Epidemiology of Diabetes Causes and Essay

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Furthermore, reports reveal that major organs of the body such as nerves, blood vessels, kidney and so forth are at immense risk of being damaged after the onset of type 1 diabetes. Moreover, history illustrates that diabetes cut down the years from the life of sufferers (Achenbach, Bonifacio, Koczwara, & Ziegler, 2005).

Clinical type 2 diabetes is also developed through a number of stages. The person initially becomes resistant towards responding to the presence of insulin in blood. This result in fluctuation of blood glucose level from the normal value for certain period of time and when the condition persists, diabetes is said to have developed. Consequently, medical treatment and preventive measures are implemented to control the prevailing state of disorder (Ramlo-Halsted & Edelman, 2000).

(Ramlo-Halsted & Edelman, 2000)

Generally, type 2 diabetes is initiated during adulthood. Its history demonstrates that its signs and symptoms are not distinctively observed; however, in most cases the disorder comes to notice by general incidences. Patients with this type of diabetes are required to follow long-term treatment plans and those who fail to do so are at a greater risk of developing other diabetic related enormities (Ramlo-Halsted & Edelman, 2000).

Diagnosis and Treatment

When the symptoms of diabetes appear in any individual, a common and simple testing of blood sample can be done to check whether the person is actually suffering from diabetes. If the blood glucose level is above the clinically set value, a person is detected to suffer from the disorder. Furthermore, the type of diabetes is recognized followed by the treatment and preventions that are employed accordingly (Flaws, Kuchinski & Casanas, 2002).

Basically, all measures that are implemented are meant for reducing and controlling glucose concentration in the blood. Additionally, further procedures are also executed that lower down the damage to those parts of the body that are at a high risk of being adversely affected. It is compulsory for people suffering from the first type of diabetes to take prescribed amount of insulin through injections. Moreover, they are required to follow a strict diet plan which consists of eatables that are low in sugar and fat content. Couple to it, extra focus should be given to regular and healthy physical exercise (Flaws, Kuchinski & Casanas, 2002).

However, people with type 2 diabetes are mainly treated by special medicines that are administered orally. This measure is intended to reduce body fats so that obesity can be eradicated and insulin receptors on the surface of cells can be re-activated. Furthermore, appropriate diet plan together with exercises to reduce weight are also indispensable. Nonetheless, in few cases insulin doses are also required to be taken (Flaws, Kuchinski & Casanas, 2002).

Generally, it is vital for diabetic patients to monitor their blood pressure and cholesterol level on regular basis so that damage to blood vessels can be minimized. Likewise, time to time check up of kidney is also imperative to avoid diabetic-related renal enormities. As mentioned earlier, diabetes affects retina; therefore, eye examination for retinal health is equally important. Furthermore, tobacco and cigarette smoking that can worsen the condition of diabetic patient should strictly be avoided at all times (Flaws, Kuchinski & Casanas, 2002).


Elderly Population

The human body experiences multiple changes in structures and from time to time it becomes accustomed to these modifications. However, after certain age, person's capability to adapt to changes diminishes and any alteration in his body can be difficult to deal with. With regard to diabetes, individuals are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes at an older age, which is intricate to control (Riaz, 2009).

Elderly population does not portray obvious signs and symptoms of the disease because other variations in the body veil them, which makes the diagnosis difficult. Once detected, treatment and preventive measures often prove to be challenging, as old people are already in weak physical condition. Additionally, they are susceptible of developing all diabetic-related complexities. Moreover, psychological limitations, which is common amongst elderly population multiplies the problems of treating diabetes (Riaz, 2009).

Coupled to the catastrophic consequences of diabetes, patients can suffer from stress and social problems (Riaz, 2009).

Individuals with Family History of Diabetes

Sources expose that genes play a vital role in developing diabetes. Any individual who have a diabetic patient in his family is likely to develop this condition. However, it is not compulsory because if an individual receives genes from both maternal and paternal sources, only then he will suffer from the disorder. Usually, symptoms of diabetes are exposed during adulthood (Flaws, Kuchinski & Casanas, 2002).

Pregnant Females

Those females who have history of diabetes in their families and those who are over-weight are likely to suffer from diabetes during gestation. Furthermore, this can elevate the possibility of miscarriage and complications at the time of childbirth. Similarly, fetus is also at risk of being diabetic (Ferrara, 2007).

Obese Population

Recent technological advancements have transformed the lifestyle of people unprecedentedly, as it has drastically reduced the manual work, thus, people have become physically less active. Furthermore, consumption of processed and fast food has begotten to rise in obesity amongst global population. It is crucial to notice that contented lifestyle causes obesity which trigger events such as insulin resistance and production of poor quality insulin that develop diabetes (Riaz, 2009).

Incidence and Prevalence

Elderly Population

Elderly population, irrespective of their nationality, has been reported to suffer from diabetes. The disorder has prevailed for several years and is intensifying day by day. In relation to it, statistics depict that over the past decade, incidences of diabetes amongst elderly have skyrocketed. Furthermore, diabetes has begotten to development of other related disorders which have resulted in deaths (Riaz, 2009).

Individuals with Family History of Diabetes

Most of the individuals who inherit faulty genes from their parents develop type 1 diabetes and its occurrence is constantly increasing specifically amongst children and youngsters. Scientific advancements have made it possible to recognize the mutation that may occur in the genes, which makes an individual of any cultural background vulnerable of developing diabetes (Flaws, Kuchinski & Casanas, 2002).

Pregnant Females

Incidences and prevalence of diabetes amongst pregnant women have surged ahead dramatically over past quarter of a century. Studies illustrate that type 2 diabetes is more common in this regard. Nevertheless, several factors such as age, obesity (due to inappropriate diet and contemporary lifestyle), poor exercise pattern and many others contribute to the development of gestational diabetes (Ferrara, 2007).

Obese Population

Technological gadgets have curbed the manual work that men used to perform. Along with it, intake of high fat and low fiber food has augmented the trend of obesity amongst people all around the world. However, obesity prevails more in western countries where incidences of diabetes are also frequent. Moreover, occurrence of obesity and hence diabetes have soared up drastically over past few decades (Riaz, 2009).

(WHO, 2005)


Achenbach, P, Bonifacio, E, Koczwara, K & Ziegler, AG 2005, 'Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes', Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 25-27

Cryer, PE 2004, 'Diverse Causes of Hypoglycemia-Associated Autonomic Failure in Diabetes', the New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 22, pp. 2272 -- 2277.

Ferrara, a 2007, 'Increasing Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus', Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no.2, pp. 141-146.

Flaws, B, Kuchinski, LM & Casanas, R 2002, the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus With Chinese Medicine: A Textbook & Clinical Manual, First Edition, Blue Poppy Enterprises, Inc., Colorado.

Gropper, SAS, Smith, JL & Groff, JL 2009, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, Fifth Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.

Hicks, R. 2012. Health. Causes of Diabetes, BBC. Viewed 22 December 2012,

Ramlo-Halsted, BA & Edelman, SV 2000, 'The Natural History of Type 2 Diabetes: Practical Points to Consider in Developing Prevention and Treatment Strategies', Clinical Diabetes, vol. 18, no. 2


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