Human Resource Management Under Graduate Term Paper

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policies of the trade unionists of the United Kingdom and they various interest and benefits which are provided to employees in response to various theories of economist keeping in view the effects of good employee relationships. It will also consider the importance of maintaining good relationships b/w employers and employees and what are the effects of such positive relationship.

United Kingdoms Trade Unionists in the 20th Century

Labor unions are those organizations of workers or employees who act jointly to negotiate with their employers over wages, extreme benefits, working conditions, and other aspect of employment. The main function of unions is to provide a balance for the market control exerted over labor by big business. Labor unions consist of various occupations working under one name or organization for a specific cause.

Trade union comprise of labor union composed of workers in the same occupation, but not necessarily in the same industry, producing the same product, or employed by the same firm. Common examples of craft unions are for plumbers, carpenters, and musicians. Craft unions generally exert market control by limiting the number of suppliers. (Amosweb economics, 2004)

Thus, trade unions and labor unions consist of individuals who work for the benefits of the industries that are working under the unions. They form new theories and concepts that work for the upliftment of the industries and business working under the specific union and its members. They also work for improving relationships between employer and employees and explain the benefits of having and maintaining good and positive relationships in the work place.

Trade union recognition is where an employer recognizes a trade union as representing a group of workers for the purposes of negotiating on certain matters. Recognition may be agreed in writing, by a course of dealings or through statutory procedures. Recognition of a union by an employer has important legal consequences. An employer has a statutory obligation to consult representatives of recognized unions in the following matters:

Collective redundancies

Where there is a transfer of an undertaking

In relation to health and safety issues.

Trade unions recognized under the statutory procedure are also entitled to be informed and consulted about training.


Trade unions in and around the world are based on various theories and concepts on which the unions put its base and start its activities. These concepts vary from union to union, some of the common concepts of trade unions include:

1. Collective contracting and location operation of various industries.

2. Collective contracting as standard way of selecting employees for industries.

3. Collective contracting as a regulating instrument of the labor market.

4. The contract and negotiation between employers and employees and partner industries.

5. Collective contracting and trade union freedom in all aspects of trade and finance.

6. Collective contracting as a regulating instrument of industrial relations systems in every prospect of the industrial regions.

7. Collective contracting and the power of the industrialist; management collective bargaining and the various other powers that are contradicted to industrialism.

8. The government and collective contracting, the arrangement that's are popularly made between governments and industries.

9. The law and collective contracting. Contracting with law, the unbreakable one sidedness of the law, Collective contracting of the law. Determining collective contracting limits. Especially, which are made in consideration with industrialists and unions. (Andy Charlwood, 2004)


Trade unions are multi-purpose institutions and groups of individuals.

Their perceived role and aims will vary depending on one's analytical and political orientation and conceptualisations. In practice, it is possible that union members within a single trade union may have differing views as to the central purpose of the union and its activities, and hence strategies and tactics to be pursued by, their union. In some instances commentators (e.g. Hayack of the neo-liberal or New Right persuasion) believe trade unions have no legitimate purpose - having a negative impact on the efficient functioning of labour markets for all parties i.e. The employer, the state and employees.

Whether trade union members are active or passive will have an impact on their perspective:

Active unionists may be anxious for trade unions to follow democratic principles - majority rule and maximum decentralisation to facilitate member involvement - possibly in pursuit of ideological goals for the prospect of the union and the industry, especially for the benefit of the employees by the facilities of the unions. These active unionists follow the principles and remain involved for their personal beneficiaries and the union's enhancement.

Passive members may have more pragmatic aims, judging success based on whether unions deliver improved working conditions and rewards. In return, they may be willing to accept greater centralisation in day-to-day union agenda setting. These members work for the increase and upgrade for the unions benefits and come up with new policies and theories that work for the enhancement of the union's members and its counterpart industries. They work in and out by producing new changes that are for the benefit of the unions and its activist.

External influences

External influences are the actions that may be taken by the union parties for the system other than trade unions employers and the state to influence perceptions regarding a lawful purpose for trade unions and its other counterpart unions. The degree of involvement of trade unions and labour unions in the workplace by employers and the extent of negotiation, consultation and/or partnership i.e. For setting the agenda for competent collective interaction by employers and their employees will reflect the narrowness or breadth of their view of union purpose. This may vary on a scale between attempts by employers, employees or industries to exclude unions, through tolerance and institutionalised bargaining and consultation, to models of industrial democracy, where unions are seen as partners and associates and colleagues in achieving organisational success, with legitimate interests to be acknowledged. (Trade Union Objectives & Members, 2004)

The advent of single unionism is believed to be part of the alleged 'Japanisation' of Britain in the 1980s in that situation, a break from UK tradition of multi-union, often industry-wide bargaining, where employers, while recognising unions, took steps to set boundaries to their involvement without taking into consideration the employees.

This kind of 'business unionism' was apparently willingly accepted by some unions, who competed in 'beauty parades' for recognition and for attaining personal goodness and worth. Their view of purpose, then, seemed to be one of practicality to secure recognition, even if this meant competing within the labour movement and a circumscribed, non-political role. Their main aim was self-recognition and self-worth, they didn't not worry about other unions or industries.

The state has also taken steps to enact its own statement of purpose for unions, by legislation and regulation. This has included the step in the late 1960s and 1970s by labour governments to replace a situation where they believed the orderly, institutionalised role of unions was being undermined by local shop actions and the incidence of 'industrial strife' that lacked central co-ordination. In those times the government was keenly taking part in union activities and was involved in every aspect that caused an economic uproar in industries. (A Trade Union Digest of Organizations and Resources on International Development Issues)

Conservative governments similarly attempted to regulate union activity with the 1973 Industrial Relations Act, a 'corporatist' attempt to underpin the conduct of industrial revolutions with the force of law i.e. An initiative intended to incorporate this potential source of disruption to the socio-economic system, and restore it to equilibrium.

In view of the failure of this, due to both union and employers rejecting the removal of traditions of voluntarism and hardening attitudes towards the very existence of unions, the Thatcher governments of the 1980s instituted a cumulative programme of law to restrict the scope of union activity both at a national and workplace level. On a pan-European basis, only really starting to become prominent in practice in the 1990s, encouragement has been given to 'social partnership' between employers and unions, encouraging consultation and continuous dialogue, notably with the advent of European Works Councils, prescribed under EU directives. Britain's withdrawal of its opt-out of the European Social Chapter, following the election of the 'new' Labour government in 1997 has suggested a change of emphasis in the UK state's view of unions' role, as part of a partnership 'agenda'. But, as the Prime Minister reminded TUC delegates at their 1999 annual conference, this should not be interpreted as a return to 'old' Labour attitudes, where unions enjoyed 'estate of the realm' status. National union 'barons' featured heavily as 'insiders' in Cabinet policy deliberations, culminating in the failed 'social compact' between Labour and the unions in the period immediately prior to what became known as the "winter of discontent'" (1978-79), shortly before the advent of almost two decades of continuous Conservative government. As Mr. Blair put it:

You run the unions. We run government. We shall never confuse the two again.

History of Unions)


Trade and labour unions require various methods of application of…[continue]

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