Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Book Report:
At first, there won't be any mental disorder, just issues with behaviors such as eating and sleeping. Then during the phase of intersubjective relatedness, the focus switches to controlling, sharing, or influencing the subjective experience of self and others. At this stage, if caregivers are not emotionally attuned enough to the infant, problems may arise such as depression. If they are only attuned when the infant behaves a certain way, this may lead the child to start forming a false self in order to please others. There can also be misattunements between caretaker and child, in which one or the other misreads emotional cues and responds inappropriately. And it's very important for a caregiver's attunement to be authentic.
There are also four types of self-experience: social, private, disavowed, and "not me." Disavowed refers to the parts of self the child learns not to share, and the "not me" experience is the part of self that is repressed. If the child learns to repress a lot of their emotions, they might develop a related pathology.
Some Implications for the Theories Behind Therapeutic Reconstructions
This chapter relates theories of development to the "observed" infant. Infants undergo a "stimulation barrier" period in which they can only tolerate certain levels of stimulation without becoming upset, and try to block out the excess. But across a person's life span, the basic quality of capacity for tolerating stimulation remains the same. Stern's main point about orality is that it's closely tied to the concepts of hunger and satiety, but is no more important at any stage than seeing or hearing. He also notes that many psychoanalytical theories about drive and ego don't fit very well with the observed infant. For example, they show signs of an active ego, as opposed to just an id, from very early on.
In addition, Stern agrees that infants experience a stage of connectedness with their mother that is very powerful, but he believes it is the result of actively constructing RIGs (representations of interactions with self-regulating others), as opposed to a passive developmental phase. Also, infants must be capable of holding onto memories of interactions with others long enough that they can both build relationships with others, and separate themselves from those relationships.
Other developmental issues that may lead to pathology include the "splitting" of good and bad experiences, and the awareness of fantasy vs. reality. Stern believes the infant lives in a state of reality from day one, especially because initially they don't have the mental capacities necessary to create fantasy.
Implications for the Therapeutic Process of Reconstructing a Developmental Past
In this chapter, Stern begins by stressing the importance of putting developmental stages behind what therapist and patient actually encounter when trying to construct a narrative about the patient's past.
He then gives examples of clinical cases in which viewing the pathology in terms of development of the different senses of self is helpful. For example, a woman who is passive and insecure, yet is always focused on controlling her physical environment, may have a problem related to the sense of agency. He also talks about the importance of identifying a "key metaphor" or theme to describe the person's pathology. This metaphor is also easily adapted to his theories about different senses of self.
In cases where a diagnosis is already known, such as borderline personality disorder, therapists need to isolate the primary underlying cause in terms of the broader scope of senses of self. In addition, when the age of a traumatic experience is already known, such as the death of a parent, Stern's theory of the senses of self can help determine what went wrong with what sense of self during that time. Then treatment can be based on focusing on that impaired sense of self. Or there may be more than one involved, such as the core self, the intersubjective self, and the verbal self.
Finally, the book ends with a discussion of what happens when a therapist views the different senses of self as "age-specific" sensitive time periods. The earlier a pathology begins to develop during one of these critical periods, the more serious it will likely become later in life. He questions what features of self-experience are being molded during the different time periods, and how these features would affect later pathology.…[continue]
"Interpersonal World Of The Infant" (2010, December 11) Retrieved October 26, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/interpersonal-world-of-the-infant-5881
"Interpersonal World Of The Infant" 11 December 2010. Web.26 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/interpersonal-world-of-the-infant-5881>
"Interpersonal World Of The Infant", 11 December 2010, Accessed.26 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/interpersonal-world-of-the-infant-5881
Interpersonal Non-Verbal Communication Observation The importance of Non-Verbal Communication is evident in the fact that it constitutes the bulk of human communication. The fact that non-verbal communication is more important than any other form of communication is due to the emotional information it conveys, which is otherwise usually controlled or concealed. Thus, human beings base their feelings and emotional responses not so much on what another person says, but upon what
Lee, (2003). Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin
An important point emphasized by many theorists was that it was essential for the therapeutic alliance to be flexible in order to accommodate the patient or client's perceptions. Another cardinal aspect that was emphasizes by clinicians and theorists was that the therapeutic alliance had the ability to create and promote change in the client. In other words, the therapeutic alliance should be varied enough to deal with the various levels
This could be referred to in terms of Stern's Sense of Subjective Self. As Stern notes, the child or infant becomes aware that the 'gap' that develops in the realization of its subjectivity can be overcome through various intersubjective experiences. My strength in this regard lies in my understanding of the value of intersubjectivity in enhancing my own sense of self. Another strength that I have that can be related
Self in World Religions Although religion is primarily a social activity -- even the most solitary and mystical of religious practitioners require an existing creed subscribed to by other people -- to a certain degree religion is required to define the self. In practice, the religious conception of selfhood can work in a number of ways -- either by setting limits to acceptable thought and behavior by the self by establishing
Children also gain an insight into the conservation of numbers, mass, and weight; which allows them to understand that just because the image of object changes that does not mean the nature of the object has to change with it. For example, children in this stage can tell that a cup of water is the same amount despite being poured into two different cups. Children also learn to classify
Age Stratification and Methods of Social Networking Old Age and Interpersonal Relationships As the baby boomer generation ages, America becomes increasingly a senior nation. This has caused an increasing degree of scrutiny to be directed at the process of aging, and the effects which it has upon the social fabric of the nation. Only a few decades ago, as Grant McCracken puts it, old people were "expected to remove themselves from the