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Moreover, the small opening is kept patent by inserting a small piece of wood or matchstick to allow the passage of urine and menstrual blood (Rimsza pp).
Antiseptic powders or pastes, containing herbs, milk, eggs, ashes or dung, which are believed to facilitate healing, may be applied (Female2 pp). The girl is then usually taken to a designated place to recover where, if the mutilation has been carried out as part of an initiation ceremony, traditional teaching is imparted (Female2 pp). For the very financially wealthy, the mutilation procedure may be performed by a qualified doctor in hospital under local or general anaesthetic (Female2 pp).
Female genital mutilation can result in lifelong medical consequences (Hamilton pp). Because the clitoris contains numerous blood vessels, including the dorsal artery, women who have been genitally mutilated risk death from hemorrhaging, according to Dr. Henriette Kouyate, a gynecologist based in Senegal (Hamilton pp). The girls may suffer from stress and shock resulting from the pain, and because they are often taken away without being informed as to what is about to happen to them, may also experience psychological trauma for the rest of their lives (Hamilton pp). Infection may spread to internal organs, and women may experience lifelong severe pain during urination (Hamilton pp).
Women who have been infibulated may find that the minute orifice left is too small to let pass all menstrual blood, thus, resulting in a buildup of blood in the vagina which can lead to an infection that causes sterility (Hamilton pp). Moreover, because the primary instrument used in female genital cutting is usually used on at least two girls in a row before boiling the blade to sterilize it or changing to another blade, there is a wide risk of spreading AIDS (Hamilton pp).
The infibulated woman must be defibulated, that is, cut open, prior to intercourse, by her new husband who will often use a sword, knife, or razor, and it can take up to three months before the husband can penetrate his wife, resulting in painful intercourse for the woman, often for the rest of her life (Hamilton pp). Some African men are now reporting that they would prefer to marry a woman who is not genitally mutilated, indicating that the men would prefer a woman who could enjoy sexual intercourse and take pleasure in sex (Hamilton pp). Furthermore, in infibulated women, there are complications during childbirth, says Kouyate, "an area which is normally elastic has become a cicatrix area," thus, when an infibulated woman gives birth, massive tearing occurs not only where her vulva is stitched shut but may extend above and below this area (Hamilton pp). Those women who cannot be treated in a hospital are left to tear, "at the top causing massive hemorrhaging," says Kouyate, "at the bottom even worse - the tear can enlarge, extending to the anus, so that women can no longer contain their feces" (Hamilton pp).
In 1997, the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Fund adopted a joint plan to bring about a major decline in female genital mutilation in ten years and to completely eliminate this practice within three generations (UN pp). As of 1997, seven states had passed legislation related to female genital mutilation in the same manner as the federal law, prohibiting its practice and instituting criminal sanctions (Reproductive pp).
Female Genital Cutting. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from Women for Women Web site: http://womenforwomen.org/rarfgc.html
Female1 Genital Mutilation. (1997, April 01). Contemporary Women's Issues
Database. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Female2 Genital Mutilation. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from Amnesty.org Web site: http://www.amnesty.org/ailib/intcam/femgen/fgm1.htm
Hamilton, Amy. (1993, December 01). What is female genital mutilation?
Contemporary Women's Issues Database. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Reproductive Freedom in Focus-Legislation on Female Genital Mutilation in the United States. (1997, January 01). Contemporary Women's Issues Database. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Rimsza, Mary. (2001, May 01). Medical Complications of Female Genital
Mutilation. Journal of American College Health. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
UN Agencies Pledge to End Female Genital Mutilation. (1997,…[continue]
"Female Genital Mutilation All Societies" (2005, July 05) Retrieved October 23, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/female-genital-mutilation-all-ocieties-65131
"Female Genital Mutilation All Societies" 05 July 2005. Web.23 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/female-genital-mutilation-all-ocieties-65131>
"Female Genital Mutilation All Societies", 05 July 2005, Accessed.23 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/female-genital-mutilation-all-ocieties-65131
Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia: A Human Rights Issue Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common phenomenon in Ethiopia, which has the highest rate of FGM among African countries, despite international and national efforts to eliminate the phenomenon. Why FGM persists despite these efforts to end the practice is an issue that puzzles scholars and activists, particularly because efforts to end FGM have seen some success outside of Ethiopia. Does the
Female Genital Mutilation -- a Review and Analysis How prevalent is the practice of female genital mutilation throughout the world? Why is it done, where is it done, and what are the human rights and morality implications? This paper will examine those questions, and provide information that supplements those issues. The Literature on Female Genital Mutilation There are four types of female genital mutilation (FGM), according to an article in the British Journal
Instead, it continues to proliferate as a ritual among women and as one study shows, its prevalence resulted to 100 million women being circumcised among societies in Africa and Asia. With its prevalence, gender discrimination occurs as a result, where women are coerced to participate in the said ritual and try to bear the pain of the procedure. Because of the health and social repercussions that result from FGM, concern
According to Amnesty International, the practice of FGM is performed on more than 2,000,000 women out of whom 600,000 are in Africa. (Kalev, 2004, p. 339) Rarely does FGM simply involve a symbolic small cut on the hood of the clitoris, as it misnomer Female Circuscision would imply. More often it involves clitoridectomy. This is anatomically equivalent to amputation of the penis. Clitoridectomy is often followed by a more
3. Conclusion From a sociological perspective female genital mutilation is a phenomenon that can be understood in terms of the male-orientated and patriarchal structure of the societies in which it occurs. What also has to be taken into account in an analysis of this social and cultural practice is that it persist due to the socialization process in these countries which tend to normalize and legitimize aspect such as female circumcision. Condemnation
Because of the private nature of the tradition and because the methods can range so greatly, it is difficult to adequately assess the details of female genital cutting in Africa. The history of the tradition goes back thousands of years and is often (incorrectly) associated with religious dictates (von der Osten-Sacken & Uwer, 2007). It has long been associated with Islam, though there has been active opposition from many Islamic
justice as it applies to ethics. Specifically, it will reflect about whether or not justice is obtainable for women in war torn areas of Africa. Justice is often highly elusive, and it seems that the women of Africa are extreme examples of how justice can often overlook segments of the population, especially in countries that face political and social upheaval, and are traditionally led by men. Justice is something that