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In viewing the basic definition of bureaucracy and in noting some of the country's most recent examples of success and failure in the bureaucratic business world, one can see that the issue is clearly two-sided and will likely remain so for many years to come. However, despite the split in opinion, the question of ethics and bureaucracy can be delved into in rational manner that, in the end, finds in favor of ethical bureaucratic dealings within the business world.
hile critics debate that bureaucracy and its management positions provide for a stagnant work environment, supporters argue that bureaucracy in business is based in efficiency, which is essential for longevity. Bureaucracy in business must be approached in an collectivist way -- which ensures that ethics reside in a community of individuals rather than in one person alone (Brown 1). Individuals working in a bureaucratic business must act appropriately in the…
Allan, Kenneth. Explorations in Classical Sociological Theory: Seeing the Social Work.
2005. Newbury Park, CA: Pine Forge Press. Print.
Business Dictionary. "Bureaucracy." Online Business Dictionary. 2012. Web. Retrieved
from: http://www. businessdictionary.com/definition/bureaucracy.html [Accessed on 23 March 2012].
Such resources will include proper funding for facilities, personnel, technological and communicational resources and other such elements required for an administrative capacity congruent with the needs of the public which it is designed to serve.
It is thus that the bulk of Meier's book concerns the actual structure of a government based on the principle of bureaucracy. Here, he explores in detail the relationship between a variant of agencies and the way in which these help to maintain the sensible interaction of the government's three demarcated branches. Though he refers to it as the fourth branch in the title of his book, he nonetheless appears to illustrate in this chapter that bureaucracy is instead the versatile membrane transmitting communication and action amidst the multifarious responsibilities of the federal administration. In this regard, the Meier text comes ultimately to confirm the major claims of Foucault, which suggest a reciprocity between our…
Alesina, a. & Tabellini, G. (2008). Bureaucrats or Politicians? Journal of Public Economics, 92, 3-4, 426-447.
Clegg, S. (1994). Weber and Foucault: Social Theory for the Study of Organizations. Sage.
Downs, a. (1964). Inside Bureaucracy. Real Estate Research Corporation.
Felluga, D. (2002). Modules on Foucault: On Panoptic and Carceral Society. Introductory Guide to Critical Theory.f
ureaucracy as a Necessary Evil: The Formalized of the Organizational Structure of Government Agencies
The creation of an efficient and competitive civil service that is the bureaucracy found in most governments today is often identified as a "necessary evil." Described as a specific form of organization that aims "to provide as much efficiency as possible" and to set up a "hierarchically structured decision-making process that reduces...personal factors to a minimum" (Jackson, 2002:276).
It is evident that bureaucracy is created carrying with it its advantages for the efficient performance of the government. However, the claim that bureaucracy is a "necessary evil" is best expressed from the point-of-view of the politicians and elected members of the government. ureaucracy as a necessary evil may also be the opinion of people who had frustrating experiences working with or seeking help from members of the bureaucratic government. Often termed as "red tape," bureaucracy, instead of…
Jackson, R. (2002). A comparative introduction to political science. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Peters, B. (2001). The politics of bureaucracy. NY: Routledge.
An empowered employee may disobey rules and procedures to help a customer and in turn the organization itself.
For further analysis of delegation and empowerment, we need to understand the concept of power itself. In bureaucracies, work is simply done by following preset procedures. Leadership doesn't usually have to impose power, in fact power is granted to employees to choose the best available choice (decision-making) cohering with the rules and regulations. Most discussions on power often incorporate the five categories of the social power identified by the psychologists John French and Bertram aven (1959). These five classic types of power include reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert. eward, a source of power is based on a person's ability to control resources and reward others; while the target of this power must appreciate these rewards. Coercive power is as the name suggests, related to fear. The person with coercive power has…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2002) AusStats: Community services.
Chester I. Bernard. (1938). The Foundation of the Executive, Harvard University Press, Cambridge., (pp. 73)
Jackson, A.C. And Donovan, F. (1999) Managing to survive. Managerial Practice in Not-for-Profit Organisations. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
John R.P. French, Jr., and Bertram Raven,. (1959). "The Base of Social Power," in D. Cartwright (Ed), Studies in Social Power, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor.
Working within a large bureaucracy can be at once frightening and comforting, frustrating and easy. Three of the advantages of working within a large bureaucracy include role differentiation, anonymity, and clarity of procedures, rules, and regulations. For example, because of the hierarchical structure of the organization, employees know their roles. Role conflict and job task confusion is relatively rare in organizations with strict hierarchical structures because each individual performs a specific set of tasks and reports to specific supervisors. Working within a large bureaucracy also affords a level of anonymity not available to those who work in smaller companies. Employees who prefer to keep their professional and personal lives separate, for example, might prefer the anonymity of the large corporate structure. Finally, large bureaucracies are renown for their "red tape," the rules, official procedures, and paperwork that comes with the territory. However annoying it can be at times, such…
Another area of concern that adds up to a great deal of student disappointment comes in the form of basic interoffice communications. The foundation of any great institution is often based in its ability to converse effectively and efficiently between various university functions. The school continuously mishandles interactions between the Financial Aid office, the Registrar's office and the Bursar's office. Direct communications or routed communications are a regular mess and it makes one wonder if there is no phone training going on whatsoever. Other problems occur it anyone tries to communicate with the transfer's office or if the registrar has to speak with any educational department. University-based bureaucracies traditionally do not create policy but they are needed to enact it. Thus, if there has to be a bureaucracy to handle the mountains of forms, files and communications for the many students of the school, then at least make an added…
In other words, there is no ability, under Kant's guidelines, for one to exclude themselves from the duties that human beings under this standard are all held to.
The belief that looking the other way in terms of ethical standards cannot hurt the greater good of a company is a completely naive notion. Much like the adage, "one bad apple spoils the bunch," so too can a mere instance of unethical behavior within a business throw a theoretical wrench in the works of everything that company has set out to do. Therefore, an ethical framework must be laid out within a company from the ground-up, cemented in all levels of employee actions, in order to ensure that a certain standards of ethics and excellence is required. In situations such as this, business managers as well as entry-level employees must hold themselves to the same standards, each operating on an even…
Bowie, Norman. "A Kantian Approach to Business Ethics," in Robert Frederick [editor]
A Companion to Business Ethics. 2002. pp. 3-16. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. Print.
Ethisphere. "World's Most Ethical Companies: 2012." Ethisphere. 2012. Web. Retrieved
from: http://ethisphere.com/worlds-most-ethical-companies-testimonials / [Accessed on 23 March 2012].
As an economist who had studied administrative and regulatory law, he saw the waste and inefficiency in socialism, but he points out that Lenin and Hitler, as well as the British champions of socialization and "thus the most eminent advocates of socialism implicitly admit that their tenets and plans cannot stand the criticism of economic science and are doomed under a regime of freedom" (von Mises 119)
In Bureaucracy, von Mises concluded that every man cannot be an economist, that professionals have an advantage over laymen as they devote all their time to that one thing, becoming specialists in their area. Highly regulated fields include environmental protection, healthcare, and professional licensing. Understanding and applying principles of administrative law are critical to a smooth functioning of government. Administrative law is also important in interactions with government in its proprietary capacity, such as eminent domain, real estate development, contracts and construction. As…
Benson, H., (Jan-Feb 2005). Focusing the AFL-CIO debate: Bureaucracy v. Democracy. Union Democracy Review #154. Jan-Feb 2005.Association for Union Democracy.
Webster, N. (1974). Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language. Nashville: The Southwestern Co.
A von Mises, L. (1944). Bureaucracy. Auburn, Alabama: Mises.
Large corporations are entities that most people work for and are used to, that focus all power on the leaders, as "the deciders," who make decisions, good or bad, for everyone below them. The employees of a large corporation must go along with the decisions that the leaders make because they have no choice. A government run on these principles is not a democracy. It is a bureaucracy.
ilson (James Q. ilson, Bureaucracy: hat Government Agencies Do hy They Do it), describe discuss judges (Courts) bureaucrats world differently. You book James Q. ilson, Bureaucracy: hat Government Agencies Do hy They Do It edition.
The world from the perspective of judges, and, respectively, bureaucrats
hile many have the tendency to look at judges and bureaucrats as largely being similar in scope and behavior, the reality is that they are really different. The environments in which they function in are very different and most organizations and tasks they work with also differ largely. Judges and bureaucrats can actually work against each-other in some cases, with the latter sometimes having authority over a series of legislations that the former want to change. As a consequence, the two groups can have opposing interests and can go as far as to use all of their influence and resources with the purpose to achieve…
Wilson, J.Q. "Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and why They Do it." (Basic Books, 2000)
Today's organizations, regardless of their business focus, possess qualities of a bureaucratic nature, including excessive paperwork, red tape, and other challenging bottlenecks that can hinder productivity and performance. Consequently, organizations are often limited in their activities and the potential to produce quality results in a timely fashion. The following references from professional journals will discuss this dilemma in detail, both within governmental bodies and within the public sector. It will be demonstrated that modern bureaucracies can serve as both a blessing and a nightmare, depending on the situation.
An article by Chang and Turnbull (2002) entitled "Bureaucratic behavior in the local public sector: a revealed preference approach" provides an analysis of the popular opinion that bureaucracies are largely influenced by public spending, and although this concept deserves attention, other theories have been developed that contrast this model. According to the authors, "In the U.S. And other countries with strong…
Chang, C., and Turnbull, G. "Bureaucratic behavior in the local public sector:
revealed preference approach." Public Choice 113 (2002): 191-209.
Kaufman, H. "Major players: bureaucracies in American government." Public
Administration Review 61.1 (2001): 18-42.
Main task during the internship was articles about Dow Water & Process Solutions (DW&PS). The aim was to illustrate the processes going in water treatment plants and to explain the importance of wastewater reuse. Also, I helped preparing a few press releases that informed about new technologies or projects DW&PS is involved in. Such was the DEMOWARE press release, which I found very interesting and decided to look into it beyond the tasks that are normally involved in the work.
The internship in context to the study of Sociology
Analyzing legal policies might be vital for finding solutions for improving the overall image of a client or the functionality of its products. By promoting DW&PS, we talk about the solutions their products bring for issues that the general public may not be well aware of and like that it is aimed to raise awareness in the society, which…
Toulmin's Model On Holding Bureaucracy Accountable
"How to use this worksheet":
"Toulmin's model is an effective tool to help you question your sources and the essential elements of your own argument."
"Use a separate copy of this worksheet to evaluate each of your sources. Once you've identified the specific parts of each argument, compare the claims, the data, the warrants (along with any qualifiers, rebuttals, or backing). Note where arguments are similar or different, weaker or stronger, supported by more or less (or by convincing or unconvincing) data."
"Use another copy of the worksheet to plan your own argument. Decide on a claim that is supported by the data and the warrants you have discovered through your research. Knowing the elemental structure of your argument is an essential step toward producing an effective argument."
Source: (ecord the full source citation here)____ 1.omzek, B.S. & Dubnick, M.J. (1987). Accountability in the…
Romzek, B.S. & Dubnick, M.J. (1987). Accountability in the Public Sector: Lessons From the Challenger Tragedy. Public Administration Review. 47:227 -238
Lipsky, M.(1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. _ Russell Sage Foundation._
Lowi, T.J. (1979). The End of Liberalism.: The Second Republic of the United States. New York. W.W. Norton & Company
They have increased in number substantially in recent decades and now occupy a significant position of influence not only with the higher levels of the international bureaucracy as lobbying groups but also with a more grassroots level of inspiring awareness and action among individuals who may, in turn, influence their respective national governments.
Perhaps it will be this non-bureaucratic movement that will eventually be the most influential in terms of changing international environmental policies. NGOs are an almost surefire way to encourage the bureaucracy to affect change; the "are indirect means of influencing industry's [or the bureaucracy's] environmental performance." Perhaps it will be these organizations' informing the public, depicting the consequences of a lack of regulation, and teaching individuals how to organize for change that will eventually influence the gridlocked bureaucracy of government and international organizations with regard to environmental regulations.
ureaucracies serve a range of purposes, whether in the…
Bramble, Barbara and Porter, Garteh, "Non-Governmental Organizations and the Making of U.S. International Environmental Policy" in The International Politics of Environment, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Grabowsky, Peter, Gunningham, Neil and Sinclair, Darren, "Parties, Roles and Interactions" in Smart Regulation. Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1998
Hurrell, Andrew and Kingsbury, Benedict. The International Politics of Environment, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992
Karawan, Ibrahim A., "The Case for a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone In the Middle East," in Nuclear Weapons-Free Zones, ed. Ramesh Thakur. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998
Moral Mazes: Bureaucracy and Managerial Work
riginally published in the Harvard Business Review's 1983 edition, Robert Jackall's interpretive sociological analysis entitled "Moral Mazes: Bureaucracy and Managerial Work" seeks to explore the ethical and moral ramifications of managerial work. By conducting what he terms "a great many extensive interviews with managers and executives in several large corporations," the author proposes to "study how bureaucracy -- the prevailing organizational form of our society and economy -- shapes moral consciousness" (Jackall, 1983). The result is an incisively written essay that manages to cover the historical influences of the Protestant Ethic on modern work habits, the pyramidal political structure employed by most large corporate conglomerates, and the capricious nature of success within a sprawling bureaucracy. Jackall's authorial tone throughout the essay is one of reserved bemusement, suggesting that this empirically minded lifelong scholar has reservations regarding the wholly subjective methods used both by those…
Originally published in the Harvard Business Review's 1983 edition, Robert Jackall's interpretive sociological analysis entitled "Moral Mazes: Bureaucracy and Managerial Work" seeks to explore the ethical and moral ramifications of managerial work. By conducting what he terms "a great many extensive interviews with managers and executives in several large corporations," the author proposes to "study how bureaucracy -- the prevailing organizational form of our society and economy -- shapes moral consciousness" (Jackall, 1983). The result is an incisively written essay that manages to cover the historical influences of the Protestant Ethic on modern work habits, the pyramidal political structure employed by most large corporate conglomerates, and the capricious nature of success within a sprawling bureaucracy. Jackall's authorial tone throughout the essay is one of reserved bemusement, suggesting that this empirically minded lifelong scholar has reservations regarding the wholly subjective methods used both by those in managerial positions, and the companies that chose to promote them.
The essential argument presented within Jackall's text holds that a corporate entity's hierarchal structure leads to a decided lack of moral or ethical accountability on the part of senior or middle managers. By observing that "power is concentrated at the top in the person of the chief executive officer and is simultaneously decentralized; that is, responsibility for decisions and profits is pushed as far down the organizational line as possible" (Jackall, 1983), the author exposes a fundamental myth of the corporate lifestyle: that those in the highest positions are tasked with the most responsibility. The ethical implications of this arrangement are further examined by Jackall, who posits that the modern CEO or executive figure is better served by a policy of deflection and diversion, in which instructions given to subordinates are made loosely and in unclear language, thus preserving the manager's "privilege of authority to declare that a mistake has been made" (1983). The author presents numerous examples of managers attaining high-ranking positions on the merit of work produced for them by subordinates, illustrating the fallacious aspect of one of industry's most oft repeated tropes: that hard work translates into success.
The concept of success is also explored in great detail by Jackall, who asserts in the opening paragraph of his essay that "in the end, it is success that matters, that legitimates striving, and that makes work worthwhile" (1983). Throughout his extensive research period, spent in close conjunction with managers at a large chemical company and a textile firm, Jackall noticed a telling pattern in which "managers rarely spoke & #8230; of objective criteria for achieving success because once certain crucial points in one's career are passed, success and failure seem to have little to do with one's accomplishments" (1983). This disconnect between the value of one's work and the success garnered from it has spawned a corporate culture with a decidedly distorted value system, one in which the traditional work ethic has been abandoned for naked ambition and relentless ladder climbing.
The post 1919 era saw the emergence of Gandhi and the Congress that replaced British rule, as well as -- and contrary to Gandhi's attempts -- embracing of violence by some parties in order to gain independence.
India achieved her independence in 1947, but with it came a host of unexpected difficulties that the newborn country, until then dependent on Britain, had difficulties coming to grips with. These included development administration and promoting rapid socio-economic progress in a country that undergoing economic stress.
The state services were constructed according to departments and were divided into a descending level of four groups: Group A, B, C, and D. each distinguished by the responsibility of its work and the qualifications of its performers.
Group A -- the most important -- is the general administrative service whose members are annually promoted into the IAS. The higher civil servants generally come from the urban…
Kumar, F. Essay on the origin and development of bureaucracy in India. Political Science www.preservearticles.com/political-science
CMV Cellular Phones
CMV's and Cellular Phones
Drivers of CMV's: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones
On Friday December 2, 2011 a new rule was enacted by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), in conjunction with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) titled the "Drivers of CMV's: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones." This new rule was implemented in order to restrict the use of hand-held mobile phones by drivers of commercial motor vehicles (CMV's), and hopes to improve safety on the nation's highways since it went into effect on January 3, 2012. ("Cell Phone Use Banned") The agencies involved predicted that this new rule would reduce the numbers of accidents, crashes and fatalities due to drivers being distracted while on their cellular phones. But it is important to recognize that this new rule would only apply to drivers of commercial motor vehicles, and not to the…
"Cell Phone Use Banned for Commercial Motor Vehicles." Local CBS St. Louis. 13
Dec. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2012.
"Drivers of CMV's: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones." Federal Register. 2
However, during the real estate boom at the beginning of the 21st century, banks lent money to people later called 'NINJAs' (No income, no job, no assets) Some of these people were seduced into buying homes they could ill-afford by predatory lenders extending adjustable rate mortgages with low interest rates for a short period of time that quickly became prohibitively high. They ignored their own self-interest in not buying more homes they could afford out of ignorance, and the bank did nothing to deter them because the bank was cushioned from risk in the world of credit default swaps.
Credit default swaps transfer the risk of lending money to other economic entities. Credit default swaps are the main reason for the failure of the insurance behemoth AIG that was otherwise financially sound, except for its purchase of the risks of too many bad 'NINJA' loans. In these swaps, "the insurer…
Credit default swaps." Times Topics. October 24, 2008. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/c/credit_default_swaps/index.html?inline=nyt-classifier
Grynbaum, Michael. "Greenspan concedes error on regulation. The New York Times. October 24, 2008. October 24, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/24/business/economy/24panel.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin
US FDIC says higher insurance limits helpful." Reuters. September 20, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/marketsNews/idUSWAT01020120080930
Bureaucracies can become self-justifying systems, and replicate ineffective administrative behaviors long after they have ceased to work. The Winter Commission eport (1993) was an attempt to provide advice to states and the federal government on the subject of civil service reform. Both bureaucratic as well as political reforms were deemed necessary to 'clean up' the civil service system and render it more effective in addressing the needs of the public. For some states such as Georgia, this has meant eliminating the traditional examination-based hierarchies and systems in which employees had virtual guaranteed employment for life, and instead employing administrators 'at will' (Nigro & Kellough 2008: 550). Merit-based systems have fallen out of favor and there has been greater deference to the independent opinions of managers to decide which employees can provide superior service to the public.
However, the Winter Commission's view of the civil service system was far from dismissive…
Kenney, John. (2011). Who owns snow? The New Yorker. Retrieved:
Van Ryzin, G.G., Immerwahr, S., & Altman, S. (2008). Measuring street cleanliness:
A comparison of New York City's scorecard and results from a citizen survey. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 295-303. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1435702201).
Sociology of Work
Max Weber advocated a management system, which would replace the influence of tradition and personal connection with clearly defined roles independent of those who occupied them. It was the need of his time when he and fellow theorists sought ways of increasing efficiency in production. Machines were then taking over the workload of many industries and people's lives, necessitating an immortal organization. He believed that a hierarchy had to be established to get things done. With the help of his contemporary Henry Ford, the concept of specialization was incorporated into system. Weber firmly believed it would increase efficiency of production. Strong rules and regulations must be set to keep tight control by management ranks. The bureaucratic organizational structure has been handed down to the present time with mixed effects. It has enabled governments and corporations to assert and exert power and to project power in…
Altay, A. (1999). The efficiency of bureaucracy on the public sector. DEUIIBF Dergisi:
Dokuz Eylul Universitesi. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://www.libf.deu.edu.tr/dergi/1999_2_4.pdf
Carnis, L.A.H. (2009). The economic theory of bureaucracy: insights from the Niskanian model and the Miserian approach. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian's
Economics. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://mises.org/journals/qjae/pdf/qjae12_3_4.pdf
Strategies to Autocratic Leadership
Before analyzing the strategies of becoming an effective autocrat in the leadership field, there has to be an understanding of the tasks obliged to the formal organizations and bureaucratic groups. The study of formal organizations entails organizations that are rationally designed so that objectives and goals are achieved. The organizations in most cases have well established rules that govern its transactions, and the organizations run their duties using well-formulated regulations and stipulated procedures. Most of the bureaucratic organizations are formal in nature, due to the leadership styles that are used. Weber's theories admit a drastic increase in the development of formal organizations in Europe and the United States. Currently, formal organizations are dominative, as the regulations for development of organizations increase with global impacts. Almost all the human transactions involve organizations; ranging from educational facilities, healthcare organizations and many others.
Organizations as bureaucracies
Centralia 1947 Mine Explosion
Throughout the annals of the American industrialized age, countless tragedies have occurred within the workplace and these incidents have forced the public at large to consider the weighty issue of applying moral precepts to the realm of public administration. While the tomes of American jurisprudence are littered with examples of corporate enterprises and bureaucratic entities failing to uphold their basic responsibilities, perhaps no case has demonstrated the capacity to generate both outrage and activism as readily as The Blast in Centralia No. 5: A Mine Disaster No One Stopped. Authored by John Bartlow Martin, this seminal case study examines the unique confluence of internal and external circumstances which eventually resulted in the 1947 explosion of Centralia Mine No. 5, a catastrophe which claimed the lives of 111 coal miners. By carefully retracing the series of events preceding the actual explosion, including a history of the Centralia…
Hartley, R.E., & Kenney, D. (2006). Death underground: The centralia and west frankfort mine disasters. Chicago, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Fanning, F. (2007). Public sector safety professionals: Focused on activity or results?. Perspectives Newsletter, 6(3), 11-15. Retrieved from http://www.usmra.com/repository/category/disasters/Best-of-the -
Martin, J.B. (1948). The blast in centralia no. 5: A mine disaster no one stopped. In R.J. Stillman
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
subordination of labor" a necessary condition for establishing an employment relationship? Are there other necessary conditions?
The capitalist take-over of production was at first merely formal. Capitalists took control of production methods via ownership and employed workers in their privately owned factories. Workers agreed to labor for the owners, because they believed that this was a more financially and socially beneficial relationship than working for their own farms, on their own privately owned land. The formal subordination of labor to capital thus is necessary in a situation of private enterprise, where labor can be rented cheaply to work on preexisting property owned by capitalists.
Why is the "real subordination of labor" described as a fundamental aspect of management? How does the unique nature of the human factor make this form of subordination problematic?
It is only later, in part under the pressure of workers' struggles, when capitalists begin to invest…
Democracy and Bureaucracy
There is a natural tendency for bureaucracy to grow larger in a democracy if left unchecked. Much of this arises because of similar growth tendencies that can be found in other organizations. However, in the democratic form of government, there are challenges present in governmental bureaucracy that are unique to this sector. For example, in private companies there are typically chains of authority that are responsible for the decision making and are required to be transparent and accountable to all the organization's stakeholders. Furthermore, the operations in a private organization typically have economic restraints that are constantly monitored. By contrast, in the democratic form, typically elected officials are responsible for overseeing the bureaucratic institutions that govern society and they are less rigorous in maintaining performance metrics. This analysis will consider the balance between democracy and its bureaucratic institutions and the dynamics that mediate these relationships. It was…
Christiano, T. (2005). Democracy and Bureaucracy. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 211-217.
Dahlberg, S., & Holmberg, S. (2013). Democracy and Bureaucracy: . How their Quality Matters for Popular Satisfaction, 37-41.
Kumar, A. (2012). Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy . Theoretical and Applied Economics, 411-447.
Libman, A. (2012). Democracy, size of bureaucracy, and economic growth: evidence from Russian Regions. Empire Economics, 1321-1352.
Organizational culture theory and the role and impact of both formal and informal groups on the functioning of modern day organizations.
Organizational culture is the way organizations conducts its business transactions. It also refers to the different perspectives that a company sees things. An organization builds its own organizational culture through structure, history and the traditions of the company (Shafritz 2005). Theories of organizational culture suggest that culture gives an organization a sense of identity and defines what the company stands for. It also tells us what the company is. Culture also gives details to the principles of the company. Organizational culture in broader terms is the collective behavior of humans and the meaning of the actions that people do.
It involves the vision, norms, systems, beliefs and the organization values. Organizational culture contains values accepted by the employees of an organization. There are four main categories of organizational culture.…
Men and women perform different tasks in the society. There are tasks that women cannot do whereas the men are competent. Other tasks are hard for men to perform while the same tasks are easy for the women. The changing world enables women to work in the fields that many people regarded as belonging to the men. Women are now working in construction companies as a form of employment. The tasks affect positively in a bureaucratic performance since women incorporate their skills with that of men to work towards the achievement of an organization's goal. Strong and good working relationships between the employees in a bureau are beneficial (Gormley 2008). The strong relationships ensure that there is competence and effectiveness in performance of the employees.
Political support is crucial for any bureaucracy to thrive. Political stability and support are the main determinant factor that will enable a bureaucracy to thrive in its activities. Political support enables the bureaucracy to work without any hurdles. This ensures that the bureaucracy works with ease. Political support enables the bureaucracy to receive help and assistance from politicians (Gormley 2008). Political interference is the main factor that leads to the collapse of bureaucracy. Negative working relations between a bureau and politicians are a negative factor that will make the bureau not to function accordingly.
Good leadership helps bureaus to work effectively. Good leadership ensures that there are no corruption cases in many bureaus (Gormley 2008). Bad leadership results in the misappropriation of funds and corruption in the bureaus. Good leadership is a motivator to the junior staffs who look up to the leaders and follow the examples set up by the leaders. This enables the employees in the bureau to perform excellently in all sectors. Good governance and leadership by the officials enable the organization to get funding from the government that helps it in carrying outs its tasks.
American Government Response
Summarizing the Readings:
In his article "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power," Peter oll discusses the administrative branch of the government and the various departments who are in control of the funds which keep federal and state governments working. The bureaucracy is a highly influential part of the government and has a degree of control over both the President and Congress with far fewer legal checks to their actions than either of these bodies has to deal with. It has proven difficult to find ways to limit the influence of the bureaucracy when the constitution does not clearly state an opinion on the matter; a serious problem since the constitution is the basis for all legislation in the country. And additional issue has been in trying to determine which branch should deal with administration. Alexander Hamilton believed this was the job of the president and the Executive branch…
"The Executive Branch." 204-28.
Wilson, James Q. "The Rise of the Bureaucratic State." The Bureaucracy. 298-302.
Woll, Peter. "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power." The Bureaucracy. 302-310.
This is only one of the implications that individuals are facing when it comes to these kinds of limits. Some people choose to ignore the limits that are placed on them if they feel that those limits are too restrictive. Others do not even recognize the limits that are placed on them and feel as though the limit-placer has no right to do so in the first place. Despite these things, however, it usually does not end well from an organizational standpoint for people who continue to 'break the rules.' Being fired is one of the implications of ignoring limits, and getting into trouble with the law can also be an implication of this. Usually people either leave of their own accord or are brought into line before any of this takes place, but that's not always the case.
For the people who ignore limits there are other problems, as…
The mixture of public and private endeavors and effects that many bureaucracies, especially those related directly or indirectly to various governments, has made this effect even more apparent, to the point that many bureaucracies can be seen as almost wholly subservient to their client in ways beyond the traditional assumptions of supply and demand. This can make network organization, especially in mixed public-private endeavors, far more complicated and essential than it already is for most bureaucracies.
The resistance to change that many bureaucracies possess due to their size and complexity is actually a strength in an increasingly volatile world. The intense level of network organization which can be seen as a reducer of efficiency also ensures that undue and repetitive change are less likely to occur, thus forming two positives out of bureaucratic aspects that are generally viewed as negatives. This size and complexity also gives bureaucracies a broader…
When bureaucrats in a particular state see that a large segment of society is struggling with a particular rule or regulation, it may be time to address some changes to that rule. Texas and other states do this, but they are restricted somewhat in that federal regulations always supersede state regulations. Texas passes laws by presenting bills and having them move through the state legislature. If the bill gets enough votes, it is passed and becomes a law. However, it is very important that these bills are acceptable on the federal level, and that they comply with federal laws as well as what the state wants to accomplish. If they are not acceptable on a federal level, they cannot be laws in Texas, even if there were enough votes in that state to pass them. While some states have passed laws that go against what federal law states, it is…
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…
4)Harting, Tracey L. The Science of "Muddling Through" by Charles E. Lindblom 1998, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~whatley/PADM5302/theo14e.htm
5) Book review. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/1,4096,0130260088,00.html?type=FEA
6) Thomas Wadsworth, Book Review. Political Science. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, Sixth Edition, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://newtexts.com/newtexts/book.cfm?book_id=816
Kristin Died -- Case Study
On May 30, 1992, a young woman named Kristin Lardner was shot by her ex-boyfriend, Michael Cartier. Cartier had a long history of violence and criminal activity, not to mention several convictions of domestic violence. At the time of the murder, in fact, Cartier was on probation and under the auspices of a restraining order. A number of public agencies had the task of keeping Cartier away from Kristin, but unfortunately, this did not happen. The gist of the matter deals with the element of bureaucracy, the way they are set up, what keeps them going, what incentives they use to measure efficacy, and what factors inhibit their ability to be responsive.
Within the rubric of public administration, there seems to be at least two theoretical precepts that apply to the case of Kristin Lardner. First, there is the idea of public bureaucracy and the…
Lardner, G. (1992 November 22). The Stalking of Kristin: The Law Made It Easy for My Daughter's Killer. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/newssearch/search.html?st=The+Stalking+of+Kristin&submit=Submit+Query
Rosenbloom, D., Kravchuk, R., Clerkin, R. (2008). Public Administration: Understanding Management, Politics, and Law in the Public Sector. New York: McGraw Hill.
Stillman, R. (2005). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
See for example, the information in the National Domestic Violence Registry. http://www.domesticviolencedatabase.org/
In this instance, the stronger culture can easily consumer the lesser culture. Employees tend to be more receptive due primarily to the lack of culture and also by the prestige and power of the acquiring firm. Assimilation often occurs will smaller, less established companies being acquired by much larger competitors. As the company is just beginning to emerge, many culture qualities have not become entrenched. Assimilation however, is very rare in the context of mergers.
What is a more common strategy is that of deculturation. This is due primarily to the fact that employees usually resist organizational change, particularly when they are asked to throw away personal and cultural values. Under these conditions, some acquiring companies apply a deculturation strategy by imposing their culture and business practices on the acquired organization. The acquiring firm strips away artifacts and reward systems that support the old culture. People who cannot adopt the…
What we can take from this is that their pluralistic society was always being threatened. No matter how far a pluralistic society would come in theories, those individuals without the same morality could immediately endanger and void new theories.
Carpenter focuses on the emergence of bureaucratic policy innovation in the U.S. during the Progressive Era, questioning why the Post Office Department and the Department of Agriculture became politically independent writers of new policy and why the Interior Department did not (Carpenter 2001, 4). To explain these developments, Carpenter gives an essentially new theory of bureaucratic autonomy grounded in organization theory, rational choice models, and network concepts.
In Carpenter's opinion, bureaucracies with very distinct goals are able to achieve autonomy when they are able to create and keep a reputation among different coalitions for offering services that are also very distinct (Carpenter 2001, 4) (which is what happened with the Post…
Bertelli, Anthony. & Lynn, Lawrence. Madison's Managers: Public Administration and the Constitution. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Carpenter, Daniel P. The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862 -- 1928. Princeton University
Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
What the world needs today is an effective global banking system and a strong and sustainable trade relationship. The recent world recession reflects the collapse of the global banking system. This was the result of heavy advancement of loans and cumulative rates of interest that were collected on those loans, which led to economic growth in the short-term but economic collapse in the long-run. It is the time for the global powers to take the world economists and political leaders on board and make an effective decision on the creation of a banking system that offers loans to nations which are in urgent need of financial assistance such as Nigeria, Uganda and other African countries. The authority that looks after such banking system should ensure a balance between the First world and the third world in order to ensure that the world economy grows smoothly.
Cutting down public spending is…
World Trade Organization (1999). The WTO as the basic free trade institution: Ministerial Conference 1999. Retrieved from http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min99_e/english/state_e/d5325e.pdf
World Trade Organization (n.d.). About the WTO. Retrieved from http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/wto_dg_stat_e.htm
International Monetary Fund (2010). How the IMF promotes global economic stability. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/globstab.htm
Organisation) and Which Sector it Operates in
Description: Task 1 Background to change
Describe the significance of change within an organisation in the current economic climate
What factors do you consider to be the most important?
What are meant by the following terms in relation to organisational structure and change: bureaucracy, hierarchy?
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each
Compare and contrast two different forms of organisational change development by producing a brief report containing examples from known organisations
Task 2 Systems for understanding and involving others in the process of change.
Within your own organisation or one with which you are familiar, identify all stakeholders likely to be involved in the change process
What measures or processes could be used to help involve stakeholders in aspects of organisational change?
For two of these comment on their relevance and effectiveness to an organisation. 6
Managing Change in Organisations. Task…
Scientific management can best be defined as a method for conducting business operations by implementing a scientific approach to a company's business practices. Scientific management is normally associated with the methodology used by manufacturing companies who employed assembly line workers on a large scale. The methodology emphasized the manner in which the employees were employed, especially concentrating on labor, time and measurement of performance of each employee. Early scientific management methods were also implemented in other areas (outside of manufacturing) such as; the railroads. One article states "that scientific management techniques were far more widespread in railroading than has been thought" (Aldrich, 2010, p. 503) and then went on to explain that "while most studies of scientific management in industry have emphasized incentive pay and time studies, in the railroads there were less important than standardization, production scheduling and routing, and assembly line repair methods" (Aldrich, p. 503).…
Aldrich, M.; (2010) On the track of efficiency: Scientific management comes to railroad shops, 1900 -- 1930, Business History Review, Vol. 84, Issue 3, pp. 501 -- 526
Koll, S.; (2009) Is bureaucracy compatible with democracy?, South African Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 134-145
This is important, because it goes against the fundamental principles of the American democracy, as citizens demand accountability and transparency. To address this issue, the private sector can provide many different services that the government is delivering. Where, a number of corporations can supply these resources, for a fraction of the cost of government entities. This is important, because the manifesto is identifying a way that the government can provide effective solutions through the private sector. Yet, when you examine the underlying issue itself, it is clear that this solution has parts that are relevant for modern government. Where, the bureaucracy can play role in addressing general issues and then contact out the different services to the private sector. The problem occurs, when there is too much of an emphasis on this model, as this can create fraud and other possible abuses of the system. Where, a lack transparency and…
Johnston, Jocelyu. "The Challenges of Contracting and Accountability." Publius 43 (3) (2003): 155 -- 182. Print.
Klinger, Donald. "Politics, Administration and the Markets." American Review of Public Administration 32 (117) (2002): 117 -- 144. Print.
Page, Steven. "The Web of Managerial Accountability." Administration and Society. 38 (2) (2006): 166 -- 197. Print.
Walmsely, Gary. "The Public Administration and Governance Process." The Centennial History of the American Administrative State. New York, NY: The Free Press, n.d. 291 -- 316. Print.
Public Administration Review, 47, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1987): 17-25.
All three of the works described by Bertelli and Lynn focus on the separation of responsibility among the branches of government. John Mabry Matthews asserted that "the work of government can be divided into the formulation and execution of public policy" (p. 35). He was a strong advocate of transparent government and believed that public administration should not be treated as an afterthought.
The key elements of illoughby's Principles of Public Administration, were based on the notion that the government should be run like a corporation, with the President acting as, essentially, the general manager. He complained of a "failure to apply scientific principals" (p. 40) such as those outlined by Taylor, as well as the abundant administrative responsibilities of legislative branch, which he believed should belong to the executive branch.
Leonard hite's key points centered on the mechanical nature…
Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
This was because of some of the reforms that he introduced for corporations, for public spending, environmental protection and transportation sectors. Since powerful LDP members had vested interests in these sectors, they did not approve of all the reforms and hence were wary of Koizumi and his brand of politics.
The articles about Koizumi and Abe suggest that Japan suffers from serious economic problems that the political system cannot resolve. Why not? What are the political obstacles to changing Japanese politics? How does it relate to the Johnson reading?
Japan has had enormous economic success over the decades but lately its problems are negating the effects of earlier successes. I cannot agree with the opinion that economic problems cannot be solved through political means. Even though other factors do play in, it is the political system that determines the path economy will take. By political system, we mean…
Tomohito Shinoda. Koizumi Diplomacy: Japan's Kantei Approach to Foreign and Defense Affairs University of Washington Press (April 15, 2007)
Chalmers A. Johnson. Japan: Who Governs?: The Rise of the Developmental State W.W. Norton & Company (March 1995)
Instead of hunting for the right department, individuals would simply decide what communication method best suited their needs - visit the nearest council office, log on to a council web site, send an e-mail or simply pick up the phone - and their request, complaint or comment would be dealt with effectively by the relevant official. This would apply to social services, education, housing, refuse collection and many more. (ibid)
Pence, . ed. (1993) Secondary school management in the 1990's: challenge and change. Aspects of Education Series, 48. London, Independent Publishers.
Holland, M. (1996) Harvard system [Internet] Poole, ournemouth University. Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/service-depts/lis/LIS_Pub/harvardsyst.html[Accessed 22 August 1997].
Adamolekun, L. (Ed.). (1999). Public Administration in Africa: Main Issues and Selected Country Studies. oulder, CO: Westview Press.
Al-Kibsi, G., oer, K.D., Rea, N.P., & Mourshed, M. (2001). Putting Citizens Online, Not in Line. 65. Retrieved December 23, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.…
Pence, B. ed. (1993) Secondary school management in the 1990's: challenge and change. Aspects of Education Series, 48. London, Independent Publishers.
Holland, M. (1996) Harvard system [Internet] Poole, Bournemouth University. Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/service-depts/lis/LIS_Pub/harvardsyst.html [Accessed 22 August 1997].
Adamolekun, L. (Ed.). (1999). Public Administration in Africa: Main Issues and Selected Country Studies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Al-Kibsi, G., Boer, K.D., Rea, N.P., & Mourshed, M. (2001). Putting Citizens Online, Not in Line. 65. Retrieved December 23, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
factory owners during the Industrial Revolution. You are having trouble recruiting and retaining workers, and getting them to do what you want them to do. What techniques would you use to accomplish your goals of achieving efficient and profitable production?
oday, because of the apparently unjust conditions of workers during the early days of industrialization, modern sympathies tend to lie with the factory workers in their efforts to unionize and secure their rights during the early days of the Industrial Revolution. However, even from the capitalist's perspective, unmotivated employees were not as productive as loyal and motivated laborers, thus it was perhaps mistaken to be blatantly unconcerned about workers rights. In fact, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the capitalist factory owners were often frustrated by the need to impose discipline upon workers who were used to agricultural methods and rhythms of labor. his began, initially, by paying workers…
Take a look at the three organizational charts at the websites below. How do these charts represent bureaucracy? How are they similar, and how are they different?
Bureaucracy is a word that has become almost synonymous with red tape and poor and inefficient procedures based not upon reality but upon protocols. However, some bureaucracy is necessary for large organizations to function. For example, for the Argone National Laboratory ( http://www.ipd.anl.gov/anl_org_chart/ ) the organization in question demonstrates the series of bureaucratic channels, with one large organization enveloping several smaller departments of specific areas of equal expertise. The U.S. Department of Energy is technically in charge, overseeing the University of Chicago's operation of the lab in question. The university lab's official head has ultimate control over the smaller cell organizations, while each laboratory beneath the director acts as a department in and of itself, although still under official administrative control. Thus, smaller, but still crucial organizational hubs that serve different but equally necessary functions under the larger, official bureaucratic heads and within a larger bureaucracy.
The functional chart for Argone stands in contrast to the human-focused organizational chart offered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human services. Although both charts show top-down hierarchies, there is an emphasis on personality as well as function in the Heath and Human services diagram, and thus the chart is more complex -- it is both more specific, but also, because it contains more information a bit more difficult to understand for a layperson from the outside, about the many different functionaries within each individual cell of the bureaucracy. (http://www.os.dhhs.gov/about/orgchart.html)
They might have a different structure at higher levels where more innovation and creativity is required, but at the lower levels everything is based on a machine-like system -- that system is what the franchisees pay for.
Another type of organization is the professional bureaucracy. This type of organization also has a high level of bureaucracy to its nature, but differs from the machine bureaucracy in that there is also a high degree of specialization. Organizations that rely on knowledge workers often have this strategy. While there are a lot of rules and procedures, the actual output is produced by highly-trained professionals, not unskilled labor. An example of this type of organization is a hospital or university (Mantkelow, 2014).
For any given company, there might be differences in the optimal structure. Many industries will gravitate to one structure over the others because it best suits firms in that business. Other…
Davoren, J. (2014). Functional structure organization strengths & weaknesses. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/functional-structure-organization-strength-weakness-60111.html
Mantkelow, J. (2014). Mintzberg's organizational configurations. MindTools. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_54.htm
Various sociological theories and administrative thought shows that modern police department is a combination of a hierarchical and quasi-military bureaucracy. In accordance to the fundamental rationality of Weber's theory of bureaucracy, the modern police department is wrought with red tape and other unfortunate side-effects of bureaucratic organizations. On the other hand, as Weber suggested, many large-scale organizations, especially those linked to the government, must be bureaucratic if they are to be most effectively and rationally run. The modern police department, although it has adopted theories of modern sociologists and administrative thinkers, continues to resemble traditional hierarchical and bureaucratic systems.
The modern police department resembles least Fayol's theories of management, in which red tape detracts from effectiveness and in which horizontal communication is widely practiced. At the same time, many police departments use Fayol's theories of horizontal communication when seeking accountability and attempting to eliminate corruption within the force.…
Old and New Leadership Styles
Max Weber was correct that in modern society, the power of the bureaucracy increased exponentially with urbanization and industrialization, particularly when it was called upon to deal increasingly with social and economic problems. Such organizations were hardly designed to enable others to act within a democratic or participatory system, but to act on their behalf and direct them from above in a very hierarchical system. For example, during the Progressive Era and New Deal in the United States, the civil service was expanded to regulate capitalism in a variety of ways, to administer large parts of the economy and the growing social welfare state. Of course, with the growth in the power and influence of the civil service, opportunities for bribery, corruption, authoritarian behavior and catering to special interests instead of the public interest became far more common as well. Building public trust and confidence…
Adrian, C. (2006). Political Democracy, Trust and Social Justice. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.
Coles, R. (2001). Lives of Moral Leadership: Men and Women Who Have Made a Difference. Random House.
DePree, M. (1992). Leadership Jazz. Dell Trade Paperbacks.
Dobel, P. (1998). "Political Prudence and the Ethics of Leadership." Public Administration Review, 58, 74 -- 81.
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
MEDCOM's attempt to identify a more efficient project management model that can optimize functionality across the organization, particularly with respect to project managers and to the flows throughout MEDCOM. This process is a transformational process, because of several reasons.
MEDCOM has identified the problems it faces. These problems include "the lack of perceived information and expertise and bureaucracy of the environment" (Kashiwagi, Sullivan, Sullivan, Kashiwagi, (2008). It has also decided that change is in order and change implies a transformational process. MEDCOM aims to become an entity that is more effective and efficient and it looks to different ways in which this can be done. As part of the transformational process, one has both the proposed final objective (becoming a more efficient organization) and the steps to reach that objective (the recommendations that this paper will make for MEDCOM). With all these elements, the assessment is that this project is…
Kashiwagi, Jacob, Sullivan, Marie, Sullivan, Kenneth T. & Kashiwagi, Dean . (2008). Transforming an Organization by Using a New Project Management Approach PM World Today. Vol. X, Issue VII.
Ward, J. LeRoy. (2008). Ten Essential Steps to Delivering Successful Programs. Retrieved July 29, 2012 from http://www.maxwideman.com/guests/essential/intro.htm
Lavell, Debra & Martinelli, Russell. (2008). The People Side of Program and Project Retrospectives (Part 3 of a Series). PM World Today.Vol. X, Issue V.
Execution and Control. Retrieved July 29, 2012 from http://www.cio.ny.gov/pmmp/guidebook2/ExecutionAndControl.pdf
Quality Performance Measurement
Public Evaluation Program
In this paper, we are going to be conducting a literature review of public evaluation programs. During the process, there is a focus on misunderstanding the needs of stakeholders and the programs / reforms. Together, these elements will illustrate the overall scope of what is taking place and the long-term effects it is having on everyone.
Misunderstanding the Needs of the Public
One of the biggest challenges with any public performance evaluation is the misuse of data. This is problematic, as officials believe they are effectively delivering a variety of services for a fraction of the costs. Yet, in reality, the lack of competition invites bloated salaries and inefficiency. Administrators will try to correct the situation, through looking at a variety of sources to understand what is happen. They are unable, to gain greater insights, as politics and changing attitudes influence the outcome of…
Cheezum, R. (2013). Building Community Capacity. Journal of Community Practice, 21 (3), 228 -- 247.
Rondileni, D. (2003). Reinventing Government for the 21st Century. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.
Sirianni, C. (2009). Investing in Democracy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Stipack, B. (1979). Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services. Public Administration Review, 39 (1), 46 -- 52.
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
McNerney needed to concentrate on this function, as several challenges in the past, such as labor disputes leading to walk offs, had hindered the organization. Weber (2008) details how McNerney skillfully has been able to lead external forces, specifically the Defense Department, yet that internal leadership has yet to be fully developed. For this reason, the threat again of labor stoppages is a major concern for the company. McNerney needs to focus more on this function, if he hopes to stop having the same workforce challenges in the future. Leading by empowering his employees, including the elimination of much of the bureaucracy in the organization, will go a long ways towards inspiring them to accept the organization's objectives as their own.
The multi-step process of controlling, for a manager involves: setting performance standards, measuring actual performance, analyzing the results, and taking corrective action when needed. Holms (2005) notes when…
787 Dreamliner milestones. (2009). Retrieved November 2, 2009, from http://787milestones.tpninteractive.com/ .
Holms, S. (18 Jul 2005). I like a challenge -- and I've got one. Business Week, 3943. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from ProQuest database.
Weber, J. (29 Sep 2008). McNerney's bumpy tide at Boeing. Business Week, 4101. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from ProQuest database.
Another approach taken by Weber in this study consists in explaining the characteristics of the bureaucracy. In the opinion of the author, this term may occur only in "political and ecclesiastical communities only in the modern state, and in the private economy only in the most advanced institutions of capitalism" ("The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism"). Moreover, the principle on which it is established is that of office hierarchy, in which the lower offices are supervised by the higher ones, which also exists within a legal framework, meaning that its activity is guided by written documents and usually follows some general rules.
The official is usually named in the office and, in the case of the political leaders, they gain a certain position due to their charisma, to which it also contributes his privilleged statute within the social system. Moreover, he is usually appointed, as an elected official…
WEBER Max, 1981, "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," Blackwell Publishing, 324 pages;
FISCHOFF Ephraim, 1944, "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Social Research," Vol. XI, pp.62-68;
FREUND Julien, 1968, "The Sociology of Max Weber," New York: Vintage Books.
For Bush, the "formation and refining of policy proposals" (Kingdon's second process stream in policymaking) came to fruition when he got elected, and began talking to legislators about making educators and schools accountable. Bush gave a little, and pushed a little, and the Congress make its own changes and revisions, and the policy began to take shape. The third part of Kingdon's process stream for Bush (politics) was getting the necessary votes; Bush had his handlers buttonhole certain conservative politicians, and united them with Democrats, to get enough votes to pass the NCLB.
Meantime, it was truly "organized anarchy" as the debate in the House and Senate lasted seven weeks, and some members of Congress rejected the idea of having the NAEP double check state statistics that show whether test scores have gone up or not. Civil rights groups attacked the bill, saying it would be unfair to minorities.
American Federation of Teachers. "NCLB - Let's Get it Right." Retrieved 7 Dec. 2007 at http://www.aft.org/topics/nclb/index.htm .
American Teacher. "Harvard study cites NCLB implementation flaws." (April 2004) Retrieved Dec. 2007 through http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_teacher/apr04/nclb.html .
Nation at Risk. "An Open Letter to the American People: The Imperative for Educational
Reform." April 1983. Department of Education. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 at http://www.ed.gov /pubs/natAtRisk/findings.html.
cartoon in the Albuquerque Journal on September 15, 2009. The gist of the article revolves around choices in healthcare and who is responsible for those choices. In the first panel, and insurance salesman is talking with an average American asking, "Are you tired of having your health care decisions made by a big, unfeeling corporate bureaucracy?" In the next frame, his wife asks, "ho was that?" -- The husband, holding a brochure entitled Obama Care, responds, "Somebody from a huge, unfeeling government bureaucracy, offering to make our health care decisions."
This is clearly focused on the healthcare debate and the fact that American is under pressure from all sides in its healthcare conundrum. e know that at least twenty percent of America's population has either no insurance or is underinsured -- and that this is the highest percentage in the developed world. This is particularly alarming noting that more money…
Obama's Health-Care Plan: Pros and Cons Debate. (2012). My Family Doctor.com. Retrieved from: http://familydoctormag.com/doctors-office/1291-obamas-health-care-plan-doctors-debate-pros-and-cons.html
Underinsured in America: Is Health Coverage Adequate? (July 2002). Kaiser Commission
on Key Facts -- Medicaid and the Uninsured. Cited in:
BRANCHES OF U.S. GOVERNMENT HAS MORE TO SAY IN FOREIGN POLICY DECISION MAKING? HY?
The Executive Branch has the most 'say' in making foreign policy, as only the president administrates the day-to-day affairs of the nation as a whole, and as he or she is the only nationally elected official. The president negotiates treaties, and acts as head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. But presidential power over foreign affairs is not absolute -- for example, only Congress can declare war. The Senate approves nominations made by the President to the Cabinet, including the Secretaries of State and Defense. The Senate must also ratify all foreign treaties by a two-thirds vote. The Senate has must confirm ambassadors and other senior foreign policy officials. Congress retains control over foreign policy funding, and, of course, the power to raise and equip the military for war. The Judicial Branch…
Biden Joseph. (May 2000) "A Democratic Viewpoint: Congress and Foreign Policy." U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda. Retrieved 8 May 2005 at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itps/0300/ijpe/pj51bide.htm
Defense Spending Military-Industrial Complex Briefly explains iron triangle model policy-making involving Congress, bureaucracy, interest groups. Analyze information relationships Congress, military bureaucracies, defense industries.
Defense spending and the military-industrial complex
The 'iron triangle' model of policy-making is defined as "the closed, mutually supportive relationships that often prevail in the United States between the government agencies, the special interest lobbying organizations, and the legislative committees or subcommittees with jurisdiction over a particular functional area of government policy" (Johnson 2005). For example, in regards to the military, members of Congress benefit when a particular military project is located in their district, so they are more apt to support such military expenditures, regardless of whether the projects are truly valuable or necessary. Compounding the problem, "the middle-level bureaucrats who run the agencies may use their special friends in Congress to block the efforts of a new president or a new congressional majority…
Bender, Brian. (2010). From the Pentagon to the public sector. The Boston Globe. Retrieved:
Johnson, Paul. (2005). Iron triangles. A Glossary of Political Economy Terms. Retrieved:
Kaiser Permanente is a titan of the managed health care industry. Established in 1945, it has grown to enormous proportions, serving approximately 9 million members through the efforts of 180,600 employees. Such gigantic proportions and wide arrays of services necessitate complex management. The organization has succeeded in establishing management that works "from the top down" with mixed results.
Assessment of the Various Management Levels and Their Role in Kaiser Permanente
Kaiser Permanente is a managed care conglomerate initially developed in the 1930's and 1940's for construction, shipyard and steel mill employees, then opened to the public in October 1945 (Kaiser Permanente, 2012). Today Kaiser Permanente works as two partner organizations: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, which is not-for-profit, and Permanente Medical Groups, which is for-profit (Kaiser Permanente, 2012). Based in Oakland, California, Kaiser boasts approximately 9 million members (Kaiser Permanente, 2012) and 180,600 employees (Kaiser Permanente, 2012).
Kaiser Permanente operates in…
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Kaiser Permanente. (2011, November 17). How Kaiser Permanente became a continuous learning organization. Retrieved May 20, 2012 from proquest.umi.com Web site: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=1&did=2513718311&SrchMode=2&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1337634825&clientId=14844
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Kaiser Permanente. (2012). Career Areas. Retrieved May 20, 2012 from www.kaiserpermanentejobs.org Web site: http://www.kaiserpermanentejobs.org/career-areas.aspx
Origins of the NIM
John D. Rockefeller once quipped that, "I always try to turn every disaster into an opportunity." Through studying the nature of disasters and disaster preparedness, the student of government and organizational management can take the opportunity to learn from the mistakes of the past and assist in establishing more effective institutions for the future. This brief paper will cover the origins of the National Incident Management ystem (NIM), the National Response Plan (NRP) and tackle whether such entities assist in mitigating disaster or only contribute bureaucracy and obstacles to the relief of those most in need.
On February 28, 2003, President Bush enacted the Homeland ecurity Presidential Directive which ordered the ecretary of Homeland ecurity to create NIM. The NIM is intended to provide a consistent, flexible, and adjustable national framework to enable Federal, tate and local governments and private sector and nongovernmental organizations to work…
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2011. Emergency Management. Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2012: http://training.fema.gov/IS/
Pearson, C. And Mitroff, I. 1993. From Crisis Prone to Crisis Prepared. The Executive. 7(1).
" In other words, the conclusion is that women have a negative impact on all five organizational performance criteria -- personal achievements, accountability, team building, morale and customer service. A similar view is shared by Elton Mayo, who argues that women tend to talk too much among themselves, fail to become subordinate and as such distract the attention of the whole group, negatively impacting power of concentration, and consequently, performances and the rest of the criteria.
The inferiority of the female gender comparative to the male gender is also sustained by sources quoted by Montgomery Van Wart in his Changing Public Sector Values (1998). He presents the subject in the context of discriminations against certain groups, but argues that the gender criterion is the least important one as more dramatic discriminations occurred based on race or social status. Nevertheless, the pillar of these discriminations was the belief in elite systems,…
Fry, B.R., 1989, Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, ISBN 093454056X
Stivers, C., 2002, Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State, 2nd Edition, SAGE, ISBN 0761921745
Van Wart, M., 1998, Changing Public Sector Values, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0815320728
There are numerous effects of corruption on MNCs. In case their competition engages in such practices, their activity is significantly influenced by this phenomenon. This is because their corrupt competitors can change rules and regulations that do not favor other companies. Therefore, they have to deal with the effects of such situations. This sometimes determines them to modify their activity.
In addition to this, there are situations where employees of certain MNCs are bribed by competitors in order to provide important information on these companies. This is extremely harmful to companies as it can lead to information leaks on strategies, price levels, and other types of investments that these companies intend to make. This means that these MNCs must increase investments in security issues.
In addition to this, MNCs are sometimes forced to become corruptors because some of their competitors do so. In other words, if certain companies provide incentives…
1. Begovic, B. (2005). Corruption: Concepts, Types, Causes, and Consequences. Center for Liberal Democratic Studies. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.cadal.org/documents/documento_26_english.pdf .
2. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention (2012). OECD. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/countryreportsontheimplementationoftheoecdanti-briberyconvention.htm .
3. Kwok, C. & Tadesse, S. (2006). The MNC as an Agent of Change for Host Country Institutions: FDI and Corruption. The William Davidson Institute. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://wdi.umich.edu/files/publications/workingpapers/wp882.pdf .
What is Public Administration?
Marc Holzer -- in the good company of thousands of colleagues in public administration and business -- embraced the box. The box serves to as a frame to our thinking, acts as scaffolding to our decision-making, and serves our innate tendency as human beings to create meaningful patterns from our experience. And how better to improve on the box, than to further divide it into four boxes -- each of which represents the tensions we experience regarding whatever we have put into the box. The box is familiar as it serves many disciplines. Economists may love the box more than any other group, save management consultants. That said, quadrants are a useful heuristic, and I utilize that attribute here in my version as applied to public administration and the management of non-profits.
The four quadrants I describe are, on the vertical axis,…
Buckingham, M. And Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Follett, M.P. (1996). The giving of orders. In Shafritz, J.M. & Ott, J.S. (Eds.). Classics of organization theory (pp.156-162). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Gulick, Luther. 1937. Notes on the Theory of Organization. In Papers on the Science of Administration, edited by Luther Gulick and Lydal Urwick. New York. Institute of Public
Administration, Columbia University.
If democracy and the concept of democratic governance is the foundation of bureaucratic ethics, do administrators and public officials relate to the U.S. Constitution in that sense? Are ethical behaviors by those in public office the result of the creation and the practice of democracy? Many of those who are elected to public office must take an oath to abide by the principles contained in Constitution of the United States, but are those individuals truly ethically committed to the principles while they engage in democratic governance? This paper takes the position that while democratic governance (the Constitution) should be understood and practiced as the foundation for .ethical behavior that is not always the case. Indeed, ethical behavior on the part of the press in the United States (which is a bureaucracy in its own right), which John Rohr alludes to, is unfortunately more rare than not.
Huffington Post. (2012). One in Six Americans Believe Obama is Muslim, Only One in Four
Identify Him as Protestant. Retrieved July 26, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Rohr, J.A. (2008). Ethics and Comparative Administration: A Constitutional Commentary.
Public Integrity, 10(1), 65-74.