Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
, et al., 2012).
Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).
Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward a multidisciplinary approach to find solutions that take on a broader role within the community and see the issue as far more than just felon re-entry into society (Otenyo & Lind, 2006).
Contingency PA looks at anticipated situations that may occur in the future that, if not addressed, may result in negative consequences for society. Contingency PA looks at technology, interest groups, government and the affected citizens and finds that organizations are open systems that require careful management in order to provide positive outcomes. However, there is no "one" right way of organizing, and in the case of felon re-entry, different communities will require different solutions based on size, economic development, resources, and community norms (Public Administration, 2012)
Analysis -- Theories, Tools and Practice
Two major theories of public administration, the Niskanen's Maximizing and the Dunleavy Bureau-Shaping theories may operate in congruence or independently with the above approaches. Niskanen's theory holds that rational bureaucrats will always seek to increase their budgets to enhance their organization and thus contribute to state growth and public expenditure. The motivation is thus to find more money to fund programs that are politically appropriate. In the case of felon re-entry, the pendulum has swung in different ways based on the current administration and public value and expectation paradigm. In many cases, the more conservative approach has resulted in considerable cutbacks in rehabilitation and re-entry programs and more funding for law enforcement and punishment (Raadschelders, 2003).
Dunleavy's theory modifies Niskanen, and focuses on the way that bureaucrats only maximize that part of their budget that they spend on their own agency's operations or interest groups. This causes a flow back of benefits, and thus increased attention to that particular theoretical position. For the offender, since the 1980s programs have been de-emphasized so that more funding could be redirected towards the military and other programs that had a more "obvious" benefit to society in the view of the administration. To seek funding for felon re-entry under Dunleavy, officials would need to change policy and procedures so that a preventative stance against recidivism was emphasized as opposed to a more laizze-faire approach to parole or pardon situations within the community (DUnleavy & Carrera, 2013)
From both a policy development paradigm and a public administration focus, it is clear that the system "as is" is flawed. Instead, a more tangible and proactive public administration focus might be a robust reintegration program that uses an educational and motivational technique to gradually train and reintroduce inmates back into regular society.
One program saved taxpayers in the New Orleans area $36 million -- this on $1 million investment into a new style of community reintegration. This program, called Project Return, attempts to break the cycle of recidivism by intervening in community integration, job training, counselling and thorough follow up. The program is a robust way to allow parolees to spend their first few months (60-90 days) in the program before being totally on their own. The components include: 12 hours in GED/Academic coursework; 8.5 hours in Addiction Education, 6.5-hour in computer training; 4.5 hours in Employability training; 4 hours in Communication skills and 2 hours in Community Building, for a total of approximately 36-40 hours. Prior to job placement, each individual is paid $5/hour just to actively participate in the program. The idea is that many of these individuals have dropped out of school, many do not have a GED or equivalent, and need lessons in basic reading, math and writing combined with survival, life and employment skills. There is a significant amount of community building and teaching these individual how to more effectively deal with stress, diversity, integrity, and communication issues. Addition counselling and support groups, combined with needed psychological assistance are core to the program, as is individual counselling and assessment of work skills design to help the individual find gainful employment (Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime, 2009).
If we use Louisiana as a basic case study example, we find that in 2011 they had 15,206 inmates returned to the community. This represents .33% of the population. When one considers cost of pursuit, arrest, arraignment, detainment, trial and incarceration, the cost is about $100,000 per person, or in the 2011 case, about $1.5 billion per inmate, or $330 for every person living in Louisiana. . To put these individuals through a program like BTC, the costs are reduced drastically. From a total of $1.5 billion per inmate to an annual investment of about $1million, or a savings of $35 million per year, even including those to reoffend and return to prison (Project Return). If we extrapolate the savings we would likely find that most states would average a 40-45% savings on their costs of managing parolees and recidivism. If we look at the national figures and use a $14.5 billion/annum average cost, the overall average costs to the system would be $6.5 billion/annum; a considerable sum that could be used to reinvigorate counselling and education programs and perhaps reduce some of the issues surrounding incarceration completely. Thus, instead of continual spending for incarceration, a more deontological approach would be to fund re-entry into society in a positive and productive manner so that the convicted felon could become gainfully employed, pay taxes, and contribute to the community as opposed to being a fiscal and social burden.
Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts
Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com: http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html
Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company: http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
Dunleavy, P., & Carrera, L. (2013). Growing the Productivity of Government Services. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Dunleavy, P., & Hood, C. (1994). From old Public Administration to new Public Management. Public Money and Management, 14(3), 9-16.
Guerino, P., et al. (2011, June). Prisoners in 2010. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p10.pdf
Liptak, a. (2008, April 23). U.S. Prison Population Dwafs That of Other Nations. Retrieved from the New York Times: http://www.newyorktimes.com
Maruschak, L., & Parks, E. (2012, November). Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ppus11.pdf
Mind Tools. (2012, April). Leadership Styles. Retrieved from mindtools. com: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Murray, a. (2013, January). Leadership Styles. Retrieved from the Wall Street Journal: http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
Office of Justice Programs. (2013, January). Probation and Parole. Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Statistics: http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=15
Otenyo, E., & Lind, N. (Eds.). (2006). Comparative Public Administration. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
Petersilla, J. (2000, November). When Prisoners Return to the Community. Retrieved from Sentencing and Corrections - U.S. Department of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/184253.pdf
Raadschelders, J. (2003). Government: A Public Administration Perspective. New York: M.E.Sharpe.
Sleven, P. (2006, June). U.S. Prison Study Faults System and Public. Retrieved from the Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp dyn / content/article / 2006/06/07/AR2006060702050.html
Smart on Crime. (2012, December). Prison Overcrowding and Parole. Retrieved from smartoncrimema.org: http://smartoncrimema.org/about/about-us/
Smith, K., et al. (2012). The Public Administration Theory Primer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Teaskey, C. (1976). A Systems Approach to Public Personnel Administration. The American Review of Public Administration, 10(1), 3-17.
Integration Cost to Programs Incarcerate
Each state has a different number of individuals meeting the probation or parole category, and thus there are different associated costs. For instance, California's estimated annual cost is about $1.1 billion. To do an accurate analysis, one would need to use data to figure each state's parolee population, and then also analyze the parolee population in relation to the total state population. In our example of California, the $1.1 billion spread throughout the state's population would equal about $31 per person per annum. See: Maruschak…[continue]
"Felons And The Community Analysis" (2013, June 04) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/felons-and-the-community-analysis-91478
"Felons And The Community Analysis" 04 June 2013. Web.25 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/felons-and-the-community-analysis-91478>
"Felons And The Community Analysis", 04 June 2013, Accessed.25 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/felons-and-the-community-analysis-91478
Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or
Reintegration of Ex-Felons Although the paradigms of public administration have undergone considerable scrutiny and some evolution, particularly over the past several decades, there is merit in considering the historical paradigms with respect to public administration as an academic and scientific discipline. Paradigm 2, The Principles of Administration, circa 1927 to 1937, serves as the springboard for this discussion. In Henry's words, "Thus the focus of the field -- its essential expertise
Three Strikes Law on the African-American Community Three Strikes legislation, which imposes sentencing enhancement on repeat offenders, often culminating with mandatory life sentences for third-time offenders, has gained popularity throughout the United States. The legislation began in California, where two highly publicized murders committed by convicted felons prompted an outcry against allowing recidivists to return to the community. California did see a decrease in crime rates following its institution of
Latino Community Racial discrimination is a term that signifies treating people with different skin tone and cultural heritage and not only different but also as inferior. This feeling or societal approach is not limited to just one area of the world, it is a habit being carried from generation to generation in all the countries of the world. Each skin color whether white, black, pin k or brown all view themselves
Texas Parole Board The Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles The Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles (herein referred to as the board) is a Texas-based state agency charged with determining "which eligible offenders to release on parole or discretionary mandatory supervision, and under what conditions" (Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, 2014). The board, moreover, makes decisions concerning parole revocation and issues clemency recommendations to the governor in an attempt to
Policy Analysis Child Protective Service Include Abuse, Foster Care and Adoption Child physical abuse did not receive widespread attention in this country until a 1962 medical journal article discussed patterns of suspicious injuries in children. Within four years, all 50 states had passed laws requiring certain professionals to report cases of suspected child maltreatment. These laws were intended to protect children because they are a particularly vulnerable portion of the population.
Reducing Youth Firearm Injuries and Suicides Community Collaboration -- Gun Laws In 2012, 9-year-old Maximos Herbert discovered a loaded and unlocked gun underneath his father's bed and a few minutes later an accidental gunshot wound to the head ended his life (Brindley, 2013). According to the prosecutor who charged Mr. Herbert with negligent storage of firearms, parents involved in such incidents are so traumatized by the death or injury of their child