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In an open-ended study of 42 teachers decided to leave with the peer assistance being a contributing factor while in another research carried out with 99 teachers, only 4 said that the peer assistance was one of the decisive factors (Billingsley et al., 1993 & 1995). Some of the factors for the variation in these studies could be the way the teachers were asked these questions (like, open-ended polls vs. questionnaires), purpose to leave or the leaving conduct was calculated, as well as the huge trial dimension distinction of the two studies.
Therefore, in light of the mentioned study conclusions, the educational institutions should treat peer assistance as a determining factor to augment preservation of the teachers as well as the school system.
Support through Induction and Mentoring
Special attention needs to be given to the upcoming teachers in this particular field, to give them confidence and a sense of contribution to the education of the students and the overall setup. If this is not done so efficiently then the enthusiasm of a new teacher is likely to turn into discontent and dismay (Gold, 1996). I, when stepped first into this sphere had difficulty with quite a few situations where I had to work with and around inadequate encouragement, regulation, indifference from contemporaries and demanding parents (Gold, 1996; Veenman, 1984).
It has to be taken under consideration that special tutors have various added tasks and affairs concerned with children who have certain educational and conduct difficulties. There are several qualitative researches that tackle the difficulties experienced by the new like organizing official procedures; demanding parents; creating lodgings for teaching and trials; enhancing and observing the IEPs; and working in unison with teachers, and other linked services staff (Billingsley & Tomchin, 1992; Boyer & Gillespie, 2000; Kilgore & Griffin, 1998).
Researches show that the teachers who received higher induction support had, comparatively, an enduring career as teachers.
Therefore, in light of the mentioned study conclusions, the educational institutions should treat the new teachers as part of a team and support and guide them to augment preservation of the teachers as well as the school system.
For me, an atmosphere where I could continuously learn and expand my horizons as a teacher was the best atmosphere to work in. Of course professional expansion could be taken as a singular aspect of a much bigger picture but numerous researchers have successfully formed a bridge between professional expansion and the decision to stay or leave (Brownell et al., 1994-1995; Gersten et al., 2001; Morvant et al., 1995). Gersten et al. conducted a study on the urban educational setup and concluded that professional growth influenced directly the intention of the teacher to continue on the same path of education and indirectly influenced her decision to stay in a certain setup.
It is also proved in researches that the educationalists who feel that they have the prospect to expand and keep learning new techniques experience lesser occupational conflicts and confusions. Gersten et al. In his research in this particular sphere laid stress on such a challenging and opportunistic atmosphere to exist at all levels of education from district to school because of the simple established fact that 50% of the teachers who were asked questions in this survey open about the restrictive prospects of growth that they did have at the district levels (Morvant et al., 1995).
Therefore, in light of the mentioned study conclusions, the educational institutions should create an atmosphere where the teachers feel like they can grow, expand and experiment with their own abilities to enhance the educational environment so as to augment preservation of the teachers as well as the school system.
Confusions with the role of the teachers in an educational setup are also significant. There have been times when I have experienced an added load on my shoulders as a teacher because there was no clear idea of what the teacher should be in charge of and what should be left for the administration. This factor, as proposed in numerous studies, does contribute to the teacher's communication with the students, work content as well as the choice of teachers to stay or leave.
All of the role-problems that teachers have to tackle are interrelated. Billingsley et al. (1995) stated that, "Multiple problems interact and create what teachers sometimes view as stressful, overwhelming work situations." Corcoran et al. (1988) in addition stated that a contributing factor to the role overload for a teacher was the deficiency of assets or resources in an institution or the inability to efficiently utilize the assets at hand. The latest research done on the occupational environments of the special tutors that was title "Bright Futures for Exceptional Learners: An Action Agenda to Achieve Quality Conditions for Teaching and Learning" deals with numerous of the role problem issues that these teachers face (Council for Exceptional Children, 2000).
Therefore, in light of the mentioned study conclusions, the educational institutions should create a balance of the roles allotted to the teachers and the administration to augment preservation of the teachers as well as the school system.
There are numerous examiners who have created a link between the different role problems that the teachers have to encounter and how that influences their choice to continue working (Billingsley & Cross, 1992 & 1994; Gersten et al., 2001; Morvant et al., 1995; Singh & Billingsley, 1996). Some of the role problems that had been taken into account in these researchers were excess of tasks to do, job confusion or conflict, management of excess tasks etc. Morvant et al. (1995) in his research highlighted the fact that just about less then 50% of the teachers thought that they could manage and organize the tasks allotted to them while 68% declared that they couldn't find enough time or manage the time that they had with the tasks that were theirs to tackle, and nearly 30% were undergoing high stress and confusions over their choice of occupation.
Numerous studies have established the fact that work dissatisfaction and stress and produced partly due to task troubles (Cross & Billingsley, 1994; Gersten et al., 2001). A significant fact that was established was that the teachers who felt like they had the support and assistance of the principals were more likely to face fewer troubles in completing the allotted tasks. Billingsley et al. (1993) stated in his research, after carrying out open-ended dialogues with special teachers, certain work-outline features brought forward like deficiency of assets, ill-use of assets, deficiency of time, excess workload and tasks allotted as responsible for quitting more then anything else.
Additional work-outline aspects have been recognized with an educationalist's decision or choice to continue working in a certain environment. Westling and Whitten (1996) recognized precise task issues linked to the educator's decisions or choices to continue working: visibly characterized tasks; sufficient time to finish official procedures, design training, and organized use resources; and teacher accordance with list objectives.
Therefore, in light of the mentioned study conclusions, the educational institutions should create an understanding of the roles and their relations to each other to augment preservation of the teachers as well as the school system.
Billingsley, B.S. (1993). Teacher retention and attrition in special and general education: A critical review of the literature. The Journal of Special Education, 27, 137-174.
Billingsley, B., Carlson, E., & Klein, S. (in press). The working conditions and induction support of early career special educators. Exceptional Children.
Billingsley, B.S., & Cross, L.H. (1992). Predictors of commitment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay in teaching: A comparison of general and special educators. The Journal of Special Education, 25, 453-471.
Billingsley, B., Pyecha, J., Smith-Davis, J., Murray, K., & Hendricks, M.B. (1995). Improving the retention of special education teachers: Final report (Prepared for Office of Special Education Programs, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, U.S. Department of Education, under Cooperative Agreement H023Q10001). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED379860)
Billingsley, B.S., & Tomchin, E.M. (1992). Four beginning LD teachers: What their experiences suggest for trainers and employers. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 7, 104-112.
Boe, E.E., Bobbitt, S.A., & Cook, L.H. (1997). Whither didst thou go? Retention, reassignment, migration, and attrition of special and general education teachers in national perspective. The Journal of Special Education, 30, 371-389.
Boyer, L., & Gillespie, P. (2000). Keeping the committed: The importance of induction and support programs for new special educators. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(1), 10-15.
Brownell, M.T., Smith, S.W., McNellis, J., & Lenk, L. (1994-1995). Career decisions in special education: Current and former teachers' personal views. Exceptionality, 5, 83-102.
Corcoran, T.B., Walker, L.J., & White, J.L. (1988). Working in urban schools. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership.
Council for Exceptional Children. (2000). Bright futures for exceptional learners: An action to achieve quality conditions for teaching and learning. Reston, VA: Author.
Cross, L.H., & Billingsley, B. (1994). Testing a model of special educators' intent to stay in teaching.…[continue]
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