Theoretical Analysis of National Incident Management System (NIMS)
The Federal Government established the National Incident Management System (NIMS) under the Homeland Security Presidential Directive number 5 in February 2003. The Secretary of Homeland Security played an important role of developing and administering national incident management system. NIMS provide a reliable and consistent approach to responding to all forms of incidents irrespective of size and scope (Walsh 2012). The emergency management organization integrates several parts that are key components of Homeland Security. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) play a critical role of directing the creation of a comprehensive approach to incident management. The federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local responders undertake the approach to incident management. The federal responders work closely with the federal government to ensure incident management. The state leadership in collaboration with state responders strives to ensure ample incident management measures at state level (Walsh 2012).
The territorial, tribal, and local responders have a role to play in managing incidents at their areas of control. The network of incident management from the federal government to local authority's level assures the state agencies, organizations and the public of safety in the event an incident occurs. The Presidential Directive has made NIMS a compulsory requirement for every entity that wishes to receive federal funds (Deal 2010). The Federal and State response agencies receiving Federal funding must adhere to the compliance guidelines and work towards training and educating respective organization to become NIMS compliant. The system began with California FIRESCOPE and later matured into Incident Command before expanding to fully integrated NIMS. Traditionally, the Federal government regarded the incident management agencies (first responder) to comprise the police and HAZMAT, and EMS to include public health, public works, emergency communications, and emergency management among other agencies. All these agencies collectively involve themselves in disaster preparedness, prevention, response, and recovery activities (Deal 2010).
The Federal government in cooperation with the states, territories and local authorities polished the integrated system. The system consists of a uniform set of processes, protocols, and procedure that the government would use to conduct response actions. The six components include Command and Management, Preparedness, Resource Management, Communications and Information Management, Supporting Technologies, and Ongoing Management and Maintenance (Walsh 2012).
NIMS have also identified a wide variety of Federal Preparedness programs which they availed to responders. These programs are destined towards ensuring proper integration of works of the responders apart from making their incident management duty much easier. Incident Commander controls all activities of NIMS (Walsh 2012). The Commander works closely with public Information officer, Safety officer, and Liaison Officer to facilitate activities of the Operation Section, Planning Section, Logistics Section, and Financial Administration Section. Depending on the composition of NIMS, factors such as efficient command systems and effective management provide a platform that would facilitate the process of managing emergencies properly (Walsh 2012). A correctly organized pre-planning helps the first responder in their bid to react to disaster swiftly and appropriately. The activities of first responders are pegged on information and communication, which essentially constitute the infrastructure. Barriers to information sharing may lead to inadequate or inappropriate responses to an incident. There is a need to resolve controversies, which might be surrounding the guidelines on privacy and security. Other technologies particularly devices with GIS, and sensors among others constitute the basic requirements that help in improving the efficiency of the response unit (Walsh 2012).
Command and Management systems are the command systems of the National Incident Management System. Generally, the incident command systems are the most common sets of command structures and terminologies, which are used on various incident scenes. They are important in providing efficient management of the resources that are involved during an incident resolution process. National Incident Management System is important in providing a national framework, which enables global responders work collectively on complex incidents. The National Incident Management systems command and management revolves around three key areas. The key areas are the Incident Command Systems, Public Information Systems and the Multiagency Coordination Systems. In this case, the National Incident Management System's Incident Command Systems revolves around the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. In contrast, the Incident Command Systems highly focuses on intelligence and information incorporation (Smoke, 2010).
National Incident Management System Public Information systems are the protocols and systems, which are essential for timely communication and perfect information to a given public in case there is an emergency or crisis. The public information systems entails a public information officer who may be within a given information center. As part of management processes in various organizations, post-incident analysis follows the Incident management processes in determination why a particular incident happened. Generally, organization's leadership overshadows the different post-incident analysis put in place in any given organization. This is with an intention of preventing future incidents through different precautionary measures. In most cases, the National Incident Management System works together with the NRF or the National Response Framework. In these situations, the National Response Framework provides a necessary template for incident management while the National Response Framework gives the necessary mechanism structure for incident management policies on a National level (Smoke, 2010).
Theoretical Analysis of the Incident Command System
The incident command system is methodical scheme in use for passing authority; organize, in addition to the harmonization during, cases of emergency for quick response by individuals. ICS is present on many organizations to assist in the cases of safety management. With poor strategies put forward in an organization, it becomes hard managing workers at times of danger. The system entails a wide range of aspects that guarantee its effectiveness starting from the personnel, the measures, and part of the facilities to use at times of danger (Smoke, 2010). Setting up the system plays a significant role in the improving personnel reaction at times of emergency.
The system is not built for a single emergency but meant for all types of emergency that can take place in an organization. The incident command system is an outcome component from the National Incident Management System. There development was by United State's division responsible of homeland protection. Most organization that has the system present is those offering a common work platform for all personnel. This is effective since the employees at the organization can easily coordinate at times of emergency. The first person to respond in an emergency has the responsibility of taking charge until the end of the whole incident (Fosher, 2009). It is a way of avoiding miscommunication among the responders.
The system entails a basic management chain of command to follow in order to administer to any incident that arises in an organization. It requires exceptional preparation thus, a pre-establishment for the establishment that is taking part in an organization. The training is always depending on the area of establishment to all personnel where sanctioning takes place by the authorities that are part of the system setup (Walsh, 2012). The system is always effective during emergencies up to the point where there is no more incident management is necessary. A bendable system chooses no disciplinary not selecting any organization.
ICS come to term with requirements for a jurisdiction to correspond with incidents of any caliber, as well as the complexity. The system allows a growth or contraction depending on the organization applicable. It sorts the management of challenges present in emergency incidents like availing logistical and managerial support to the staff available during an operation (Fosher, 2009). This is one of the most effective systems in terms of expenditure since it limits the duplication of labor. Considering the procedures with an inclusion of the training on an application of the system in an organization, ICS gives an amalgamated emergency organization.
There are plenty of occurrences that are manageable with the incident command system in any organization. The systems organization refers to such incidents as situations that occur unexpectedly requiring a reaction. Some of the incidents likely to occur in an association that has a numerous working force include an urgent situation requiring an ambulance overhaul for the incident would be medically interconnected (Smoke, 2010). In manufacturing industries, there are several cases of spills especially when dealing with corrosive chemicals. The system has the ability to train the workers on such an organization on the procedures to undertake in such a situation.
Individuals at any emergency response situation have concepts trained to put in mind such as reporting to a single superintendent on the operation. This is a way to limiting numerous orders that conflict and cause confusion during the response procedure. There must be the use of common terminologies that the personnel are familiar with in order to increase the level of communication, as well as panel cohesion (Smoke, 2010). ICS has limitations on the number of individuals on a span at a time of crises where the number is three to seven people. This means that, for every manager in an incident, there should be at least seven persons.