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macro analytical approaches of Marx and Durkheim regarding democratic republics, freedom, & equality
This paper looks at the question on how the macro analytical approaches that were discussed by Marx and Durkheim are applied to the attitudes of freedom and democratic republics and how it affects the equality of society. Bibliography cites four sources
How might the macro-analytical theories advanced by Marx and Durkheim help us understand the causes and consequences of the tension between freedom and equality in a democratic republic?
Freedom does not exist in world that is run by the minority dictators, many will argue that even in the western world there is freedom however there are rules to follow a man is only as free as the rules of his country allows however there can be seen to be an underlying reason why the rules of nations and man coexist to prevent overall freedom to what one wants, freedom has its priced of safety, safety from wars, disease and civil unrest, yet when nations or rather minor factions decide that another nation is preventing it from having its own freedom and carries out senseless violence against democratic societies then freedoms price become expensive.
There have been many instances in history where freedom of man has become an argumentative and moot point for example in the 1800's we see the American colonies fighting for their freedom as a democratic republic against a larger nation, 1776 was a tumultuous year in America. There was dissatisfaction in many quarters regarding the colonies relationship with England which was further enflamed by the heavy debt situation which plagued many of the colonies traders. England had been financially crippled by the 'Seven Years' war and as a result needed to raise funds in any way possible, consequently the colonies saw taxes and duties rising which increased resentment (Kashatus 53, Appleby 1995). America's citizens were ripe for the controversial 47-page pamphlet ' Common Sense' written by Thomas Paine (Kashatus 53).
When Thomas Paine wrote this pamphlet he recognised its controversy, its introduction reads;
Perhaps the sentiments contained in the following pages, are not yet sufficiently fashionable to procure them general favor; a long habit of not thinking a thing wrong, gives it a superficial appearance of being right, and raises at first a formidable outcry in defence of custom. But tumult soon subsides. Time makes more converts than reason" (Paine 1).
His words were to be proven correct, as within a short period of time the actions which Paine called for would occur and time did prove to convert many individuals which had previously been in favour of a peaceful settlement (Kashatus 53).
Paine's pamphlet was popular at the time despite its controversy. Part of this reason was the style the writing. This pamphlet was phrased in language which was understandable by the common man (Kashatus 53). In this his attitude was similar to that of many other revolutionaries, and as noted by many critics and observers of political events he believed in the idea that citizens should be informed in order to be able to exercise their civic responsibilities wisely" (Brown xiii). Brown describes Pain's writing as infected with 'pungent magnetism (Brown 64). This all aids in the explanation for the popularity of this pamphlet.
A more recent event that shocked the world and was not for freedom but for a wholey personal and selfish act was when the global political arena changed on September the Eleventh 2001 for ever. There was a harsh line drawn that appeared to separate the Muslim world and cultures form those of the traditional Christian world.
This was more than simply a terrorist act, in the eyes of many it was a Jihad of one civilisation against another. To many this must have been a chilling event, especially if they had read the book; The Clash of Civilizations that was written by Samuel P. Huntington and published in the summer of 1993.
Huntington was in a position to be able to write such a controversial book due this is academic and professional standing, as the A professor at Harvard University, with his title in of the Science of Government at Harvard University this book was seen by some as rationalising racism and by others as a warning of what may occur if the political scenarios that had been followed as a result of the political…[continue]
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While war is often a major factor in changing the nature of property ownership, much as major depressions, such as that of 1920 to 1940, another factor can be large increases in competition, such as that in industrial production that has risen in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan since the Vietnam War (Capitalism pp). All such developments "put stresses on the ability of individuals to finance and mange their operations (Capitalism