Much like the Knirk and Gustafson design model, Kemp's model is also small scale and can be used for individual lessons.
In comparing Gange's Nine Steps of Instruction and Kemp's Design Model, several topics are included in both. Obviously both identify goals and objectives and making this information known to the student. Designing and delivering instructional experiences with specifically selected resources that will allow learners to master the objectives. The last is assessing student performance.
The differences between the two are visible in Gagne's nine steps following a sequential model of instruction - do this, then this, and this and end with this. The Kemp Model is a big picture view of instructional design. Here are all the things instructors need to take into consideration but not necessarily in a particular order. Kemps model does however give some guidance in knowing that planning, project management, support services and the summative evaluation are integral parts to the whole design process. Not something that is completed at any one point along the process.
The Knirk and Gustafson Model show a three step process including problem determination, design and development. The first stage includes identification of the problems, lesson organization and understanding learning prior knowledge. The design stage includes developing performance objectives and choosing instructional strategies. The final step in the development stage includes the development/gathering of teaching materials and resources, testing and revision of instruction if needed.
This model is somewhat a hybrid of the Gagne's Principals and the Kemp Model. While it follows a process from stage one to stage three, it recognizes the fact that, like Kemp, some processes so not necessarily have to occur - or should occur - in a particular order. Again, like the two before, all three essential parts of instruction design: goal setting, instruction, and assessment and evident in each. The main difference appears to be the structure and order of the instructional design process.
Section 5 - Sample Lesson Plan Using the Dick & Carey's Instructional Model
Subject Matter and Grade Level - Kindergarten Science
The Model - Dick & Carey's Instructional Model (and Gagne's 9)
The Lesson - Melting Away Numbers in parenthesis refer to Gagne's Nine.
Students will explore the property of water in three states: gas, liquid, and solid
Students will explore the best way to melt ice cubes.
Students will explore the properties of melting snow
Students will explore the properties of evaporating water
Identify Entry Behavior (3)
Class will create a mind map (web) of everything they know about water.
Observe, ask questions and make predictions
Observe common objects using multiple senses
Ask questions based on experiences with objects, organisms, and events in the environment
Predict results of an investigation based on physical sciences
Participate in planning and conducting investigations, and recording data
Demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures (e.g., use of instruments and materials) in all science inquiry
Participate in guided investigations in physical science
Perform simple measurements using non-standard units of measure to collect data
Organize and analyze data; Compare predictions
Organize (e.g., compare, classify, and sequence) objects, organisms, and events according to various characteristics
Compare objects according to their measurable characteristics (e.g., longer/shorter, lighter/heavier)
Communicate results of investigations
Communicate observations with pictographs, pictures, models, and/or words.
Communicate with other groups to describe the results of an investigation.
Classify objects and materials by their observable properties
Identify observable properties of objects using the senses
Classify materials as solids, gasses or liquids
Hook: Read the book Water Dance by Thomas Locker (1)
Present each child with an ice cube
Students describe the ice cube and draw their observations
Ask students how long it would take for the ice cube to melt -What will happen when it does?
Ask students to brainstorm faster ways to melt the ice (5)
Present containers of hot water and cold water - ask whether they think the ice will melt faster in the warm water, the cold water, or on the plate (4)
Youngsters perform the experiment (6)
Are students surprised by the results? Invite students to revisit their predictions (7)
Now what? Now that the ice on the plate has melted, what will happen to the ice that's left? Students observe the water of the next days. When the water completely disappears explain they can no longer see the water on the plate because it is now in the air. (9)
Book: Water Dance
Students perform the experiment, sharing their results with a partner
Student Evaluation (8)
Evaluate students understanding by viewing their observation drawings
Evaluate students understanding through individual and whole class discussion
Was the lesson successful?
Did students stay engaged and on-task?
Did the activity fall into the allotted time frame?
Instructional Design - Gange's 9 Events of Instruction" (n.d.). Florida Community College, Jacksonville, Florida. Retrieved 12/3/07 at http://li.fccj.edu/9events.htm.
Dempsey, J.V. Instruction Design and Development Electronic Workbook. (2006) University of South Alabama. http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/idbook/home.html.
McGriff, S.J. Instructional System Design (ISD): Using the ADDIE Model (2000). Penn State University. http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/s/j/sjm256/portfolio/kbase/IDD/ADDIE.pdf.
Kemp Design Model" (2007). Retrieved 12/03/07 at http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Kemp_design_model.
Knirk and Gustafson design model" (2007). Retrieved 12/03/2007 from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Knirk_and_Gustafson_design_model.
Mappin, D., Phan, R., Kelly, M. And Bratt S. "Module 4: An Overview of Instructional Systems Design" (1998). University of Alberta. Retrieved 12/03/2007 at http://www.quasar.ualberta.ca/edit573/modules/module4.htm.
Qureshi, E. "Instructional Design" (2004). Retrieved 12/04/2007 at http://web2.uwindsor.ca/courses/edfac/morton/instructional_design.htm.
Moore, S. "Melting Away" the Mailbox Idea Magazine for Teachers (Dec./Jan. 2006/07), 36-37.