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picture of how nonprofit organizations balance their procurement processes by applying a phenomenological method to investigate the procurement methods, by categorizing the knowledge of participants. This involved the analysis of survey results in order to pinpoint the fundamental challenges that nonprofits face in conjunction with finding a means of improving the procurement processes. This was an investigation founded on an intensified approach to epistemology. Other models, such as the descriptive and analytical approach were also harnessed to help explain this particular topic. Surveys are of the most pinnacle and fundamental means of gathering enquiries to the information that exists, analyzing them to engage in a critical evaluation of the data. This survey seeks to shed light on the entire task of procurement, which generally refers to the manner in which goods are acquired, via a procuring entity and through the use of public funds. "Public bodies have always been big purchasers, dealing with huge budgets. Public procurement represents 18.42% of the world GDP. In developing countries, public procurement is increasingly recognized as essential in service delivery (Basheka, 2010). It accounts for a high proportion of total expenditure. For example, public procurement accounts for 60% in Kenya (Bhatt 2000), 58% in Angola, 40% in Malawi and 70% of Uganda's public spending (Wittig, 1999). This is very high when compared with a global average of 12-20% (Froystad et al., 2010)" (Kipkorir, 2013).
Thus, as a result of the fact that a tremendous amount of money is connected to government procurement and the fact such money comes from the public, there is a need for accountability and transparency unlike anything else (Kipkorir, 2013). Research like this which uses survey and surveys questions like the ones discussed truly demonstrate the intensive possibility and need for a deeper and more meaningful understanding of the entire procurement process, particularly as it occurs for organizations who work within the UN.
Survey Design: Purity of the Data
In order to pick up a clear radio signal, the noise of the background needs to be minimized; this is also true when it comes to conducting surveys with any level of accuracy. "Four main approaches can be undertaken to control for these other factors. Two of them can be implemented in the initial design of the study (randomization or matching of cases and controls, for example) and the other two during analyses of the data (strati-ed or multivariate analysis)" (Aday & Cornelius, 2011). Thus, there is a certain amount of logic in the realm of stratifying as a means of providing clarity in regards to the variables at stake.
Survey Design: Target Population
"The target population for the survey is the group or groups about which information is desired. This is sometimes referred to as the study universe. It is the group to which one wishes to generalize (or make inferences) from the survey sample. Sample inclusion criteria (such as the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States or adults ages eighteen and over) or exclusion criteria (persons living in group quarters or those who speak neither English nor Spanish) are directly re-ective of the target population for the study" (Aday & Cornelius, 2011). In this particular study, the target population involves four particular non-profit organizations. The inclusion criteria for these four non-profit organizations involve having official non-profit status, and being in existence for at least ten years. In this particular study, the non-profits examined will be ones based out of the United Nations. This is directly because of the wide range of work that non-profits associated with the UN are responsible for. They work all over the map, with infrastructure needs in third world countries, with educational needs all around the globe, vaccinations needed, and the needs of children. The good work of these non-profits is often solely dependent on the funding that they can receive. Thus, the survey needs to be designed and targeted so that the results generated are specific enough and compelling enough to offer an accurate snapshot of this population and their needs and challenges. "Different research designs have fundamental and compelling implications for identifying and sampling from the target population. Cross-sectional designs dictate a look at whether the designated time period for identifying the population (such as clinic users) represents the population over time (patients who had visited the facility over the past year sampled from medical records) or at a speci-ed point" (Aday & Cornelius, 2011). In this particular piece of research the target population is showcased in a more lucid and comprehensive manner, since it involves the members of these nonprofits. Group comparisons designs warrant the need of forceful attention to verify that the groups that have this level of comparison are being included in the plan for sampling (Aday & Cornelius, 2011). Certain designs, like longitudinal ones need to plan ahead for certain issues and to determine whether or not the same or different non-profits will be followed over time (Aday & Cornelius, 2011). These are all issues which will directly impact the quality of the research and the accuracy of the data reflected. This particular survey has allotted for a certain amount of follow-up post survey, as the participants will be affected in their procurement processes just simply by talking about them. This type of self-reflection might lead to changes in their methods later on, and a certain degree of follow-up is absolutely necessary to capture these changes.
Moreover, this survey design has allotted for a certain degree of balance between costs and errors and through the harnessing of a realistic appraisal of resources needed in order for the study to move forward. "This appraisal includes both monetary and human resource aspects. Tradeoffs are necessary but involve more than just numbers of subjects. For example, attempting to get large sample sizes but with insufficient follow-up vs. A smaller more targeted representative sample with multiple follow-ups. Seemingly large sample sizes do not necessarily represent a probability sample. When conducting survey research, if follow-ups are not planned and budgeted for, the study should not be initiated" (Draugalis et al., 2008). This is absolutely true: follow-ups give one a more realistic presentation of the survey and can assist in documenting a certain level of changes that have taken place, offering more nuanced results.
Furthermore, this study will focus on using homogenous sampling, as all the participants are fundamentally identical. "A homogeneous sample consists of individuals who belong to the same subculture or group and have similar characteristics. Homogeneous sample units are useful when you wish to observe or interview a particular group, for instance specialists in a ?eld or elite group members. The sample may be homogeneous with respect to a certain variable only, for instance occupation, length of experience, type of experience, age or gender" (Daymon & Holloway, 2011). The homogeneous nature of this sample also almost creates a greater level of ease in the procuring results to the survey, as all participants start at the same baseline level of experience and objectives.
Survey Design: Qualitative Research
Given the nature of the project and the inherent needs and directions of the survey and researcher, a qualitative approach needs to be harnessed. One of the ideal aspects of this type of method is that it allows for the tools for one to study truly complex phenomena within their organic contexts. The correct approach of this method means that it can become a truly indispensible tool for health science researchers in the development of theory, and in the evaluation of programs and for the development of interventions (Baxter & Jack, 2008).
In this case, qualitative research methods are the only type that are suitable for this study. "To study complexity, power relations and the co-construction of meaning in a holistic or critical sense requires a different, more ?exible type of research where the process of discovery is blended with intuition (although this is not without rigour and order as well). It is in this type of research that qualitative methods can perhaps best reach their potential. This is because there is a more natural fit between qualitative research, with its ability to delve into meaning, and the critical or interpretive ways of thinking which are concerned with the social construction of reality" (Daymon & Holloway, 2011). Thus, given the needs of this research and the nature of nonprofit research, there's really a tremendous amount that can't be quantified and which can't be put into a meaningful numerical form. The survey will be drafted in a standard qualitative fashion, to allow the representatives from various nonprofits to be able to answer in the most organic and natural means possible to them. This will ensure for the most relevant data collected.
Drafting the Question Types
As stated earlier, this survey will embrace a more qualitative, broader choice of question; however within this realm of questioning, there are two forms of questions. One type of question asks directly how non-profits procure funding and the other where the type of funding received in inferred from the…[continue]
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