Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
His plan to create a black regiment in the South failed, but black regiments were created during the war, and some of them were vital to certain battles and victories.
Perhaps the most notable black regiment formed during the war was the 1st Rhode Island Regiment, which has become legendary in the fight for freedom. Colonel Christopher Greene commanded the Regiment, and it was one of only three black regiments to fight during the war. In fact, many historians feel the war might have ended sooner if more regiments like the 1st Rhode Island had been formed and utilized. The Kaplans note, "Colonel Christopher Greene's First Rhode Island Regiment distinguished itself for efficiency and gallantry throughout the war -- perhaps the war would have ended sooner if its example had been heeded" (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 64). Rhode Island was unable to fill its quota of fighting men for the Continental Army, and so the black regiment was formed. The Rhode Island Legislature declared that any black who fought in the regiment would gain freedom and be paid the same wages as any other soldier (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 64). Washington personally assigned Colonel Greene to train and lead the new recruits.
The Regiment proved itself in many battles. One of the first was the Battle of Rhode Island, where they faced both Hessian and British forces. In fact, they fought so bravely that the Hessian commander returned to New York and refused to fight the black Regiment again (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 65). The unit fought the entire war, and distinguished itself again and again. The Kaplans continue,
In the attack made upon the American lines, near Croton river, on the 13th of May, 1781," wrote Nell, "Colonel Greene, the commander of the regiment, was cut down and mortally wounded: but the sabres of the enemy only reached him through the bodies of his faithful guard of blacks, who hovered over him to protect him, and every one of whom was killed" (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 65).
Many others wrote of the Regiment's deportment, manners, skill, and devotion to duty. It is clear they played an important part in the war, and in many key battles. Indeed, if more loyal black regiments had fought during the war, then perhaps the war might not have dragged on as long as it did.
While only a few black regiments actually formed and fought during the war, there were an estimated 5000 soldiers who fought on the American side, and perhaps an equal or greater number on the British side. However, not all of the blacks in the war served as fighting men. One extremely important black combatant was James Armistead, also known as James Armistead Lafayette, after the French general. Armistead, owned by a man named William Armistead, asked his master to allow him to enlist in the French Army under General Lafayette in 1781. He took the General's last name when he went into service with him. The French were actively seeking black recruits to help shore up their own forces as they helped the Americans fight the British. James served the General as a spy, and was so good at infiltrating the British that British General Cornwallis never knew James was an American spy until after the war was over (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 39). In fact, many people believe it was James' influence that led Lafayette to begin a crusade to free blacks and set up a territory where they could live without fear and in freedom (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 40). Lafayette wrote of James' service, "His intelligence from the enemy's camp were industriously collected and more faithfully delivered. He perfectly acquitted himself with some important commissions I gave him and appears to me entitled to every reward his situation can admit of'" (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 39). James frequently traveled between the American and British camps, and Lafayette often fed false information to Cornwallis through James. When the war ended, James was still a slave, but in 1786, the General Assembly of Virginia voted to free him.
While many of the blacks who joined the British forces were forced to return to their masters or were resold after the war, some managed to come under the wing of British Commander Guy Carleton, who helped evacuate many black loyalists into Canada after the war. Carleton was the Governor of Quebec, and eventually became the leader of the British forces in North America by the end of the Revolutionary War. He helped negotiate the peace treaties at the end of the war, and organized evacuations of loyal Tories who no longer wished to remain in the country. The Editors of the Black Loyalists Web site note, "Knowing that those citizens who still wanted to be loyal to the British Crown would need a place to live, Carleton looked to the unsettled land in Nova Scotia. Many Loyalists were interested and decided that they would try to build a British colony at this new location" (Editors 2005). Initially, the treaties said that Tories could leave the country, but they had to leave behind any looted property and any Negroes. Carleton felt the blacks were not property, and had been promised their freedom by the British government, and so, they did not fall under the terms of the treaty. Initially, the Americans disagreed, but Carleton promised to compensate the original slave owners, and so, they agreed to allow the blacks to resettle along with the whites. The names of all former slave owners were recorded in a book so they could eventually be compensated for the loss of their slaves. This book came to be known as Carleton's Book of Negroes (Editors 2005). Eventually, hundreds of blacks left the states and resettled in Canada and Great Britain, and it was Guy Carleton's intervention that assured them their freedom and the ability to travel out of the newly formed United States.
In conclusion, black fighting men contributed on both sides during the Revolutionary War. They proved their loyalty and longed for their freedom. Many of them gave their lives in their bid for freedom and recognition as equal citizens. In fact, many of the blacks who fought during the Revolutionary War distinguished themselves on the battlefield, as spies, and as leaders. They often made the difference between victory and defeat in key battles, and many historians believe if more blacks had fought, the war might have been over sooner. While they proved their allegiance to their countries and their commitment to freedom, most did not gain their freedom. In addition, many of the blacks who fought during the Revolutionary War forged alliances that lasted long after the war, and influenced how others felt about black freedom. Men like Guy Carleton, General Lafayette, and George Washington worked to end slavery or aided slaves and free blacks after the war. The war won independence, but not for all. However, it did show black Americans were ready and willing to fight for a just cause. Many historians also believe that black service in the Revolutionary War ultimately paved the way toward the American Civil War and ultimate freedom from slavery for American blacks.
Bradley, Patricia. 1998. Slavery, Propaganda, and the American Revolution. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Dunmore, Lord. 1775. Lord Dunmore's Appeal to the Slaves of Virginia (1775).
Editors. 2005. Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People. Government of Canada's Digital Collections. http://collections.ic.gc.ca/blackloyalists/story/our_story.htm
Kaplan, Sidney, and Emma Nogrady Kaplan. 1989. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution. Revised ed. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Massey, George D. 2000.…[continue]
"Military Participation Of African-Americans Especially" (2005, November 14) Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/military-participation-of-african-americans-69264
"Military Participation Of African-Americans Especially" 14 November 2005. Web.10 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/military-participation-of-african-americans-69264>
"Military Participation Of African-Americans Especially", 14 November 2005, Accessed.10 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/military-participation-of-african-americans-69264
African-Americans in the U.S. Armed Forces This research paper proposes to discuss the importance of African-American soldiers in the United States military. It will do so from a decidedly comprehensive approach which highlights their contributions to the major martial endeavors the U.S. has undertaken since its inception. In examining the history of these soldiers within America, this paper proposes to also deconstruct the motives which galvanized African-American soldiers to enlist in
African-Americans and Western Expansion Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the
" You figure, Williams explained to the author, you don't like what's happening at home in Chicago, and now in the U.S. Marines "...you finally get a chance to get away." Those were Williams' reasons for joining the military and participating in the Vietnam War as an African-American youth. Indeed Williams saw the military as not just an escape, but as "a form of incarceration" - but the war might
130). Although their white masters generally exposed them to Christianity, enslaved people adopted only parts of the white religion and mixed it with elements of their own beliefs. Even though the family was not generally a legally sanctioned unit on plantations, the basic roles of mothers, fathers, and grandparents in rearing children did exist. Families could be severed and separated at the whim and desire of the slave owners, but families
However, conventional beliefs that there is low rate for African-American involvement in suicidal activities, there exists minimal focus on learning the possible suicide patterns among African-Americans. Social workers are not aware of the risks and protectiveness among African-Americans. This gives room for misinterpretation of facts concerning self-destructive activities of African-Americans. The research further stresses the importance of social workers to the study of suicide among African-Americans. They also have the
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential
Airline Flying the friendly skies -- but friendly to whom? The outlook of the airline industry regarding African-American job prospects and the overall future of the airline industry Fly the friendly skies," the famous and infamous Delta Airlines advertisement used to proclaim to viewers everywhere. But friendly to whom, African-American job seekers and consumers could have demanded of the smiling Delta personnel depicted in the ads when they first ran in the