Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
I also predicted that the difference in heterosocial competence between child molesters and non-sex-offenders would be significantly larger than the difference between rapists and non-sex-offenders. This hypothesis was also supported (Dreznick, 2003,pg 170)."
The researcher also hypothesized that the variation in heterosocial competence amongst child molesters and nonincarcerated non-sex-offenders would be considerably larger than the variation amongst child molesters and incarcerated non-sex-offenders (Dreznick, 2003). The findings of the meta-analysis were consistent with this hypothesis.
The author of this meta-analysis concluded that because child molesters have significant problems with heterosocial skills social skills training may assist in the treatment of these individuals. However the author points out that the treatment of heterosocial skills is only one component of an overall treatment program. Other components of a treatment program may include anger management and increasing empathy for the children that are victimized (Dreznick, 2003).
Additionally the author points out certain limitations of the study. For instance, that all of the child molesters that participated in the study were behind bars. Therefore, it could also be concluded that many sex offenders have very good social skills and have been able to avoid capture (Dreznick, 2003). In addition the author explains that predators that go to foreign countries so that they can get away with having sexual contact with children may also have high heterosocial skills. As such it may be important in the future to examine child molesters that are not in jail.
Child Molesters that are Socially Skilled
The assertions made by Dreznick (2003) related to the idea that some child molesters have very good social skills is confirmed in a book entitled "The Socially Skilled Child Molester." In this book the author, Van Dam (2006) explains that one of the reasons why child molestation is so prevalent can be attributed to the ability of the molester to behave charismatically. The author insists that those that are responsible for the well-being of children are often "enchanted" by the charisma, friendliness and support of socially adept molesters that the author refers to as groomers. In addition the author posits that parents and other adults are often so impressed with the groomers persona that even when they suspect that something is wrong they hesitate to confront the situation because they fear that the reputation of the groomer will be damaged by allegations (Van Dam, 2006).
A book entitled Predators: Pedophiles, Rapists, and Other Sex Offenders: Who They Are, How They Operate, and How We Can Protect Ourselves and Our Children, confirms the aforementioned tactics of child molesters. Although there are many factors that are consistent when one studies and examines the mind of a child molester, the truth of the matter is many child molesters are the person that you would least expect of such a crime. After all most people do not know what to look for in a child predator and as such molesters can often disguise themselves as a regular person that cares about children. This is why molesters are often referred to as 'the person you would least expect' (Salter, 2004). The author also explains that quite often a child molester will live a double life. In the words of one molester "I would do kind and generous things for people... I would go to nursing homes. Talk with the elderly. Pray with the elderly Salter, 2004 page31)."
Child Molesters perceptions of Early interpersonal relationships
In addition to the aforementioned meta-analysis, a study conducted by McCormack et al. (2003) sought to uncover the perceptions of child molesters early interpersonal relationships. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate these interpersonal relationships through the utilization of the grounded theory. The authors explain that little is known about the manner in which child molesters' perceive their early interpersonal relationships when compared with other criminals (McCormack et al. 2003). The grounded theory method allowed researchers to maximize the evaluation of the data gathered from the study. The authors also report three aims associated with the research. These aims are as follows:
To create a very specific depiction of the early experiences of sexual offenders, particularly those aspects associated with their offense-related problems including level of interpersonal trust, impaired independence, and difficulties controlling emotions, and the level to which participants saw themselves in a negative way (McCormack et al. 2003).
Examine the variation as it relates to the way sexual offenders perceived their early interpersonal experiences when compared to other types of criminals. The purpose of examining this issue was to ascertain if variations existed amongst various kinds of criminals in their early experiences, or their view of past experiences (McCormack et al. 2003).
To learn if offenders had dissimilar views of early relationships with their parents.
To conduct this study researchers utilized a semi-structured interview format because this type of format is believed to supply the most correct depiction of a person's early experiences than other formats. It is believed that correctness is enhanced with this format because individuals' interpersonal schemas are often tacit and therefore not easily accessible by direct questioning. They may not be aware of their underlying relationship models, and when asked directly about these may unconsciously distort their responses in some way. By allowing offenders to respond more freely to open-ended questions it is possible to develop a richer understanding of their underlying beliefs and models (McCormack et al. 2003, pg.85)."
Participants that were child molesters were a part of the Kia Marama Sex Offender Treatment Program that functioned inside a medium security prison in New Zealand (McCormack et al. 2003). Most of the men participated prior to receiving treatment. The other groups participating in the study included, sexual offenders with adult victims, violent nonsexual offenders, and nonsexual, nonviolent offenders (McCormack et al. 2003). These individuals were recruited from the same prison as the child molesters in addition to another medium security prison in the same region (McCormack et al. 2003). Only the child molesters were engaged in a treatment program.
A total of 147 men participated in the study. Of the 147, 55 were child molesters, 30 were sexual offenders with adult victims, 32 men with violent offenses, and 30 men incarcerated for something other than sexual or violent offenses. The authors point out that the crimes attributed by child molesters included everything from masturbating in front of a minor to intercourse or sodomy. The authors also note considerable differences in the ages of participant. For instance, the child molesters tended to be much older than the other groups and those that committed sexual offenses against adults were considerably older than the violent and nonviolent groups (McCormack et al. 2003). There were also noteworthy variation is the groups as it related to the number of offenses that had been committed. Those committing sexual crimes against adults and child molesters tended to have the most wide-ranging history, and nonviolent offenders had the shortest criminal histories (McCormack et al. 2003).
All participants were interviewed concerning early interpersonal experiences. A total of 35 questions were used from the attachment research literature. The interview included questions pertaining to parental interest and support, parental reaction to negative emotion, stability of parental actions, view of safety and security in the home and an overall evaluation of the relationship (McCormack et al. 2003).
The study found that child molesters tended to have significantly more sexual deviation and abuse than rapists and nonviolent offenders (McCormack et al. 2003). This is consistent with past researcher that has found that child molesters are at least twice as likely to report sexual abuse as those that commit sexual offenses against adults (McCormack et al. 2003). Additionally the study found that Child molesters and violent offenders tended to assess themselves in a more negative light than the other participants in the study (McCormack et al. 2003). This is consistent with the existing literature which asserts that "child molesters have a tendency toward fearful and preoccupied attachment styles, both characterized by negative views of the self (McCormack et al. 2003)." The authors point out that the findings of their research is consistent with many studies that have also found child molesters usually see themselves in self-depreciating light.
The authors explain that negative perceptions of self can be correlated to the feeling of personal worthlessness and to a decreased feeling of self-sufficiency (McCormack et al. 2003). This relationship is makes sense because-as the study found- child molesters experienced a reduced amount of independent attachment relationships when compared with other types of criminals including nonviolent offenders and even those that committed sexual offenses against adults (McCormack et al. 2003). Again this particular finding is consistent with existing literature positing that child molesters usually have dependent relationships with their mothers and that child molesters tend to not have clear boundaries in their parental relationships (McCormack et al. 2003).
Additionally the authors note that the decreased level of autonomy child molesters experience may occur as a result of their increased propensity to display fearful and anxious…[continue]
"Marked Increase In The Number" (2007, October 11) Retrieved December 5, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/marked-increase-in-the-number-35224
"Marked Increase In The Number" 11 October 2007. Web.5 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/marked-increase-in-the-number-35224>
"Marked Increase In The Number", 11 October 2007, Accessed.5 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/marked-increase-in-the-number-35224
marked increase in "cumulative trauma disorders throughout the United States" (Lalumandier and McPhee, 2001, p. 130). Moreover, the article explicitly denotes that of these types of disorders, there is a growing number of laborers who are experiencing carpal tunnel syndrome. In fact, this issue is highly prevalent among dental hygienists, and even represents a significant occupation hazard as such. The abstract actually does highlight the research methodology that was deployed
Special Education Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among
Corrections Gius, Mark. (1999). The Economics of the Criminal Behavior of Young Adults: Estimation of an Economic Model of Crime with a Correction for Aggregate Market and Public Policy Variables. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. October 01. Retrieved November 07, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site. Mark Gius uses a combination of individual-level and county-level data to estimate an economic model of crime for young adults. This data is similar
The goals at which this process is aimed can concentrate on creating benefits primarily for one party or on creating benefits for both parties.' (van der Pluijm and Melissen, 2007, p.1) Multiple-sided city diplomacy is a "diplomatic process in which more than two parties are involved, representing various cities." (van der Pluijm and Melissen, 2007, p.1) van der Pluijm and Melissen state that associations of municipalities "such as United Cities
It is at this point when new ideas will be studied and analyzed as part of the process. This will ensure that a variety of perspectives are taken into account by government officials. (Bardach, 2000) In the case of the PRWORA, this process means looking at the impact of these changes on recipients. Over the last several years, many officials are realizing that more people need the help of these
The death penalty is therefore morally and ethically necessary not only for an ordered society but as a necessary means to protect the innocent from evil. Secondly, from a Catholic point-of-view this stance is supported by centuries of Church doctrine and by references to Biblical test, as discussed above. This also refers to the view that many modern Catholics take; which in turn refers to the contemporary emphasis on the
" Human development- behavioral shifts in human being that tae place during the course of an entire lifespan ("Human Behavior"). Risk Analysis- the activity of determining and analyzing the dangerous natural and human caused negative events. This analysis takes into consideration the risks these event pose to businesses individuals and governments. Within the domain of information technology risk analysis reports are utilized to tailor technology-related objectives with a an organization's business objectives.