Internet of Things for Supply Research Paper

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It presumes interacting elements in non-deterministic systems, which possess the capability and possibility to render decisions independently." (Bose & Windt) "Sensor networks and pervasive networking approaches are also of high interest to the mobile industry. Context aware applications using mobile devices with dynamically varying service platforms are currently under investigation by mobile operators." (Buckley, 2006) "Growing demand for radio usage implies either the spread of unlicensed bands in breadth and number, or the spread of new technology which: allows transparent overlap of multiple signals (direct spread spectrum): adapts and compensates for already occupied spectrum with cognitive radio and software defined radio." (Buckley, 2006)


The issues presented that intend to hinder the development of the IoT include linking a large number of decentralized servers. "Afilias believes that DNS provides a publicly available platform that can be leveraged for homing multiple, decentralized ONS services." (Cute, Young, 2008) it is generally easier to describe any solution using an example however, there are examples used, which remain conceptual in nature. "A review of the problem points and why this architectural solution assists or addresses them: Unique identification of items is a key issue and many parties think about solving this issue by labeling products with globally unique identifiers." (Cute, Young, 2008) Again by leveraging the current DNS systems and providing a simple translation mechanism, Identity Authorities can utilize public networks by establishing referral systems using any of the current or country top level domains. "It's also important to note that ICANN has now announced intentions to open the TLD space extensively to new TLDs, therefore another option is to found a new Top Level Domain." (Cute, Young, 2008) to briefly explain the use of DNS in this application, "DNSEEC (DNS Security) is a recently deployed solution that, if fully propagated, ensures that DNS referrals are from legitimate sources." (Cute, Young, 2008) "By applying the widely adopted EPC global Architecture Framework to the problem, a standards-based solution may be derived which provides a solid basis for platform independent interoperability. A wide range of relevant logistics it systems may be integrated into and make use of the resulting Internet of Things for transport logistics, consequently making autonomous cooperating logistics processes feasible in operation logistics environments." (Hribernik, et al. 2010) "Having proposed a means to represent agent-to-product associations, we now consider the complementary case of agent-to-resource associations. This is a specific case of the general problem of associating software agents with resources. The solution proposed here assumes that both agent and resources are assigned EPCs." (Hribernik, et al. 2010)


"Material logistics items may, for example, be vehicles, goods or conveyors whilst an example for an immaterial item could be a deliver order." (Hribernik, et al. 2010) "Additional examples are the application of the Intelligent Products to the supply chain (Venta), to manufacturing control (McFarlane et al.), and to production, distribution, and warehouse management logistics." (Wong et al.) a further example is the discussion of the application of dynamic route planning algorithms in autonomous transport logistics networks." (Berning & Vastag) "For example, the granular, item-level documentation of supply chain events can allow for a greater transparency in contractual and legal matters." (Hribernik, et al. 2010) "Protection against product theft and plagiarism based on unique identification and positioning technologies is another example. (Staake et al.) "As a paradigmatic example from our application scenario, we can consider the transport agents which each manage an individual truck in their freight forwarders vehicle fleet." (Hribernik, et al. 2010) "Consider for instance an articulated truck which is a composite entity formed by a tractor unit and a trailer. In the simplified example above, both would share one EPC. However, both transport capacity and additional functionalities such as cooling are the trailer's characteristics. (Hribernik, et al. 2010) "The shipping agent is thus kept up-to-date with the physical position of the goods it manages -- it knows, for example, which vehicle the goods are currently in or where they are stored." (Hribernik, et al. 2010) "The proposed extension encompasses fields for preprocessed sensor readings and quality assessments, for example the shelf-life time left and detected quality issues. (Hribernik, et al. 2010) Knowing how often or intensively a product is used can create additional options -- usage fees rather than outright sale, for example. Manufacturing processes studded with a multitude of sensors can be controlled more precisely, raising efficiency." (Chui, Loffler, Roberts, 2010) "Some insurance companies, for example, are offering to install location sensors in customers' cars. That allows these companies to base the price of policies on how a car is driven as well as where it travels." (Chui, Loffler, Roberts, 2010)


When considering the IoT in its entirety, the concept of a system based on RFID sensory input may facilitate transport logistics by enabling a combination of "MAS-based autonomous control integrated with the material flow of ECP-compliant transport logistics infrastructure." (Hribernik, et al. 2010) When combined, they are able to demonstrate a method to enable the embedding of autonomy in control into experienced logistics it infrastructure with practical validation achieved through a proof-of-concept implementation and much beyond the scope of this contribution. Specifically, what about privacy issues and the ethics involved in RFID tracking within the paradigm of the IoT? This question provokes a variety of responses however, we will engage the likely top two responses. The first response is that privacy should remain a primary and of urgent concern to the point of hindering the process of development of the technology. The second is to proclaim, Forget about it, as metaphorically, Pandora's box has sprung agape and cannot be shut easily as privacy is sacrificed since the technology is interesting. In its most extreme form, this view must be unacceptable. Speaking colloquially, a fundamental right for an inalienable population is for a healthy society and the right of every citizen to be left alone. "Article 12 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, states that 'No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his/her privacy, family, home or correspondence." (Buckley, 2006)


Buckley, J. "FROM RFID to the INTERNET of THINGS" Pervasive networked systems. March 6 & 7, 2006, CCAB, Brussels

Cute B., Young M. "FINDING YOUR WAY in the INTERNET of TIHNGS" an Afilias Whitepaper September 2008

Chui M., Loffler M.,…[continue]

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