Martin Luther took his birth on November 10, 1483 in a peasant family in Eisleben in the Holy Roman Empire, presently known as Eastern Germany. After the birth of Luther his family migrated from Eisleben to Mansfeld. His father was a comparatively effective miner and smelter and the Mansfeld was then a larger mining town. The Parents of Martin were Hans and Magarete Luther and he was their second child. Martin started his schooling in Mansfeld most probably around seven. The School emphasized Latin and a bit of logic and rhetoric. When Martin was 14 he was brought to Magdeburg for taking up his further studies. He resided there only of a year and then admitted into a Latin School in Eisenach till 1501. During 1501 he entered the University of Erfurt that was regarded as one of the oldest and best universities in Germany where he pursued his course for Master of Arts. William Occam's theology and Erurt's curriculum on metaphysics has considerable influence on spiritual and theological development. (Martin Luther (1483-1546): Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Martin Luther was widely known there as 'the philosopher' since he always had deliberations for long durations. He also engaged in playing the lute. In 1502 he could attain his BA degree. He also attained his MA in 1502 where he was positioned second among the seventeen of his fellow beings. (Martin Luther Protestant Reformer) In 1505, it was visualized that the plans were about to finally be realized of becoming a lawyer. (Martin Luther (1483-1546): Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The reason behind his entering into the religion as a career is quite unknown. His publication Tischreden later translated to be known as 'Table Talk' reveals that on July 2, 1505, when he was coming back to his parents he was overtaken by a thunderstorm at the village Stooerheim and being frightened cried "Help, St. Anne, and I'll become a monk." (Martin Luther Protestant Reformer) St. Anna, the mother of Virgin Mary was the patron saint of miners. To most of the advocates, such promise would not have emerged suddenly in the absence of the already designed thought with much expansion and deepness. (Martin Luther (1483-1546): Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy) He narrated in his De Votis Monasticis as "not freely or deliriously did I become a monk, but walled around with the terror and agony of sudden death, I vowed a constrained and necessary vow." (Martin Luther Protestant Reformer) Luther made an entry into the Augustinian Monastery at Erfurt on 17th July 1505.
Luther's decision to devote himself into the monastery was a complicated one. Martin understood that this would have great disappointment for his parents. However he could also understood that one must keep a promise made to God. However, beyond that he also had strong inherent causes to enter into the monastery. Luther was disturbed by the uncertainty about his salvation. The monastery was the effective location to discover assurance. However, assurance avoided him. He dedicated himself to lead a life of monk with dynamism. But this is of no use. At last his mentor instructed him to concentrate on Christ and him alone in his pursuit for assurance. Irrespective of the fact of his anxieties would outbreak him for still years to come, the basis of his later promise were detailed in that conversation. Luther entailed his profession as a monk in September 1506 and was then ready for ordination. He was ordained a priest in April 1507, and his first mass too place during the early part of May. (Martin Luther (1483-1546): Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
There were some aged men in the convent of the Augustines, in the University of Erfurt during 1507. With them Luther being a contemporary and as a friar Augustine had discussion on diverse maters particularly with regard to the remission of sins; the articles shown by aged father declaring God's pronounced commandments requiring every man to believe his sins to be forgiven him in Christ and further entailed that this interpretation was confirmed by St. Bernard: "This is the testimony that the Holy Ghost giveth thee in thy heart, saying, thy sins are forgiven thee. For this is the opinion of the apostle, that man is freely justified by faith." (An Account of the Life and Persecutions of Martin Luther: 1483-1546) These words not only strengthened Luther but were also told about the implications of St. Paul, who repeatedly confirmed for several times, 'We are justified by faith'. (An Account of the Life and Persecutions of Martin Luther: 1483-1546) Having studied the interpretations of several others at this juncture, he then visualized as well by the discourse of the old man, as by the comfort he established in his spirit, the vanity of those interpretations, those he had read before, of the schoolmen. And therefore, gradually by reading and comparing the sayings and examples of the prophets and apostles, with persistent invocation of god and the excitation of faith by force of prayer, he perceived that doctrine most obviously. Thus he sustained his study at Erfurt the space of four years in the convent of the Augustines. (An Account of the Life and Persecutions of Martin Luther: 1483-1546)
Luther got into the University of Wittenberg in 1508. He accomplished the degree of Baccalaureus Biblicus at Wittenberg in March of 1509 and then returned to Erfurt for his next degree of Sententiarius that associated with the Sententiae a medieval theological book. He imitated his discourse with a course on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and then initiated his career as a theologian with lectures on the Sententiae. Martin Luther was much persuaded by Johanan von Staupitz, vicar general of the German Augustinians, as a teacher, friend, and patron. Staupitz tried to restore stringent discipline and to merge the observant and traditional Augustinians in Germany. This gives rise to a conflict, and Luther was on the two monks selected to be deputed to Rome to provide the appeal of some dissident houses. Luther made the trip, the longest in his life, mostly in late 1510. The appeal was not successful and Luther had to be back at home to become a loyal supporter of Staupitz. Staupitz became captivated with Luther and fostered him to go on with this doctorate and to a public instruction profession. (Martin Luther Protestant Reformer) In 1511 he moved from the monastery in Erfurt to one in Wittenberg where he became a professor of biblical theology after receiving his doctor of theology degree. In 1513 he initiated his first deliberation on Psalms. In such deliberations, Luther's critique of the theological world around him became started to restructure. Later in deliberations on Paul's Epistle to the Romans this critique is more apparent. It was during such lectures that Luther ultimately discovered the assurance that had evaded since long.
In the University of Wittenberg, Luther decreased the minds of men to the Son of God: as John the Baptist represented the Lamb of God that shouldered the sins of the world, even so Luther, shining in the Church as the bright daylight after a long and dark night, expressly showed that sins are freely remitted for the love of the Son of God, and that we ought faithfully to squeeze this profuse gift. His life was in line with his profession and it evidently appeared that his words were no lip-labor, but progressed from the very heart. Such a respect of his holy life much attracted the hearts of his auditors. (An Account of the Life and Persecutions of Martin Luther: 1483-1546)
Such findings have revolutionized the life of Luther finally in the course of church history and the history of Europe. In Romans, Paul wrote about the 'righteousness of God'. Luther had always found that term to imply that God was a righteous judge that necessitated human righteousness. Presently Luther discovered righteousness as a presentation of God's grace. He could search out the tenets of justification by grace alone. This revelation had resulted in much controversy. During 1517 he sent a sheet of such revelations for a discussion on the University's chapel door. Such Ninety-Five Theses became a hazardous critique of the sale of indulgences by church and detailed the basics of justification by grace alone. Luther also detailed a copy of the theses Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz calling on him to complete the sale of indulgences. Albrecht was not pleased. In Rome, cardinals visualize Luther's theses as an attack on papal authority. In 1518 at a meeting of the Augustinian order in Heidelberg, Luther set out his positions with even more precision. The sign of a maturing in Luther's thought and new clarity around his theological visions -- the Theology of the Cross, is visualized in the Heidelberg Disputation. (Martin Luther (1483-1546): Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
During the post period of Heildelberg meeting in October 1518, Luther was instructed to renounce his positions by the Papal Legate, Thomas Cardinal Cajetan. Luther indicated that he could not recant unless his errors…