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The second student being admitted is an English language learner. It was determined that he would require special assistance, and one of the bilingual teachers at the school offered to spend three hours per week tutoring the student in English.
Dietary issues were raised, as the school cafeteria has been under scrutiny by some of the local parents. Parents have been expressing concern about their children's lunch choices at the school, claiming that too many fried and salty foods are being served. Because several of the students at the school are overweight, the issue of how to incorporate healthy choices became a hot topic at the meeting. Changing the catering company would be impossible given the budgetary constraints.
A new software system had been introduced to the Christian school. The software would allow for greater classroom integration. For example, the topics raised in science class could become the word problems…
While a relative handful in number, the attention given to these districts has caused some to conclude that the nation's 14,350 school boards overall might not be needed or equipped to provide a 21st-century education.
School boards, like an old car past its prime, need attention and that the status quo will not suffice for those who want improved student outcomes.
Teachers, especially in connection with collective bargaining, have assumed many of the prerogatives that school boards once reserved for themselves.
Some commentators have implied that school boards are really not necessary any more.
New governance models threaten to make school boards in some locales obsolete; financial pressures leave school boards less and less leeway in their spending decisions.
n America of the 21st century, many school boards struggle to attract top-flight members who are willing to put up with the grief that comes with the job.
nterest in and…
Pankratz & Petrosko, p. 63.
Manley, P.J. & Manley, R.J. (2005). School boards don't need state oversight. The CPA Journal, 75(4), p. 11.
evolution of perception of the role of school members over the past 2 centuries or so and how the analyses of these perceptions also changed over time. This discussion is followed by an examination of the antecedents of tension for school board members in general and for rural schools board members in particular in the United States and how these tensions have been described and reported in the relevant literature. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the evolution of perceptions of school board member roles and sources of tension for school board members concludes the chapter.
Evolving Perceptions of School Board Member oles
During the 1980s and early 1990s, the literature concerning perceptions of school board members and their roles generally included an overview of the historical origins and development of the role of school board members, with some researchers beginning their analyses as early as…
Allen, J.C. & Dillman, D.A. (1994). Against all odds: Rural community in the information age. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Asen, R., Gurke, D., Conners, P., Solomon, R. & Gumm, E. (2013). Research evidence and school board deliberations: Lessons from three Wisconsin school districts. Educational Policy, 27(1), 33-63.
Berry, C.R. & Howell, W.G. (2008, Winter). Accountability lost: Student learning is seldom a factor in school board elections. Education Next, 8(1), 66-73.
Bradshaw, P. & Osborne, R. (2009/2010, Winter). School boards: Emerging governance challenges. Canadian Education, 50(1), 46-49.
Raney v. Board of Education., U.S. 443 (1968) -- The Gould Arkansas School District which, at the time, had about 60% African-Americans and no racial segregation, maintained two combination elementary and high schools located about ten blocks apart. In order to remain eligible for Federal funding, the school adopted a "freedom of choice" plan in which students were annually required to choose a school. No White students opted for the Black school, but 85 Black students were enrolled at the formerly all-White Gould school. A new building was needed, and petitioners enjoined to have it built near Gould, to avoid continued segregation. The District denied all relief, and the ourt of Appeals affirmed the dismissal. The ourt found that a constitutionally acceptable plan was necessary with the goal of rapid and complete desegregation.
Monroe v. Bd of ommr r's, 391 U.S. 450 (1968). -- 1/3 of the ity of…
Cited in: http://www.vahistorical.org/civilrights/green.htm www.Justia.com, "U.S. Supreme Court Center."
The court easily could have come to a contrary result, given that it denied most of the allegations of the plaintiff, other than the specific contention that the nature of this specific advertising was particularly inconsistent with state educational statues and school board policy. Even the plaintiff conceded that advertising in the form of school vending machines, yearbooks, sports scorecards, etc. had long been tolerated in schools, and would continue to be tolerated.
Question 2: What guidelines may administrators who are considering potential educational uses of commercially driven Internet technology draw from the above opinion?
The guidelines for school administers regarding advertising thus remain blurry. Video advertising is acceptable, but not the type of video advertising on Channel One. Regarding Internet advertising, it would seem that using the Internet to research material on websites where advertising may appear would be analogous to the permissible practice of taping programs from the…
Every school board now offers school-to-work (STW) programs, which are designed to meet the needs of a large portion of today's students - those who are work-bound as soon as they graduate high school. Many of these programs allow students to enroll as apprentices and accumulate hours and experience towards a qualifying certificate in a specific profession while earning credits towards their high school graduation diploma, as well.
While advocates of such programs argue that they give additional relevance and meaning to the educational process as a whole and give students real opportunities to make connections between theory and actual practice, opponents believe that these types of programs are pervasive and prevent students from receiving a thorough and valuable education.
This paper supports the opposing viewpoint of school-to-work programs, arguing that education that concentrates on job training results in graduates who are less adaptable and less able to…
Brandeis University. (1992). Future options education: Careers and middle school youth. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University.
Cook, Mary. (June, 2001). Do School-to-work Programs Help or Hinder Education? Ingram's Education Edition.
Starr, Linda. (1998). STW Programs. Education World. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.education-world.com/a_admin/admin081.shtml.
The 21st Century Education Foundation, (2001). U.S. Department of Education. School to Work Initiative. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.buildbridges.net/businesses/schooltowork.htm.
Board of Education
An Examination of Several Issues Facing a Typical American School Board Today
According to Shannon (1994), school board members today are increasingly recognizing that genuine education reform is only possible when it is completely fashioned in the local community and only when there is a firm commitment to support and maintain it locally. "The school board," he says, "is the most credible agent of change in the community it serves. Elected directly by the people in the community (less than 3% are appointed by other locally elected officials), the school board has the political support to lead educational change in the best tradition of Jeffersonian democracy" (p. 387). To accomplish change effectively, though, a school board's consistent message to the entire school system must be that systemic reform is its main goal rather than just a passing fad (Kirst, 1994). Local school boards play a major role…
Cochran-Smith, M. (2005). No Child Left Behind: 3 Years and Counting. Journal of Teacher
Education, 56(2), 99.
Danzberger, J.P., & Usdan, M.D. (1994). Local education governance: Perspectives on problems and strategies for change. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(5), 366.
Etheridge, C.P., & Green, R.L. (2001). Collaborating to establish standards and accountability:
It raises the need for both written and verbal communication skills to reach an optimum level that can persuade and cajole.
It is believed by many experts that this economic role will become more important in future years and that in order to achieve the status of superintendent, a candidate will have to display some experience or education in that field to ensure board members that he or she is capable of representing the district well (Thomas, 2002).
With Administrators, Staff and Teachers
School superintendents face a new level of issues when dealing with these three groups of employees, and it is very important how the man or woman in that position communicates layoffs, curriculum changes, school closures, firings, or an order to re-apply for their jobs, as has been done now in a significant number of districts around the country.
One of the superintendent's first priorities is to get…
Board perceptions. (2007, December). Retrieved May 28, 2009, from School Administrator Journal - GALE database (A172251160): .
Glass, T.E., Bjork, L., & Brunner, C. (2000). A study of the American school superintendency. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from eric.ed.gov (ED440475): http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/2d/e9.pdf
Hopper, J. (2005, December). Communication essentials: What superintendents need to know and want to share about communicating. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Michigan edusource: http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:PvTiyj6oFJsJ:www.michiganedusource.org/PublicRelations/Supt_Communication_Essentials.doc+school+superintendents+communication+methods&cd=11&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
McAdams, D.R. (2009, February). Top 10 'guarantees' for a great relationship. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from EBSCO data base (AN 36326105): http://ezproxy.ppld.org:2054/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=99164b10-d3d2-43 AD-b5be-a37ac1448272%40sessionmgr7&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=tfh&AN=36326105
School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
From the school staff perspective, the identification badges would be a useful instrument to recognize who is a student and who is a teacher. Additionally, somewhat related to the identification purpose, as well as to the security perspective that one parent has mentioned, the staff can easily recognize who is actually meant to be on school grounds and who isn't. If we consider the global terrorist threat, this is a highly important argument.
On the other hand, as the parent has mentioned, security and safety measures on school premises need to have a limit somewhere, otherwise we risk having a reminder of concentration camps, where number identification tags were used. As the parent has asked, where can we draw the line?
From the parents' perspective, wearing a badge may be an additional form of security and safety on school grounds, but it also may be considered a measure that will…
1. Parents, students protest school ID badges. November 2004. On the Internet at http://edition.cnn.com/2004/EDUCATION/11/02/school.badges.ap/index.html
Parents, students protest school ID badges. November 2004. On the Internet at http://edition.cnn.com/2004/EDUCATION/11/02/school.badges.ap/index.html
For school retention, the major reason for support of this was academic achievement. If the child does not meet the set benchmarks for performance, the decision-making panel simply agreed to retention of the student. There was no formal assessment system for this decision process.
These results were supported by the result of the study conducted by Hong and audenbush (2006)
who found that student achievement were used in state and district schools to decide social promotion vs. school retention instead of formal systems of assessment of student performance. According to these findings, the schools that used academic achievement as the main criterion for social promotion did not bother to understand how the decision affected the student for who the decision was being made and the other students in general. The findings of these authors showed that these were very important aspects in the general performance of the school itself and…
Bali, V.A., Anagnostopoulos, D., & Roberts, R. (2005). Toward a Political Explanation of Grade Retention. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(2), 133-155. doi: 10.2307/3699523
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2005). Effects of Kindergarten Retention Policy on Children's Cognitive Growth in Reading and Mathematics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(3), 205-224. doi: 10.2307/3699569
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2006). Evaluating Kindergarten Retention Policy: A Case Study of Causal Inference for Multilevel Observational Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 101(475), 901-910. doi: 10.2307/27590770
Jacob, B.A., & Lefgren, L. (2009). The Effect of Grade Retention on High School Completion. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(3), 33-58. doi: 10.2307/25760170
School esponse to Student Suicide: Postvention
The emotional impact on family and friends following an adolescent suicide - and the school's response to a suicide - has not been the subject of the same level of intense research as have: a) the causes of suicides; and b) programs to prevent suicides. However, there is now an emerging body of solid research on what protocol a school can put into place, to be more prepared in the unfortunate circumstance of a teen suicide. Indeed, on the subject of tragedy, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many schools and communities re-tooled their crisis/response plans for dealing with such threats. And yet, in many ways, the sudden, inexplicable death of a student can cause serious psychological ramifications to fellow students on a part with the shockwaves following an attack by terrorists. And hence, this paper analyzes literature that…
American Association of Suicidology (2003). Remembering Our Children:
Parents of Suicides, A Memorial to Our Precious Sons & Daughters. http://www.angelfire.com/mi2/parentsofsuicide/page1.html
Bratter, Thomas Edward (2003). Surviving Suicide: Treatment Challenges for Gifted, Angry, Drug Dependent Adolescents. International Journal of Reality
Therapy, XXII, 32-36.
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
And when the parent comes to an event held in the classroom, it makes good sense to have interpreters available, and "invite the extended family," which of course is a very welcoming act of kindness and good judgment. The other parent in this list of "types" is the "Busy Parent," who is a person with a work schedule that is hard to get a hold of, or plan meetings for. Get the cell phone number of parents like this, and the email addresses, and "continue to send home their children's work on a regular basis, including writing samples, artwork, and test copies" - and even consider taking digital photos of class activities and attaching those pictures to emails that go to parents.
On a more serious note, the literature on school administration duties as far as training staff to be parent-active and family-friendly offers an article called "here's the Ministry…
Beaudoin, Nelson. (2006). Giving Stakeholders a Voice. Educational Leadership, 63(8), 74-75.
Flannery, Mary Ellen. (2005). A field guide to parents: famed for its vast appetite for information
And ability to protect its offspring, the parent genus has nonetheless eluded scientific study.
Until now. NEA Today, 24(2), 36-38.
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
Board of Education in school districts is first set by state law and then by local regulations, with various customs and practices developing over time and becoming part of the role and responsibilities taken by these boards. In New York State, that role includes the governance of local school districts in different municipalities and educational districts (which may cross municipal boundaries in many cases). Among the tasks undertaken by school boars are personnel decisions and policies, the management of the school system including budgetary considerations, decisions regarding educational theory and practice to some degree, and the protection of students on school grounds and advocacy for fulfilling the needs of students and meeting the expectations of parents. Such broad responsibilities may be interpreted differently in different districts.
The school district in New York City is the largest and most complex in the state, facing the need to balance the competing interests…
"A Guide to Special Education." Special Education New York United Teachers (2005). October 30, 2005. http://www.nysut.org/specialed/print.html .
"Race for the Mineola School Board." Mineola American (13 May 2005). October 28, 2005. http://www.antonnews.com/mineolaamerican/2005/05/13/news/school.html .
"Report of the UFT Task Force on School Governance." The United Federation of Teachers (December 1999). October 30, 2005. http://www.uft.org/news/issues/schoolgovernance/ .
The Roslyn Board of Education (2005). October 30, 2005. http://www.roslynschools.org/code/board.htm .
This work intends to address the situation of budgeting problems within the context of a fictitious school for purposes of this work, which will be called Highbridge Day Care. This is a school that receives State allocations for funding in part as well as allocations from other sources. The school budget is set and fixed prior to budget submission to the board each year.
Too many times waste in the school budget can be traced back to abstract and poorly defined expenditures allocated to poorly defined functions of administration. However, the realization of this has some district resolving the problem.
Resolution of School udget:
Streamlining administration / support-service expense.
The school principal is ethically as well as administratively responsible to oversee budgetary concerns, not only in preparation, but as well in the carrying out of those allocations approved by the governing committee for the school. The…
"Priority on Learning: Efficient Use of Resource's (2004) ERIC Digest 100 [Online] available at: http://eric.uoregon.edu/publications/digests/digest100.html
Prager, Karen (1993) 'Collegial Process vs. Curricular Focus: Dilemma for Principal Leadership: Brief to Principals 'No. 5 ERIC Digest ED356550 [Online] available at: http://126.96.36.199:86/search/o?SEARCH=ED356550
"A Practical Look at School Leadership" (2003) Center on Reinventing Public Education (2003 Sept 13) located [Online] at: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:ocx-wPj5gFUJ:www.crpe.org/pubs/pdf/MakingSensePortin_brief.pdf+school+principal+tasks+budget+resources& ; hl=en& ie=UTF-8
"Priority on Learning: Efficient Use of Resource's (2004) ERIC Digest 100
The author of the article, "Achieving the Challenge: Meeting Standards in the Continuation High School" (Stits, 2001) related that "prior to 1983, many continuation high schools existed in districts where expectations were limited to keeping the students in school as much as possible," and also the ideas was to keep those continuation students "away from the traditional high school campus." The implication was clear: there was a stigma that students in continuation school were bad seeds, and the idea was to keep them away from the mainstream lest they have a negative effect on the "good students" in the regular high school.
But eventually, the image of continuations schools in California changed, as communities more and more were trying to prevent school dropouts, and the need for a high school diploma became more important, as well, Stits writes.
HO DO CONTINUATION SCHOOLS OPERATE?
In an article in the journal Thrust…
Arlington Public Schools. (2005). Alternative Education: Purpose, Mission, Beliefs. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2007, at http://www.apsva.us/hsc .
Community College Week. (2004). R.I. Plan Would Help at-risk Students.
Hardy, Lawrence. (2007). Children at Risk: Graduation Day. American School Board Journal,
No. 37907. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2007, at http://www.asbj.com .
eluctance of Parents to Visit the School
ole of Parents in Children's Education
Education has always been a very important part of human existence and has been an inseparable part of human civilization. There has been a lot of development on the education portal and mankind has learned great deal from the education function (Jeynes, 2005). Every milestone which is achieved and every development which is made in any direction is due to the knowledge provided through education. This function has been researched and is very much detailed in terms of style and method. Several researchers and experts have proposed and devised methods which can make education and knowledge imparting more effective and efficient (Hill & Tyson, 2009). Talking about a student at elementary level, it is all the more important to understand the needs of such young individuals and analyze the education function accordingly (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2007). This…
Jeynes, W.H. (2005).A metaanalysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education. 40(3), 237-269.
Stewart, E.B. (2008). School structural characteristics, student effort, peer associations, and parental involvement: The influence of school and individual level factors on academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 40(2), 179-204.
Hill, N.E. & Tyson, D.F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a met analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 740-763.
Hill, N., and Taylor, L. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4) 161-164.
ace to the Top-District fa Analysis
School Grant Programs
On May 22, 2012, the Secretary of Education made public the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) intention to build upon recent achievements in education through the ace to the Top-State programs (ED, 2012a) by offering an additional $383 million in grant funding to local school districts in 2012 (ED, 2012b). The goal of the ace to the Top District (TT-D) Competition is to continue advancing bold innovation and educational standards made possible through state ace to the Top grants. This essay examines the requirements and criteria that must be met in order to apply to the TT-D program.
Eligibility for applying to the TT-D is limited to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) or a consortium of LEAs (ED, 2012c). Based on Title IX, Section 9101, subsection 26, an LEA is defined as a public board of education or other public…
ED. (2012a). Applications for new awards; Race to the Top -- District. Federal Register, 77(159), 49654-49677. Retrieved 5 Nov. 2012 from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-16/pdf/2012-20037.pdf .
ED. (2012b). Race to the Top District Competition draft. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www.ed.gov/race-top/district-competition .
ED. (2012c). Race to the Top -- District Competition: Final requirements and criteria. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/2012-fast-facts.pdf .
ED. (2012d). Race to the Top -- District guidance and frequently asked questions. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/faqs-add-1.pdf .
Chicago's School Systems
"CPS recommends closure of four underperforming charter schools" is about the recent determination that four charter schools in the Chicago area will be closed. The reason for shutting down these schools is that they are underperforming, and not adequately serving the students that they are supposed to provide a quality education. Specifically, three of the schools -- Amandla Charter High School, Shabazz/Sizemore Academy Elementary School, and Larry Hawkins High School -- were on the Academic Warning List last year. As such, they were tasked with designing and implementing remediation plans to help their students to perform better. A review of those remediation plans, however, determined that they were not sufficiently implemented during the present school year. Subsequently, Chicago Public Schools has decided to revoke the charter for these institutions. The fourth school, Bronzeville Lighthouse Charter Elementary School, will not get its charter renewed because it has failed…
You have these, I don't.
Calgary Public School Board
Models of Consultation and Collaboration
hat model of consultation and collaboration am I going to use -- and why? I am employing a combination of approaches to the issues confronting teachers when it comes to illiam Perry and Janna Small. The model devised by Idol, Nevin, Paolucci-hitcomb (INP) (referred to as the "Collaborative Consultation Model"), was specifically designed to help " . . . learners who may be at risk for school failure," learners in "remedial programs," learners who receive "supportive speech and language instruction" (Idol, et al., 1995). In particular, the INP model has proven to be successful for teachers who have "special needs students in their classrooms" (Idol, 348).
Also, I will use the two models employed by the Iowa Department of Education since 2009 -- co-teaching and collaborative consultation.
hat factors have I considered in my decision? As the model by INP puts…
Council for Exceptional Children. (2008). Ethical Principles and Professional Practice Standards
for Special Educators. Special Education Professional Ethical Principles. Retrieved February
16, 2017, from https://www.cec.sped.org .
Crowley, A.A., and Sabatelli, R. M. (2008). Collaborative Childcare Health Consultation: A
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
The NCLB Act (2002) stresses the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics of performance. The Open Group (2003) in defining the need for integration says that the data captured in SIF "are subsequently moved through state information systems to be used.
Federal, state and local dependence on the quality and availability of education data to inform decision-making has never been higher as funding to the school level based on NCLB benchmarks and measure adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements" (Open Group 2003).
All of these many requirements for reporting the performance of learning programs upward through district, municipal, and state and federal levels is to benchmark the effectiveness of teaching programs, adherence to and compliance with NCLB measures of success, and ultimately to define which schools will continue to receive state and federal funding for their programs, or conversely, those schools that will be audited as a result of…
NCLB (2002) - the White House Fact Sheet: No Child Left Behind Act. White House press announcement. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108.html
Open Group (2003) - White paper titled, "The SIF Plan: Advance Education through Interoperability." Published November, 2002. Updated April, 2003. San Francisco, CA. Accessed from the Internet on August 11, 2007 from location: http://www.opengroup.org/comm/case-studies/SIF-casestudy.pdf
SIF Architecture (2007) - Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) Association. Presentation of the architectural elements of the SIF standard. Titled "SIF NCLB State Architecture and Community of Practice" accessed on August 12, 2007 from location: http://sif.edreform.net/download/102/1-6%20SIF%20NCLB%20State%20CoP.ppt
SIF (2007) - Why Interoperability. Description of the Zone integration server in the SIF networking topology. Schools Interoperability Framework Association website content. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location:
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…
references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.
Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.
Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
School Personnel Functions
Personnel functions and their relationship to moving an instructional agenda forward
Ultimately, a school's reputation lies in the hands of its teachers. Hiring, training, and retaining highly effective personnel to give instruction in the classroom must be the cornerstone of any effort to improve education at a school. Without good teachers to impart instruction, the best textbooks, goals, and procedures will not be meaningful. Teaching, however, is a skill as well as a gift, and the administration can strive to support teachers with specific programming efforts.
Hiring and assignments
The first step in creating a more effective educational environment is hiring new teachers that support the mission and values of the school. Given that teachers are likely to be a part of the educational environment for some time, it is essential that teachers are 'on board' with the principal's agenda. ecruiting top candidates from high-quality colleges and…
Crowther, F. (1997). Teachers as leaders - an exploratory framework. The International Journal
of Educational Management, 11(1), 6-13. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229204018?accountid=10901
Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., & Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying effective teachers using performance on the job. The Hamilton Project Policy Brief no. 2006-01. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62008957?accountid=10901 ;
Olsen, B., & Sexton, D. (2009). Threat rigidity, school reform, and how teachers view their work inside current education policy contexts. American Educational Research Journal, 46(1),
In contrast, within the firm, the entrepreneur directs production and coordinates without intervention of a price mechanism; but, if production is regulated by price movements, production could be carried on without any organization at all, well might we ask, why is there any organization?" (Coase, 1937, p. 387) In simpler words if markets are so efficient why do firms exist? Coase explains, "the operation of a market costs something [such as the costs of negotiating and concluding a separate contract for each exchange transaction] and by forming an organization and allowing some authority (an "entrepreneur") to direct the resources, certain marketing costs are saved" (Coase, 1937, p. 391). Thus, firms actually present greater efficiency over markets by decreasing such costs.
That being said, if firms are so efficient, why are markets needed? (Coase, 1937). As per Coase, as the firm grows (when the entrepreneur processes additional transactions), decreasing returns to…
Adams, R.B. And Ferreira, D. (2003) Diversity and Incentives in Teams: Evidence from Corporate Boards. http://ssrn.com/abstract=321095
Agrawal, A. And Knoeber C.R. (1996) Firm Performance and Mechanisms to Control Agency Problems Between Managers and Shareholders Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 31, 377-398.
American Management Associations (AMA) (1981) The Advisory Board Minutes of the National Association of Corporate Directors Meeting. New York (Headquarter)
Bauer, R., Guenster, N. And Otten, R. (2003) Empirical Evidence on Corporate Governance in Europe. The Effect on Stock Returns, Firm Value and Performance. EFMA Basel Meeting Paper http://ssrn.com/abstract=445543
The lack of self-respect in particular characters in the play, like Lady Sneerwell and Joseph, sends the message that some people have higher priorities than self-respect. Lady Sneerwell's deep desire to gain Charles to marry her leads her to a chain of unrespectable acts of intrigues and backbiting, in the process, conspiring with equally dubious characters like Joseph and Snake who also follow selfish and destructive agendas of their own. Forming a derogatory School for Scandal all alone speaks against self-respect as against all of those perpetuating that School. While it seems outwardly pleasurable to prey on other people's mistakes, misfortunes and weaknesses, perpetrators of scandals and hypocrisy do not gain the superiority they want among themselves. Lady Sneerwell, Sir and Lady ackbite, Mrs. Candour and Joseph may share a common objective of destroying relationships and reputation but this destructiveness does not build them up in the real sense, but…
Cordner, Michael, editor. The School for Scandal by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Oxford World Classics: Oxford University, 1998. http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0192825674/026-9
Creasey, Beverley, reviewer. Charming "School for Scandal." The Theater Mirror, 2000. http://www.theatermirror.com/sfsbtber.htm
Lipfest, David. The School for Scandal. CurtanUp Review, 2004. http://www.curtainup.com/school.html
Matthews, Julia. The School for Scandal Notes. The Fine Print, 1998. http://www.gashakespeare.org/plays/1997/scandl-notes.html
School Legal Entanglement Plan
This Legal Entanglement Plan seeks to examine the policies, programs, strategies, and practices of a particular school with respect to its moral, legal, and ethical implications. The plan is developed based on a three-step process that will help in addressing the issue that could potentially become a liability or legal entanglement if left unaddressed. The plan will help in addressing the issue since it will be communicated to appropriate stakeholders.
Step 1 – Analysis
Moral and Legal Issues in School Strategies
One of the moral, ethical or legal issue facing Carson Elementary School in West Price and could escalate into a legal entanglement is school bullying, which poses significant threats on the welfare and well-being of students. Bullying is a broad concept that involves intentional aggression, power imbalance between the perpetrator and victim, and repetitive aggressive behavior (Cornell & Limber, 2015). Carson Elementary School recognizes that…
The dedication shown by the principal, M. Jett, and the two instructors was truly tremendous, and it is obvious that the high-risk students attending ACE Academy are well served. The cramped environment, however, provides a challenge whose effects cannot really be mitigated while the school remains in the same space.
Though ACE Academy is only in its first year of operation, one way in which it could improve its educational process would be to establish an ongoing collaborative system of course adjustment and development, especially with the other schools in the county from which ACE's students come. This enables faster, more effective, and more directly needs-based instruction and courses to be developed (Lake 2003). The expansion of the school's physical size could also allow for the hiring of more instructors (in addition to the two currently employed by ACE Academy), which would further reduce the current student-teacher ratio and allow…
Jett, G. (2010). Personal interview, February 11.
Lake, E. (2003). "Course Development Cycle Time: A Framework for Continuous Process Improvement." Innovative higher education 28(10< pp. 21-33.
The researcher suggests further knowledge in this area may heighten "principals' awareness of the need for keeping an open climate and good communication" (p. 339). Unfortunately, Halawah like many other researchers before him fails to describe what constitutes "good" or "open" communication. One of the primary problems that exists in the multi-faceted workplace as described by Halawah is an inability to communicate in an efficient and concise manner. Teachers and principals must not only communicate amongst each other, but most also work directly with students to ensure students have an opportunity to realize their personal goals and objectives while also recognizing their role in school, at home and in the community. A school climate that embraces culture and community is more likely to realize success than one that does not.
School climate is an important element of education. As noted in this article school climate includes the community that…
Halawah, I. (2005) the relationship between effective communication of high school principal and school climate. Education, 126(2): 334.
Another common use is in the generation of written work. Students can learn to revise and edit using a computer word processing program. Again, this supports the use of computers to learn keyboarding just as we teach manuscript and cursive writing: the keyboard is merely a third way to record information and generate data. Students can also learn to use spreadsheets and databases (Fouts, 2000), which can give them the tools to use computers in another way: to organize information, present it in a new way, or even to generate new information. For instance, even first graders can use a simple spread sheet to count how many red, blue, green and yellow m & m's are in a package, combine the information, average them, and with one or two keystrokes, produce a bar chart. In this way, computers can make higher levels of information available to students.
CHANGES in EDUCATION…
Fouts, Jeffrey T. 2000. "Research on Computers and Education:
Past, Present and Future." Prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Selwyn, Neil. 2000. "Researching computers and education ®¢ glimpses of the wider picture." Computers & Education Vol. 3, pp. 93-101
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
5. What are the top 3 in monetary costs for capital improvement projects recommended for the ensuing fiscal year?
The top 3 costs for Special Warrant Articles for the upcoming budget are: The GMS site de-watering study (including design and cost) at $86,000, GMS/LMS safety locks and video surveillance at $56,431 and finally LMS Emergency Access Road at $44,000.
6. Excluding food service sales what are the top 3 revenue budget lines for the year 05/06?
The top three revenue line for the school year were: Federal Program Grant at $239,042, State School Building Aid at $238,392.16 and revenue from Other Local Sources at $165,049.
7. What is the total dollar amount for appropriations recommended by the School Board?
The total amount recommended by the School Board for the upcoming year is $19,514,314. This includes the $259,854 appropriated to Special Warrant Articles as well as the $19,254,460 appropriated for all…
The environment at School1, were I am employed revolves around the many different standards of behavior and conduct. While much of this conduct is derived by local customs and habits, the imposing of law and order also significantly contributes to what is and what is not allowed. The purpose of this essay is to explore the relationship with both state and federal laws and School 1. This essay will explore the law and its applications to my school by examining key points and relevant issues related to these interactions.
Background Of Trenton School District
It is important to understand the starting point of this discussion in order to see the bigger influences that state and local governments have on the school district. According to the districts website, the mission of this school district is " All students will graduate with a vision for their futures, motivated to learn…
Brown v Board of Education is one of the most famous landmark cases in American court history. Set against the backdrop of the early 1950s, just as the civil rights movement was beginning to heat up, Brown v Board of Education changed the face of American schools in a significant way and set the stage for further more sweeping reforms in other areas, such as worker discrimination and fair labor laws.
The stage for the conditions that led to Brown v Board of Education was a set of laws that rose out of the civil war restoration period called the Jim Crow laws. These laws varied from state to state and existed primarily in the South. These laws created separation of whites from blacks. Some of these laws include that blacks must sit at the back of the bus and relinquish their seat if a white passenger needed, blacks were…
Bolling v Sharpe U.S. District Court, Washington D.C. (1947)
Briggs v Elliott U.S. District Court. (1950)
Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (USSC+) Syllabus
Cozzens, Lisa. "Brown v. Board of Education." African-American History. (Online) May 25, 1998. http://fledge.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html . Accessed November, 2002.
When Brown vs. Board of Education came to the courts the judges ruled that the school law allowing "separate but equal educations" was unconstitutional which set the stage for the later examination of special education students being "separate but equal" in the district's treatment of their education.
I agree with the decision that was handed down and believe that one justice decision summed up the facts when it comes to any student, including racially divided or special educationally divided or gender divided students when he said:
Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken…
Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)
Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Williams Case Settlement
Mr. Governor, our youth represents our state's future - addressing and correcting the discrepancies that will be addressed in this memo should be a main priority and maybe even the ultimate objective of the Williams Class action lawsuit educational budget adjustments. The Courts have spoken and have obviously concurred that the California Educational System has been broken for quite some time and is in need of serious financial reform. The decision reached by the courts in the Williams' Class action lawsuit affirms the requirement of the State's obligation to provide an adequate educational process for this state's citizens.
The Williams' Class action lawsuit has become a successful demonstration that points out the blearing differences between an education received by our states rich and poor children when it comes to a K. through 12th grade education. The California State Legislature has confirmed that there is a significant funding…
Hill, John (2002). School Cutbacks Concern Analysts. Bee Capitol Bureau.
School cutbacks concern analyst
Hill warns lawmakers the governor's proposed budget-cutting plan could cause undue harm in classrooms.
John Hill -- Bee Capitol Bureau
The fair / unfair distribution of school resources. In 2000, the ACLU filed suit (Williams et al. v. State of California et al.), claiming that the obligation of the state to provide all students with "basic educational necessities" was not fulfilled. One million of California's students are deprived of educational basics, such as qualified teachers, decent school facilities, and appropriate textbooks.
An important part of these problems are caused by the inadequacy of the school system funding in the state. Others are problems to be solved by individual school districts, since they are seen as a local management problem.
The new concept behind the reform of school finance of California is the "weighted student formula" or "student-based budgeting," which is believed to be a way to a more equitable and effective school funding system. Still, skeptics doubt that it the concept is applicable to California's 9,000 schools serving 6 million…
1. Californians rank low in education, highway spending
Larry Barrett. The Business Journal. San Jose: Jun 17, 1996. pg. 1
2. Tiebout and tax revolts: Did Serrano really cause Proposition 13?
Kirk Stark, Jonathan Zasloff. UCLA Law Review. Los Angeles: Feb 2003.Vol.50, Iss. 3; pg. 801
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. hile the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms,…
Access Control & Security Systems Integration Facility Systems Staff. "Devising an effective school security plan." Access Control & Security Systems Integration (1 July 2000).
Bowman, Darcia Harris. "Federal Study Stresses Warning Signs of School Violence."
Education Week 21(15)(12 Dec 2001), 12.
Clinton, Bill. "Memorandum on the School Uniforms Manual." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (March 4, 1996), 368-369.
Guidance and Counseling Program for a school or a community Agency
Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide of the - Public School
Guidance and counseling has been included as a professional course by the Higher Education Commission document publicized in 2010. The teachers must have a basic know how about the school guidance and counseling techniques in order to tackle the personal and social issues which students face within the classroom as per Higher Education Commission (2012). Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide of the - Public School is a brief explanation of design, application and assessment of SPS school counseling program (Dahir, 2009).
Objectives of the model:
The basic aims of this model are as follows:
Outlining school counseling and transitioning of conventional practice into transformed practice (Dahir, 2009).
Comprehending the different roles the guidance and counseling system entails for backing the students in their future goals and social challenges
Connecticut State Department of Education (2008).Comprehensive School Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/PDF/DEPS/Special/counseling.pdf
Dahir, C. (2009).Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide. Working Document. Retrieved from http://www.sps.springfield.ma.us/webContent/Policies/Comprehensive%20School%20Counseling%20Program%20Guide%20&%20Appendix.pdf
Higher Education Commission (2012).Introduction to Guidance and Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.hec.gov.pk/InsideHEC/Divisions/AECA/CurriculumRevision/Documents/GuidanceCounseling_Sept13.pdf
Gysbers, N.C., & Henderson, P. (2001). Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future. Professional School Counseling, 4 (4), 246-259. Retrieved from http://fcett.nu.edu/sites/default/files/file_file/gysbers_history.pdf
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
The idea of the culture wars is introduced here, and these culture wars begin to illustrate just how our continued dependence on the dominant Protestant Anglo-American culture has formed and influenced America's schools throughout out history. The chapter also introduces the concepts of racism and democracy, and demonstrates how these two opposite ideals often live together in our culture. The "culture wars" grew over the whites perceived "superiority" over other cultures in our country, and eventually, the dominant culture in America became the Protestant Anglo-American culture, and this dominance continues today.
The concept of education in colonial times is discussed in this chapter, along with early education's relationship to religion in the schools. It also shows the differing attitudes people of the times had about children, and how the idea that schools and educational theories could influence national thought was first introduced. The chapter also discusses the social…
Spring, Joel. The American School 1642-2000, 5th edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
Property tax relief is a subject that arises when the elderly or poor struggle to meet their property tax burdens. If they are long-term residents, they can be caught up when their neighborhood sees a dramatic increase in property values. There are sometimes mechanisms that governments use in order to provide relief.
Both tax credits and rebates can be used to help return some of the money paid or that is owing from eligible property owners, in order to help relieve from of the burden. This method is direct, and puts the money back into the hands of those who need it. However, this method relies on being able to determine who needs relief. People often have control over their financial situation so an inability to pay does not necessarily reflect somebody with a lack of opportunity to pay. It can be hard to qualify people for relief because of…
TLC. (2006). State roles in financing public school facilities. TLC Research Division. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubspol/OnlineFinancePubSch.pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012). Property tax reduction allocations. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335
Issues: Did the Board's actions contravene W.S. § 21-4-301 and 21-13-307(a)(ii)? Did the Board have statutory and common law authority to implement alternative scheduling? Did the Board have statutory or common law justification for violation of the Wyoming Education Code? Did the Board's actions violate equal protection?
easoning: The Court was not required to investigate the merits of the proposed program, because whether or not the program was legal was not related to its legality. W.S. § 21-4-301 mandates that each school district "shall operate its schools and classes for a minimum of one hundred seventy-five (175) days each school year." W.S. § 21-13-307(a)(ii) directs that school districts operating for 180 days or more are entitled to share in funds from the foundation account.
Analysis: The extended day program would have shortened the school term to less than 175 days, which would have violated W.S. § 21-4-301, and would have…
Morgan v. Polk County Board of Education 328 S.E. 2d 320 (N.C. Ct. App. 1985).
Johnson v. Board of Education of Trustees, Sch. Dist. #1, 661 P. 2d 1045 (Wyo. 1983).
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…
ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.
ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.
ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
Based on Interviews of Two Schools and Their Impact on Future Work as an Educator
A school community encapsulates people that are intimately related to each other, such as teachers, students, administrators, and families of the students. It sometimes includes people from different backgrounds, cultures and ethnicities that gather at one place for a specific period of time to gain knowledge and interact on daily basis (edding, 1991, p. 7). This paper makes comparisons of two selected schools after making observations of the communities within and conducting interviews with one adult of each school. The further sections of this paper discuss the observations and their impact on being a future educator or member of school community.
Comparison and Contrast of the Salient Aspects of Two Schools
The two selected schools were of comparable stature and in the same region. The observations, however brought to fore some individual aspects over…
Erkilic, T. A. (2008). Importance of educational philosophy in teacher training for educational sustainable development. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 3. Retrieved from http://idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr3(1)/1.pdf
Hajizad, M. (2011). Analysis of professional teachers in providing quality skills upgrading methods model checklist. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 8. Retrieved from http://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr8(1)11/25.pdf
Redding, S. (1991). What is a school community, anyway? The School Community Journal, 1. Retrieved from http://www.adi.org/journal/fw91%5CEditorial-ReddingFall1991.pdf
Saglam, H.I. (2011). An investigation of teaching materials used in social studies lesson. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10. Retrieved from http://www.tojet.net/articles/v10i1/1014.pdf
collaborative criteria carried out in my school.
Quality of education delivered to students is one of the top priorities of our school, and over the years, our school uses collaborative criteria to deliver high quality education for students. The strategy employed to deliver effective quality education is to use collaborative criteria in using evaluation strategy to identify areas that needs improvement in the school teaching practice. A school evaluation program is one of the criteria that occur in my school. The school principal, vice principal, teachers and school boards work together to implement a school evaluation in my school. In a climate of respect and trust, my school makes a consultation with parents and students to improve the school learning environment. The major reason for the collaborative criteria is to prepare for the external evaluation from the school board. In the United States, the Europe and countries taking education very…
Bogue, R. (2013). Use S.M.A.R.T. goals to launch management by objectives plan. TechRepublic.
Barr, H., Koppel, I., Reeves, S., et al. (2005). Effective Interprofessional Education: Argument, assumption and evidence. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Goodwin, G.F., & Burke, C.S. (2008). Team effectiveness in complex organizations . New York: Psychology Press.
Therefore, courts are placed in the position of determining whether or not speech falls into the category of a true threat. "A true threat is a statement that a reasonable recipient would have interpreted as a serious expression of an intent to harm or cause injury to another." Doe v. Pulaski County Special School District, 306 F.3d 616, 626 (8th Cir. 2002). Furthermore, to determine whether speech is a threat, it is not necessary that the speaker intend to carry out the threat or be able to carry out the threat, but the speaker has to intentionally convey the threat to someone. Planned Parenthood of the Columbia/Willamette, Inc. v. Am. Coalition of Life Activists, 290 F.3d 1058, 1075 (9th Cir. 2002).
Analysis: The case was not moot because the school district would be permitted to document the incident in its records if the Court reversed the trial court's decision.
Church of Scientology of Cal. V. United States, 506 U.S. 9 (1992).
Doe v. Pulaski County Special School District, 306 F.3d 616 (8th Cir. 2002).
Planned Parenthood of the Columbia/Willamette, Inc. v. Am. Coalition of Life Activists, 290
F.3d 1058, 1075 (9th Cir. 2002).
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.
Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
police protection at schools in light of the sniper attacks as well as the school shootings that have occurred over the years. The paper presents a study proposal and a critique of literature about the public's desire and willingness to support police protection being placed in elementary and middle schools on a daily basis. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
One of the things that Americans pride themselves on is the freedom that is afforded by living here. That freedom includes the refusal to become a police state or anything that represents a police state. Currently the nation is at a crossroads however, when it comes to the students in schools. For the last several years students have been shooting students, strangers have been shooting students and most recently the DC sniper has targeted students. Parents are becoming less and less sure of the school's abilities to…
Colavecchio, Shannon (2001). OFFICERS GET SCHOOLING IN PREVENTING CAMPUS VIOLENCE., The Palm Beach Post, pp 1A.
____(1998). HOUSE PASSES MALONEY SCHOOL COPS BILL., States News Service,.
Gold, Maria (2002). Police Presence in Schools Is An Asset, Report Says; Resource Officers Handle Mostly Minor Incidents., The Washington Post, pp T04.
____(2002). MORELLA ANNOUNCES FEDERAL COPS IN SCHOOLS GRANT FOR MONTGOMERY COUNTY., Capitol Hill Press Releases,.
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…
Barber, A. (1997. March). Rough language plagues schools, educators say. USA Today, pp 06D.
Committee for increasing high school students' engagement and motivation to learn. National Academies. Internet. http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+_by+_PIN/BCYF-I-01-01-A?OpenDocument.Available on August 25, 2003.
Doyle, M. Failing to connect: Schools face increased pressure when students flunk classes. The Columbian, March 16, 2003, pp Front Page.
Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994. January). Internet. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/.Available on August 25, 2003.
America, having the perfect schools has long been thought to be the panacea of all our nation's social troubles. If only we could teach our children to master America's social values while still in school, we could produce a population of perfect engineers for our future society. Injustice, racism, poverty, and all the other social illnesses of America would be cured by this new generation of progressive thinkers. The quality of our nation's education system needs to be improved, and President Bush's education reform plan will do just that.
It is obvious that the so-called "progressive" educational approach has failed. The academic knowledge of our children has fallen in comparison to other industrial nations. In an attempt to stem our nation's slide in educational rankings, government expenditures for education have risen dramatically. Every year, billions of taxpayer dollars are poured into the U.S. education system. The government seems to believe…
Digest of Education Statistics, 1991." National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2002/digest2001/ch6.asp .
Economic & Social Data Ranking. http://web.hhs.se/personal/suzuki/o-English/UnitedStates.html.
Frase, Larry E, and William Streshly. Top Ten Myths in Education. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2000.
Hirsch, E.D. The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. New York: Doubleday, 1996
Preventing Dropouts Among Minority Middle School Students
The dropout rate of minority middle school students is rising. This can be contributed to a number of factors that cultivate frustration and develop low self-esteem among minority adolescent students. Middle school students already struggle with self-image issues, but when the added pressure of factors such as low literacy skills, poverty within the home, early pregnancy and low regard for education are also introduced, these students become lost in the system and develop the desire to give up or dropout thus eliminating their opportunity to break the cycle of poverty by becoming educated and obtaining higher level paying employment.
Statement of Significance
The educational sector is under pressure to meet the new federally mandated guidelines of the "No Child Left Behind" legislation. Early childhood education has previously been the focus of the national goal that every child will read by the time they…
Adam, M. (2003). Fighting the latino dropout rate. Education Digest, 6, 23-28.
Banfield, K., Johnson, P, Thomas, P., Thieroff, A. (2002). Defying latino statistics. New York
Amsterdam News, 10, 18.
Benz, M.R., Lindstrom, L., & Yovanoff, P. (2000). "Improving graduation and employment outcomes of students with disabilities: Predictive factors and student perspectives. Exceptional Children, 66(4), 509-529.
Censorship, the Internet, and Schools
Describe two implications for schools from the CIPA policy rulings, and two reasons for opposition to the policy
The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was legislated in the year 2000, obliging public schools and libraries to set up specific technology that restricts internet access to graphic depictions that are indecent, child pornography, or detrimental to minors (Finsness, 2008). One of the implications of these policy rules is that it infringes on intellectual freedom. This is in the sense that it goes against the First Amendment, as intellectual freedom is the right of every person to seek as well as receive information from all perspectives devoid of limitation. Secondly, there is the implication of impacting the capability of students to gain access to information they require for school (Finsness, 2008). Being in a fast-paced technological area and with students having to attain such skills for writing…
Batch, K. R. (2014). Fencing Out Knowledge: Impacts of the Children's Internet Protection Act 10 Years Later. American Library Association, Policy Brief No. 5.
Finsness, L. S. (2008). The implications of internet filters in secondary schools (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA).
Flowers, B. F., & Rakes, G. C. (2000). Analyses of Acceptable Use Policies Regarding the Internet in Selected K -- 12 Schools. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(3), 351-365.
Hu, Q. (2004). To Censor or Not to Censor at the School Library. State University of New York.
school context' as discussed in the oyd reference
Schools represent complex organisms having several components. For achieving school improvement, understanding these components' interrelations is essential. Attempts at improving schooling for the at-risk student population necessitate taking the school context into consideration. oyd (n.d.) states that the ecology, which forms the first aspect, encompasses a school's inorganic components (i.e., non-living things that affect individuals within the school setting; e.g., resources at hand, school size, rules, and policies).
Culture constitutes another aspect of a school setting/context. It may be described as an expression aiming to capture social institutions' (including schools') informal side. Schein (1985) outlines numerous culture-related meanings apparent in literature on the subject:
• Perceived behavior regularities in human interactions, including language employed and practices linked to deportment and respect.
• Norms developing within work groups; for instance, the principle "fair day's wage for a fair day's work" developed during the…
Boyd, V. (n.d.). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Retrieved December 2016 from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED370216.pdf
Purkey, S.C. & Smith, M.S. (1983). Effective schools: A review. The Elementary School Journal, 83(4), pp. 427-452.
Schein, E.H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Sarason, S.B. (1982). Culture of the school and the problem of change, 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Banning Books in High School
Book Banning and Censorship
Social groups, including religious organizations, parents, and school administration among others, make decisions daily about what material will become a part of the regular school curriculum and what material will be excluded. Many decisions are made based on the educational value of text books and other learning material. However, many decisions are unfortunately made without educational potential in mind, but rather on the basis of what is considered to be profane or proper based on the opinions of certain people that feel they have the moral authority to make such decisions. American schools have always been built on the principle that children must be protected from that which is inappropriate for them to see, hear, or experience. "American schools have been pressured to restrict or deny students access to books or periodicals deemed objectionable by some individual or group on moral,…
Dimensions of the Interactive Team," the authors explore what constitutes the ideal structure of a team and seek to illustrate its key features. The chapter explains the dimensions of interactive teaming, and discusses limitations that may serve as a barrier to the effective establishment of such a team. I feel that the chapter reflects the authors' synthesis of well-regarded attempts to explore these dimensions, both within the field of education and in general project management. The concept of Total Quality Management, widely respected in industrial management circles, is introduced as relevant within the field of education when focusing on the needs of individual students.
The authors rely on the experience of education theorists and practitioners to collect evaluations that are predicated on the observation of effective teamwork. They cite Wangemann, Ingram & Muse, who reviewed information on successful associations and found these essential ingredients: Clarity of Purpose, complementary dissimiliarity between…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=80942431"(1997). Student-Centered Teams in Schools: Still in Search of an Identity. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 8(1), 3-20. Bailey, B.R., & Murray-Branch, J. (1993). Collaborative Communication Programming: Providing a Meaning-Based Curriculum to Students with Severe Multiple Disabilities. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 4(1), 29-47. MacKinnon, C.T. (2000). The Politics of Community Participation in a Public School. Educational Studies, 31(3), 225-248. Nevin, A. (1990). Collaborative Consultation: Empowering Public School Personnel to Provide Heterogeneous Schooling for All -- Or, Who Rang That Bell?. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 1(1), 41-67. Welch, M. (1998). The Idea of Collaboration in Special Education: an Introspective Examination of Paradigms and Promise. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 9(2), 119-142.
Carol Chase Thomas, Vivian Ivonne Correa, Catherine Voelker Morsink. (2000). Interactive Teaming: Enhancing Programs for Students with Special Needs (3rd Edition)
United States 2000 Decenial Census. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. www.census.gov