a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the above
Construction of dams upstream on rivers may lead to:
a Narrower beaches b Wider beaches c The filling in of bays d The building of a barrier island
7. In the late 1920's until the present, the movement of plates is thought to be due to a convection currents in the crust b convection currents in the mantle c convection currents in the core d earthquakes along subduction zones
8. ____ are mudflows due to rapid melting of snow packs along the sides of snow covered mountains.
a Pyroclastic avalanche b Pahoehoe
9.Question: Longshore currents are likely to travel along the coast from:
a North to South
b South to North
c West to East
d In a southwest direction e In a westerly direction
10. Volcanism in Iceland is due to which of the following plate boundaries?
d None of the above
11. Subduction zones are mostly likely found where an ocean crust collides with ocean crust
b ocean crust collides with continental crust c continental crust collides with continental crust d where continental crust divergence takes place
12. The longest continuous chain of mountains formed by tectonic processes is found a in North America
b in South America
c in Asia
d on the ocean floor
14. The "Ring of Fire" is due to an ocean crust colliding with ocean crust
b ocean crust colliding with continental crust c continental crust colliding with continental crust d where continental crust divergence takes place
16. Volcanoes are found an along the midocean ridge
b near subduction zones
c hot spots (mantle plumes)
d all of the above
17. What is discharge?
a a stream's cross-sectional area multiplied by its velocity b the volume of a stream divided by it's cross-sectional area c the width of a stream times it's depth d the amount of water flowing past a certain point in a given amount of time e both a and d
18. Two different drainage basins or watersheds are separated from each other by an imaginary line called:
a a divide b a trellis c a floodplain d a gully e a terrace
19. Which of these factors contributes to stream velocity?
a stream channel size b stream gradient c stream channel shape d all of the above e only b and c
20. Which river has the largest discharge?
21. The volcanoes that comprise the Hawaiian Islands are a shield volcanoes b composite volcanoes c cinder cones d none of the above
22. When do floods occur?
a when a stream is diverted by the headward erosion of another stream b when a stream channel is altered to speed the flow of water c when a stream's discharge exceeds the capacity of its channel d only during the spring e when the artificial levees are overrun
23. The limiting level below which a stream cannot erode is known as the:
b Base Level
24. A meander that has been completely separated from a river is called:
a an incised meander b an oxbow lake c a drainage basin d a cutoff e a cut bank.
25. Which one of the following is the key factor controlling stream erosion, transport, and deposition?
a Sediment Load
26. How does a stream change as its discharge increases?
a Stream velocity, channel width and depth, all increase b Stream velocity increases, but channel width and depth decreases c Stream velocity, channel width and depth, all decrease d Stream channel depth and width increases, load decreases, and velocity decreases
27. An area which has NOT been glaciated may show ?
a Hanging valleys b V shape valleys c Corries
28. Which part of a stream's load is actually held in solution?
a weathered load b suspended load c chemical load d dissolved load e bed load
29. Which one of the following statements is true about dams?
a They help build up beaches b They lower the water table c They cause deposition below the dam d They cause erosion below the dam
30. Rejuvenation of a stream channel (renewed erosive activity) can be caused by:
a A higher sea level b A lower sea level c A decreased gradient d Increased load
31. What is the sediment deposit that forms when a stream enters the sea or a lake?
a An Alluvial Fan
b A Natural Levee
c A Delta
d A Floodplain
33. Which one of the following supplies base flow (a constant supply of water) to a stream?
a Overland flow after precipitation b Groundwater seeping into the stream channel c Rainfall during thunderstorms d Snowmelt
34. The volume of water that flows past a given point in a given time is the stream's:
35. The pebbles and boulders that are transported by a stream along the bottom of its channel are called:
b Suspended Load
c Dissolved Load
38. Rain Forest wildlife of Asia include all of the following except a Orangutan
c Red Lory.
d Bengal Tiger
e King Cobra
39. Deserts are most likely to occur a at 30 degrees above and below the equator.
b in the rain shadows of mountains.
c where cool, dry air descends.
d All of the above e None of the above
41. The eastern side of the Rockies tends to receive much less rainfall than the western side. This phenomenon is attributed to a convection currents.
b the rain shadow.
c human impact.
d All of the above e None of the above
42. This biome is scattered across the planet and accounts for only 3% of water on Earth. Salinity (salt) levels in this area are generally less than 1%.
a freshwater biome b estuary c marine biome d none of the above
45. You are in an area where the water fluctuates between very salty and not-so-salty. You look around you and see that the region is at the mouth of where a river and the ocean meet. You are most likely in a (n) ____ biome.
a estuarine aquatic biome b river aquatic biome c tundra terrestrial biome d inter-tidal aquatic biome e None of the above
47. Metamorphosed sandstone is called a Marble
e None of the above
49. The Ural Mountains were formed primarily by a Volcanism
c continental collision d intrusion of magma
50. Field capacity of a soil tends to increase with an increasing clay content b decreasing clay content c increasing sand content d decreasing sand content e Field capacity is not associated with soil
53. The Red Sea lies in a rift zone b subduction zone
c transform fault zone d deep sea trench
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
55. The two most important elements in a climatic description are temperature and a wind direction b precipitation c pressure d wind speed e altitude
58. Multi-layer clouds are heavy precipitation producers. Which of the following may be considered in this category?
d a and b e a and c
66. What percent of the Earth's water is fresh and accessible?
68. Where is most accessible fresh water found?
69. ____ dams resist the force of the water entirely by their own weight.
70. The evaporative loss of water from leaves is termed:
74. Spring tides are tides that ...
a have lows lower than normal and highs higher than normal
b have lows higher than normal and highs lower than normal
c are unpredictable d occur in the spring of the year