"Sometimes abbreviated as WP, a word processor is a software program capable of creating, storing, and printing documents. Unlike the standard typewriter, users using word processors have the ability of creating a document and making any changes anywhere in the document. This document can also be saved for modification at a later time or to be opened on any other computer using the same word processor. (Computer Hope, 2011)" Microsoft's Word is a word processor and there are other ones as well such as Apple iWork, Corel WordPerfect, and Sun StarOffice. Amongst the various office automated systems, the word processor is one of the most used thereto.
This type of database is one of the first of its kind and is still present in older or legacy systems. "Each cell in a table may have a table underneath it, which is similar to the filing system of most computer operating systems. There are directories and subdirectories where each can contain files or other subdirectories. (Hernandez, 2011)" Thus, a hierarchical database shows parent/child relationships that can be represented like a tree structure. The parent-child relationship is one-to-many where the parent can have many children but each child is only identified with one parent. Hierarchical database formed the basis of most modern database types today.
3. Flat Database
The flat database is the simplest or most basic type of database. It is "a simple table where records have no structured interrelationship. This type of database may even be a text file (Hernandez, 2011)" and the table present therein has to interconnection with other tables like in a relational database. The basic Excel spreadsheet without macros linking to other tables is a good example of a flat database. Generally, a flat database is two-dimensional comprising only of data fields and records. Aside from plain text file, flat database may be in the form of binary file and each line in either text file or binary file represents a record.
4. Object-Oriented Database
Majority of databases in used today are relational databases where the structure and design of which can show relations and interconnections between and amongst entities, tables and systems the relational database is used for. One such relational database is the object-oriented database which "stores data together with the appropriate methods for accessing it (i.e. encapsulation). This enables complex data types to be stored and have a wide range of data types in the same database (e.g. multimedia applications); thus, making it easier to follow objects through time (e.g. evolutionary applications). (ODBMS.org, 2005)" Most present day applications utilize the object-oriented database model because of the versatility of this database type.
5. Stand Alone Information System
The usual deployment of an information system is via interconnection with other information systems and devices. There are cases though where a particular information system will have no interconnectivity whatsoever and will function or operate on its own. This type of deployment makes the information system a standalone information system whereby it operates independently of other information systems as a result of either was no need to integrate the information system with other systems or the security requirements thereof necessitates the independent functioning of the information system. Any information system can be on a standalone mode depending on the determination of the owning organization if there is a requirement to do so.
6. Hospital Information System
The hospital information system is a specialized system used in medical facilities such as hospitals and clinics. This information system "all hospital functions and activities such as patient records, scheduling, administration, charge-back and billing, and often links to or includes clinical information systems (Introduction to HIS, 2007)" that includes pharmacy information system, radiology information system, etc. A hospital information system can be deemed as an enterprise system because several information systems are integrated thereto in order to have various data and information available to particular users of the system. Even some administrative systems such as billing and insurance information systems are integrated with the hospital information system.
7. Specialty Information System
A specialty information system as the term denotes is an information system developed and deployed to meet specific specialized needs and requirements of an organization. Often, specialized information systems are custom-developed and the success of the deployment and implementation depends highly on the detailed gathering of system requirements specification during the initial phases of the system development life cycle. For instance, an organization engaged in deep see diving and archaeology; if there are no available systems in the market the organization will hire the services of developers or software development companies to develop their specialize and specific information systems requirements.
8. Administrative Information System
Administrative information systems include all information systems that support the storage, retrieval and maintenance of information supporting the administrative services of the organization (University of Alberta, 2011). These include human resources information system (HRIS), financial information system (FIS), and other non-core services system. This means that an organization engaged in sales and marketing will have the administrative information system providing support and services to the major information systems in used such as business intelligence system, decision support system, and sales and marketing system. Thus, any information system that only supports the core competencies of the organization falls under the administrative information system.
9. Operations Support Systems
Telecommunications is a critical industry providing important services to people and organization ranging from static and mobile telephone and Internet services to high-level and strategic communications. The provision thereto will not be possible without an information system servicing and supporting the various functions; operations support systems are responsible for this. Operations support systems "are dedicated specifically to providers of telecommunications services. The processes supported by OSS systems include service management and maintenance of the network inventory (modules: Service Inventory Management and Network Inventory Management), configuration of particular network components as well as fault management. (OSS-system.net, 2009)" OSS are specialized systems that require detailed specifications during development to support the business it is developed for.
10. Documentation System
A documentation system is often referred to as document management system that "includes every action taken with a document from creation, distribution, storage, collaboration and deletion of documents (Luit Infotech Private Limited, 2011)." A documentation system may be as simple as a record and filing system up to enterprise level ones providing end-to-end documentation systems. Some documentation systems are able to transform manual or hard copies into digital ones and the storage of which are indexed for easy retrieval and viewing. An effective document management system is very useful in streamlining business processes and increase organizational productivity and efficiency (Luit Infotech Private Limited, 2011).
11. Electronic Medical Record
Electronic medical record is the digital form "of health-related information on an individual that is created, gathered, managed, and consulted by licensed clinicians and staff from a single organization who are involved in the individual's health and care (Neal, 2008)." This kinds of record are often contained in hospital information systems or medical management information systems. Electronic medical record is different from electronic health record since the former refers to individuals while the latter is "the aggregate electronic record of health-related information on an individual that is created and gathered cumulatively across more than one health care organization and is managed and consulted by licensed clinicians and staff involved in the individual's health and care (Neal, 2008)."
Spreadsheets originate as an accounting tool in paper form containing pertinent financial information. A spreadsheet began as "a large sheet of paper with columns and rows that organizes data about transactions for a business person to examine. It spreads or shows all of the costs, income, taxes, and other related data on a single sheet of paper for a manager to examine when making a decision. (Power, 2002)" With computerization, spreadsheets now come in digital forms or various applications such as Microsoft's Excel. These electronic spreadsheets are very versatile and functional because formulas and macros can be inputted especially regularly used functions.
13. Presentation / Graphical
A presentation as the term denotes is something that can be demonstrated or shown. In the milieu of computerization, a presentation can be in digital form and developed using various presentation programs like Microsoft Excel. Presentations can be textual or containing various graphics and other multimedia. Graphical presentations contain not only texts but graphs and different designs and visual arts. The more sophisticated ones are those developed with video and sounds and can be embedded in presentations or are different presentation media altogether. Presentations have become important means of providing information to target audience and are valuable tools in training and education.
14. Decision Aid
Any entities, whether persons, organizations and objects, can be decision aids or those that contribute to the rendering of a decision or decision making process. Decision aid can also come in the form of information systems such as decision support systems and executive information systems. Although there are various decision aids, these aids should be specific to the aspects…