Performance of Schools in America has been consistently improved through presenting rationalized steps as solutions towards their betterment.
The measurement and formulation of performance and standards regarding the school was intended to take care of the problematic system of the school. The aim of the reforms was to standardize and systemize so that there is a clear picture of the schools for the public to judge the performance. The schools in America are not under the Ministry of Education although there is a department of education in the Federal State. There are fifty educational departments in the U.S. which serve around fifty two million people in more than one million schools. Among the different solutions presented, rationalized steps were the only solution used to improve the performance of schools. The concept of rationalization has a lot of features. (a) The outcome of the rubrics and standards put in school should be known beforehand. For rational function, the use of rubric and standards are important because it is essential to know the point where one has to arrive. (b) Measurement is used by rationalization as a way to assess the performance. Measurement is used to determine the attitude of the matters through different units. (c) Practice comes third which is used to predict and control situations. (d) Interactions also come under rationalization which provides a way to communicate and learn about different problems regarding schools. (e) Comparison is also promoted by rationalization which promotes consumer-ability. This tells the authorities to compare different programs and analyze which ones are the best for certain levels (Eisner 2004).
In different parts of America, the superintendents and principals are paid a lot of bonus if the performance of their students is good based on the tests of standardization. These rewards also impact the priorities of the school and they work harder in order to make their performance much better. The reason to choose this topic is because the rational concepts can be used to solve the irregularities. The improvisation, imagination and cultivation works best when implementing a system and different rewards and bonuses presented to schools will help in stabilizing the systems.
It often becomes difficult for actors to choose what kind of values to follow because existing values often clash. Taking the example of capitalism, economic and religious values are in conflict. Being rational helps actors to intentionally ace reality, which helps them make a good sense of how the world around them connects them to their values and accordingly, guides their actions. This rationality which is embraced by policy-makers, board members and corporate managers influences corporate behavior greatly. This is the reason why it is important to understand the rationality which underlies the CSR theory because of which we understand the CSR debate (Ritzer 2007).
The types of rationality and types of meaningful social actions given by Weber are excellent types. They are uncomplicated purifications of patters in society that serve as questioning devices and help us in understanding how people perceive the world and familiarize their actions according to their perceptions. The types given by Weber are formal, substantive, theoretical and practical, the first two being of a certain interest to the discussion of CSR. Practical rationality refers to an actor's realistic response or variation to the random flow of daily interests and events. On the other hand, theoretical rationality relies on mental processes instead of adaption towards values or interests, to portray reality. Those who apply theoretical rationality pursue intentional mastery of reality through the development of increasingly accurate abstract concepts instead of through action, in their quest to supply articulate meaning to unplanned events of everyday life (Ritzer 2007).
Kalberg suggests that it has a potential to obliquely introduce patterns of action instead of direct pattering which is a result of practical rationality. Corporate social responsibility is implanted in action. Inside a progressive groundwork of laws and other demands, theoretical rationality has maybe only an incidental effect on the dissertation and so, will not be further discussed.
Substantive rationality precisely orders actions into arrangements in relation to final values, inconsiderate of the nature of these needs. It involves a choice of methods to end within the framework of a system of values unlike the other three types of rationality (Ritzer 2007).
Substantive rationality stresses on choosing amidst ends and means that are in with an actor's specific value prospect as opposed to selecting the most effective means and desired end, as in formal or practical rationality. Actions may be ordered into a never ending number of designs because the number of possible prospects of values is limitless. Subjectively rational actors are deriving their actions on value-rational calculations by assigning rationality to a specific set of values and aligning one's actions to those values.(Ritzer 2007)
But one who believes in a certain set of values may find him or herself in conflict with the ones who have a different set of beliefs of values in result of which, both sides will try to disapprove each other's values as irrational because one's action and understanding of the world are directed by his/her own specific values.
As scholars from one theoretical perspective routinely try to disapprove arguments put forth by scholars from the opposite theoretical perspective, it is effortlessly apparent in the CSR discourse even when they make the same argument. Regardless of the dominance of formal rationality in the economic field, substantive rationality plays an important role in the CSR debate. It is also employed by those making moral arguments for CSR. Those hiring substantive rationality in the CSR debate are victims of critics who attempt to present their value-laden arguments as illogical in the profit-driven and competitive market economy (Ritzer 2007).
One of the results of our approach to restore is that the syllabus gets narrowed as school policies clarify the things that are to be used and taught. Tests define our preferences. And we now have authenticated our priorities by taking about core subjects. Introduction of core subjects doubtlessly diminish subjects that are excluded from the core subjects. On such area are arts, which if taught offers ample benefits to our students.(Eisner 2004)
Our tests and assessment practices determine how well the schools are doing. The public is fortified of the view that test scores are good agents for the quality of education a school provides as those of us in education take these test scores very seriously. If we use substitutes that have prognostic validity, we need substitutes that predict accomplishments that matter outside the conduct of school. The function of schooling is to enable students to do better in life instead of to do better in school. What they learn in school should exceed in pertinence the limits of the school's program.
As we pay attention to practices, standards and measurements, the inner problems of schooling remain untouched. What are some deeper schooling problems? It has to do with the quality of communication and conversations in classrooms. Opportunities should be provided to youngsters and minors to captivate in challenging kinds of conversations and they should be taught how to do so. These kinds of conversations are very rare in schools.(Eisner 2004)
One of the main problems of schools is that the teachers there are isolated because they do not have contacts with people who are trained well in teaching. This would help the teachers to gain good practice regarding their profession. A lot of issues in school need a lot of attention, but it's a belief of many that getting the rubrics and standards straight would be enough in improving the system of schools. The school authorities deliver the message to the students regarding the importance of test grades. This makes way for the students to find different short cuts to pass the tests and there are ample cases of cheating. This puts a lot of pressure on the children as they are defined a set of rules that they have to follow. A lot of students ask for help from the teachers and want to know the different methods through which they can prepare their tests and pass them.(Eisner 2004)
Education has become a calamity in our wish to improve our schools. Education is always a dainty complicated and profound process having to do with self-actualization and cultural transmission has become an asset. It has emerged from a form of human development which is serving private and civic needs into a product our nation competes to achieve in global economy.
Let us consider that we appoint a suspension on standardized testing for five years. What should be paid attention to in order to say anything about the schools performance? What is it if not higher test scores? I would suggest that the kind of data we might want to see by raising some questions that may help our search: (Eisner 2004)
In 1950, "the structure of intellect" was proposed by J.P. Guilford, and American psychologist in which one…