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Non- Muslim scholars have made speculations about the dates and authenticity of the Quran, accounts of Islamic history and the Sira literature. The literatures have elicited a wide range of responses from Muslims. Others dismiss the ideas as fantasies from unbelievers, whereas others view them as dangerous attacks from the enemy designed to undermine the true faith. Apart from literary sources, other historians have tried to make speculations using graffiti, abandoned settlements, coins, inscriptions, glassware, coins, pottery, and mile makers who used caravan routes to shed some light on Islamic history, especially through the religion's prophetic role among the selected; Prophet Muhammad. These sources depict a mythological perspective and truth based on the history, life and role of prophecy in completing the principles of Islam according to Prophet Muhammad.
According to Islamic sources, Muhammad's prophetic career started two decades prior; around the 610 when he was forty years old. This career lasted up to the year of his death in 632. Islamic sources agree that Prophet Muhammad was reluctant when angel Gabriel brought him the first revelation. He later realized that he was a prophet related to the mould with the ancient Hebrew Prophets like Jeremiah and Isaiah. Therefore, he realized that he could not deny his call of preaching. Islamic authors and biographers tell us more about Muhammad's career after his revelation than his childhood. Consequentially, they tell us little about his childhood and early adulthood and highlighted his desires that exemplified Muhammad as God's messenger.
This context is a discussion about Prophet Muhammad's mission as one aspect of his career. Muhammad's awareness of his personal importance to God was at the outset of his mission. During his mission, Muhammad's followers and companions had in their own mind the emphasis upon humanity. Consequential limitations of his words and deeds did not contradict the sense of his unique rank as the final apostle. It also showed the ensuing authority of his words. The time of prophet's revelation was a historical reality and a mythical paradigm since his faith and perceptions about him were true. It was a moment of history because the humanity and fallibility of the prophet co-existed with the trans- human significance of his mission in the eyes of the community. Muhammad was a man, yet God's intimate. He was the lawgiver and the leader of the new community.
Chapter 42 of the Quran refers to steadfast prophets of Islam who are enjoined by God, to follow the same steadfast religion; and refrain from following any other religion. This is the same religion given to all prophets including Muhammad. The Quran mentions other prophets who came to other places in different times and periods states 42: 13 "Allah has ordained for you the same religion, which He ordained for Nuh, and that which We have revealed to you (O Muhammad), and that which We ordained for Ibrahim, Musa and '"s" saying you should establish religion, and make no divisions in it. Intolerable for the Mushrikun is that to which you (O Muhammad SAW) call them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides unto Himself who turns to Him in repentance and in obedience." This verse shows that all prophets were guided in a similar way as the prophet of Islam. That is why the prophet of Islam was to discharge duties in his mission just like the other prophets. According to the Qur'an, only that concept of Prophet Muhammad's mission could be appropriate which is in accordance with other prophetic missions.
Muhammad's prophetic mission occurs in the Quran, in a number of chapters. In one, (2:129) it is in the form of Abraham's prayer. It states the purpose of the prophet (referred to as who is raised among the unlettered) mission, which is to be a messenger from among themselves, recite to them his revelations of purification and instruction. 62:2 explains the role of a prophet as God's messenger. The verse describes four tasks of a prophet, relevant to each prophetic mission. Other things other than the four are conclusive circumstances in which the prophet found himself. This is because sending a prophet in principle is always the same, but during the discharge of responsibility, history changes. The first duty or step is recitation of verses to the people, conveying God's message to the people while demonstrating wisdom and well-wishes to the people. Although this does not mean that they recite the entire Quran, but communication of the basics of the Quran which include Shariah, prophet hood and monotheism. Other roles were to bring people in line with God's plan by leading people from darkness to light, and purification (tazkiah), or instructions to ensure that the man's thinking and feelings are reformed to enable them follow God with total connection and wholeheartedly. In purification, the prophet helps followers to awaken their spiritual feelings, hence translating their thinking into action.
According to Quran, the prophet had the mission of teaching the divine scriptures of the Quran to the people. This involves explaining the commands and Shariah laws to the people. Instruction of the book can also imply teaching of the law or Islamic jurisprudence. Prophet Muhammad is seen to accomplish this mission because those who accept Islamic religion ask the prophet to explain different commands according to the religion. Simultaneously, while the prophet answered questions, he also trained them in law; hence accomplishing their mission. The fourth part of the mission involves instructing wisdom pursuant to the Quran since it has a deeper meaning other than the surface meaning. The deeper levels of Quran are enshrined in the Hadith verses of the Quran. The deeper meaning can be learnt by deep reflection, and the prophet's duty was to provide guidance for deeper understanding. The mission of the prophet is these stated above, and the prophet, in no way, could leave without fulfilling his mission.
Prophet Muhammad in an attempt to fulfill his mission worked peacefully until eighty three people had joined his mission. His mission spread gradually, and the number of his followers increased. People from Medina at some point came to him and told him their linkage to his mission. The people asked him to refuse to tolerate oppression from Makkans and allow them to perform jihad on them. He refused to wage war because that was not what the Quran wanted as part of his mission. This action also shows that he also acted keenly with one eye on consequence of his actions. This showed how circumstances inclined prophets to engage in activities aside from their mission. Notably, prophets always have the same mission, but respective histories shape them differently according to prevailing circumstances. He always aimed at yielding positive results, hence accomplishing his mission in a way that God wanted according to the Quran. This positive thinking was counter-productive.
Prophet Muhammad, in his mission, made reasonable choices in favor of peaceful methods. He achieved this by analyzing events dispassionately. It is vital that a man's mind was free from feelings of revenge and hatred from his perception. The importance of peaceful action can be understood by a positive mind which plans a course of action with peaceful objectives. Prophet Muhammad had understood the truth about peaceful thinking and importance of peaceful thinking in his mission. This is why he first worked towards building peace-loving minds. After he accomplished peace- loving minds, is when he and his followers launched their movement. He realized that peace activism is a result of internal awareness. This shows Muhammad accomplishing the Quran's mission of prophets according to 2:129, mind- building purification (takziah). It is an important task of the prophet to purify the mind and soul. The prophet teaches this purification in a symbolic hadith, where he teaches about human psychology. In addition, he teaches about thoughts that come into the human mind and get embedded and gradually become part of the human. According to the hadith, negative events that life entails result from negative thoughts. Through his understanding of this psychological reality, he formed a team of followers to help him in peace activism hence accomplish God's work through purification. The peaceful mentality enabled Prophet Muhammad to usher far- reaching beneficent revolution.
The Quran and Ibn Ishaq have been used in looking at Prophet Muhammad's mission as they are the main, primary sources bearing first-hand information. They were written around the time of his mission, and around the time of his death making the sources more reliable than other sources. Quran was recorded when Prophet Muhammad and his followers would memorize recordings and write them down. Prophet Muhammad is occasioned to quote or have transmitted non-Quranic words of God himself; that he recognized or received as authentic revelations. The pre- theological Muslim understanding gives the portrayal that, Islam was focused on scriptural revelation, which was the only aspect of God's revelatory activity. Such revelations were communicated to people through prophets who had missions according to divine books like the Quran and other scriptures. This aspect of…[continue]
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