Hysterectomy Refers to a Surgical Term Paper

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The information comprises of the life styles, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and usage of medicine, weight and history of dieting, gynecologic history, psychological factors, and social background. Among all such factors the study revealed that the hypertension and the use of diuretics were crucial risk factors for hysterectomy which are found prevalent among the educated women and women having weight fluctuations. The study thus concluded that the history of hypertension, weight cycling, and absence or less of education are inextricably related to constitute the risk elements for pre-menopausal hysterectomy. Hypertension is regarded as a plausible biological factor of menorrhagia and a cause for hysterectomy. (Settnes; Jorgensen, 1998)

Not withstanding the clinical indications, the rate of hysterectomy varies in accordance with the personal or demographic characteristics of women. The studies, however, depicts inconsistency on the influence of the race, education, and socio-economic status of the patient on hysterectomy. Some of the studies reveal that the African-American women with less education and with no children are more likely to have hysterectomy. The studies conducted by Kjerluff, Guzinski, Langenberg reveal that the average age-adjusted rate of hysterectomy was more in respect of African-American women in comparison to that of white women. Actually, the average age at hysterectomy was considered younger in African-American women in all the diagnostic cases. (Geller; Burns; Brailer, 1996)

The racial differences are also evident in case of certain diagnoses. About 65.4% of the cases relating to hysterectomy are tend to be found among that of the African-American women who appear to suffer mostly from uterine fibroids but in case of white women the rate is only 25.5%. The white women mostly diagnosed for endometriosis, cancer, uterine prolapse or menstrual disorders. However, the studies conducted by Wilcox, Koonin, Pokras and others conducted during the year 1994 reveals that the rate of total hysterectomy in the case of African-American women were quite similar to those in the case for white women. The reports which are being generated by Health Care Financing Administration -- HCFA during 1993 indicates that about 54% of hysterectomies case relates to whites other than that of the blacks. (Geller; Burns; Brailer, 1996)

Irrespective of the fact that hysterectomy constitutes the most general surgery for women that is not associated with pregnancy. But sufficient attention is not being paid to the way in matters relating to the exposure of women to surgery varies in accordance with their social features and also attitudinal/behavior characteristics. The study conducted by Chung-won Lee, Michael B. Toney, and Edna H. Berry by retrieving data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women, found out the relationship between socio-economic status and hysterectomy and also the influence of attitudinal/behavioral features on hysterectomy. The study by means of the Cox proportional hazard evaluation could reveal that the response of women to the exposure to hysterectomy considerably varies in accordance with their social and attitudinal standings. Social attributes considered statistically to be the prime risk elements of hysterectomy incorporate the education, employment and marital status of women. The empirically important risk factors among the attitudinal and behavioral factors are considered to be the focal point of control of women and number of children. (Non-clinical risk factors of hysterectomy)

To conclude, hysterectomy is a surgery that removes the uterus of women. The fallopian tubes, ovaries, and cervix are also removed in some extreme cases. This is considered as a solution for a number of diseases and conditions. This is a life saving device resorted to commonly in case of the cancerous uterus or ovaries or hemorrhage of the uterus. However, wide choices are there as alternatives for hysterectomy and it depend upon the patient to choose the appropriate one. This is method undertaken with an objective of improving the quality of life, to relieve pain and heavy bleeding or other chronic conditions and discomfort.


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Hysterectomy" New York State: Department of Health. Retrieved at http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/consumer/women/hyster.htm. Accessed 4 November, 2005

Lee, Chung-won; Toney, Michael B; Berry, Edna H. "Non-clinical risk factors of hysterectomy" The 130th Annual Meeting of APHA. Retrieved at http://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_47155.htm. Accessed 5 November, 2005

Osborn, M. F; Gath. DH (August, 1990) "Psychological and physical determinants of premenstrual symptoms before and after hysterectomy. Psychological Medicine. Vol: 20; No: 3; pp: 565-572

Roeske, N.C. (September 1978) "Quality of life and factors affecting the response to hysterectomy" Journal of Family Practice. Vol: 7; No: 3; pp: 483-488.

Settnes, A; Jorgensen, T. (1998) "Hypertension and hysterectomy in Danish women"

Obstetrics & Gynecology. Vol: 92; Vol: 3; pp: 274-280

Settnes, A; Jorgensen, T; Lange A.P. (May, 1997) "Hysterectomy in a Danish population:

Weight-related factors, psychological factors and life style variables" Ugeskr Laeger. Vol: 26; No: 159(22) pp: 3408-3412

Geller, S. E; Burns, L. R; Brailer, D.J. (February, 1996) "The impact of non-clinical factors on practice variations: The case of hysterectomies" (February, 1996) Vol: 30; No: 6. Health Services Research. Vol: 30; No: 6;…[continue]

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