constantly being absorbed and replaced" (Osteoporosis, 2011, Mayo Clinic: Definition). "When you're young, your body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old
Diabetes Management Diabetes mellitus is one of the non-communicable diseases that have continued to be in the forefront of public health challenges. Diabetes occurs when the body system is unable to produce sufficient insulin. Typically, insulin is a hormone secreted from the beta cell within the pancreases that regulates the blood sugar as well as assisting in conversion of glucose into energy. Diabetes occurs when there is high level of glucose
All too often, these adolescents end up taking their own lives when their depression gets too painful for them and they have not received the help that they need. Even the medications that are designed to help them get through the depression can sometimes make things worse, as various medications for depression and anxiety carry a risk of suicide when people are just starting or just getting off of