Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from essay:
The newest is the nucleic acid amplification test. It has 92-96% sensitivity and 94-99% specificity, as compared with culture tests (Norris). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the maintenance of a low threshold to physicians when diagnosing pelvic inflammation disease because of the lack or absence of significant negative changes. The Center recommends diagnosing women with PID and who experience uterine and adnexal painfulness or cervical tenderness during the examination. Women who have urogenital disease can submit to the nucleic acid amplification text by endocervical or urine sample. Endocervical samples are, however, preferred, a urine samples have lower sensitivity (Miller).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revised its guidelines and now recommends the use cephalosporins in the treatment of gonorrhea and PID (Armstrong, 2007). This class of drugs has replaced fluoroquinolones, which have been popularly used since 1993. Fluoroquinolones have been the choice drugs because of their effectiveness, availability and convenient single dose. But resistance to the drugs soon became prevalent in gonorrhea cases, necessitating modifications in the therapy. Incidents were initially reported as occurring in Hawaii, followed by cases in California and the Western States. The resistance trend was first noted among men at 30% in 1994 who have sex with men, then in other groups (Armstrong; Norris, 1999). The incidence persisted and necessitated a change into another regimen. CDC currently recommends a single 125-mg intramuscular shot of ceftriaxone as treatment for uncomplicated urogenita and anorectal gonorrhea. The oral dose is 400 mg of cefixime. Cefixime may be used as an alternative regimen in combination with 1 gram of cefuroxime. CDC also recommends a single intramuscular shot of ceftriaxone for pharyngeal gonorrhea (Armstrong). The list of new class of antibiotics taken orally or given by injection consists of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, azithromycin, amoxicillin, doxycycline, and ceftriaxone. Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated instead with erhythromycin (Norris).
Alternative treatments include herbs and minerals as supplements (Norris, 1999).
Lactobacillus acidophilus or live-culture yogurts may replenish gastrointestinal flora. Zinc, multivitamins, especially Vitamin C, minerals and garlic help improve the body's immune system. Herbs like kelp, calendula, myrrh, and thuja have demonstrated values on the body's systems. Hot baths also help reduce pain and inflammation. Fasting and juices contribute to cleaning up the urinary and gastrointestinal systems. So do acupressure and acupuncture (Norris).
If the diagnosis is made early and the treatment is correct and complete, the disease can be entirely treated (Norris, 1999). Otherwise, 40% of untreated female patients can develop PID, liver infection and sterility. When the disease spreads throughout the body, the gonococcal infection is likely to cause fever, arthritic joints and skin lesions. The best prevention is still abstinence or exclusive sex with one partner. Infection may also be prevented with the use of contraceptive devices, such as condoms (Norris).
Name of Bacteria: Chlamydia Trachomatis
Disease: Chlamydia or Genital Chlamydia
Body System Involved: Uro-genital System
Domain - Bacteria
Class - Chlamydiae
Order - Chlamydiales
Family - Chlamydiacea
Genus - Chlamydia
Species - C. Trachomatis
Chlamydia trachomatis are gram-negative, aerobic, intracellular pathgens (Stephanie, 2008). They are typically coccoid or rod-shaped. They need growing cells to remain alive but can be artificially grown in a suitable medium. They cannot synthesize their own ATP. They were previously believed to be viruses (Stephanie).
The preferred non-culture technique today is the nucleic acid amplification, which have a 85% sensitivity and specificity (Miller, 2006). A Gram stain of mucopurulent discharge from the penis with more than 5 white blood cells per oil-immersion field and no intracellular Gram-negative diplococci can confirm urethritis. The nucleic acid amplification technique can detect and confirm C. trachomatis (Miller). Other tests are cytology, culture, antigen detection, serologic tests, and nucleic acid probes. Because chlamydia are intracellular parasites, swabs of the infected or involved sites, instead of exudates, should be submitted for examination and analysis for accuracy (Mayer, 2007).
Media for Cultivation
Specimens are merged with cultures of susceptible cells (Mayer, 2007). Infected cells are then examined for iodine-staining inclusion bodies, as iodine stains glycogen in these bodies. Their presence confirms C. trachomatis. Other species of the bacterium have no glycogen (Mayer).
These organisms are small obligate intracellular parasites (Mayer, 2007). They have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes and make their own proteins and nucleic acids. They have an inner and outer membrane like gram-negative bacteria. The are unable to make their own ATP and, are, thus energy parasites (Mayer)..
C. trachomatis attacks and infects non-ciliated columnar epithelial cells (Mayer, 2007). They stimulate the infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes. This leads to the formation of lymphoid follicle and fibrotic changes. Cell destruction follows. The host creates an inflammatory response. Long-lasting immunity is not stimulated by the infection. Re-infection brings on a repeat inflammatory response and resulting tissue damage (Mayer).
This depends on the site of the infection, the age of the infected person and whether the infection is complicated or uncomplicated (Miller, 2006). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a single oral dose of 1 g of azithromycin for uncomplicated chlamydial infection. The equivalent oral dose is 100 mg doxycycline twice a day for seven days. The azithromycin single dose has the advantage in that it can be administered at the doctor's office. If the patient vomits the drug within one or two hours, alternative treatment should be given. If symptoms persist after the completion of the regimen, treatment should be changed to 2 g metronidazole as a single oral dose in addition to 500 mg erhthromycin ethylsccinate, also taken orally, four times a day for seven days. An alternative dosage is 800 mg erythromycin ethylsuccinate orally four times a day for seven days (Miller).
Tetracyclines, erythromycin and sulfonamides are commonly used to treat Chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases (Mayer, 2007). But their effectiveness is limited where re-infection is common. Vaccines are not effective against these diseases. Only proper treatment, improved hygiene, prevention of re-infection, safe sexual practices and abstinence will help (Mayer).
Specific Disease Chosen
Genital Chlamydia or Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial STD (NWHRC Health Center, 2005). Statistics say that there are more than 3 million new cases of the disease very year. The American Social Health Association reported that it is most common among teen-agers and young adults. From an invasion of the endocervix, the disease spreads to the reproductive tract. If untreated, it can lead t infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. It has been called the "silent epidemic" in that three out of four infected persons do not develop symptoms. Yet it produces complications and damage. In 1999 alone, the annual costs incurred in treating the infection and its complications went beyond $2 billion Chlamydia is so common among young women that health authorities estimate half of all sexually active women, by age 30, will contract it some time in their lives (NWHRC Health Center).
Chlamydia usually presents symptoms (Miller, 2006). These are dysuria and discharge from the penis in men and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Most women do not have symptoms. Despite the lack, it can cause ophthalmia neonatorum in newborns and chlamydial pneumonia. Untreated Chlamydia in men can spread to the epididymis. Oral treatment may be a single dose of azithromycin or a weekly dosage of 100 mg twice daily of doxycycline. Amoxicillin or an erythromycine base is recommended for pregnant women. CDC and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force strongly recommend the examination of women at increased risk and women under 25 (Miller).
Congress allotted a budget to fund a national STD-related infertility prevention program (NWHRC Health Center, 2005). This increased the number of Chlamydia screenings. It also raised the level of awareness on the seriousness of the disease, especially on health professionals. A consequence was that States now require insurance companies to cover the costs of Chlamydia screenings (NWHRC).
When diagnosed, the disease is easily treated and cured (NWHRC Health Center, 2005). But if left untreated, it can develop serious medical problems. In women, it can produce pelvic inflammatory disease involving the upper genital tract. This includes endometritis and trubo-ovarian abscess. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease is also hard to diagnose. It has subtle signs and varying symptoms (NWHRC Health Center).
Armstrong, C. (2007). CDC changes guidelines for gonorrhea. American Family
Physician: the Academy of American Physicians. Retrieved on November 26, 2008 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_11_75/ai_n19377313?tag=content;col1
Javanbakht, M., et al. (2000). Increases in gonorrhea - eight Western states: 2000-2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Government Printing Office. Retrieved on November 26, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0906/is/_10_56/ai_n2794120?tag=content;col1
Justesen, S (2002). Slowing the spread of gonorrhea. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation. Retrieved on November 26, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3689/is_200204/ai_n90666095?tag=content;col1
Mayer, G (2007). "Chlamydia." Bacteriology, Chapter 20. Microbiology and Immunobiology. The Board of Trustees: University of South Carolina School of Medicine. Retrieved on November 29, 2008 at http://pathomicro.med.sc.edu/mayer/chlamydia.htm
Miller, K.E. (2006). Diagnosis and treatment of neisseria gonorrhea. American Family Physician: the Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved on November 26, 2008 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_10_73/ai_n26885600?tag=content;col1
Diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia Trachomatis.…[continue]
"Neisseria Gonorrhea & Chlamydia Trachomatis" (2008, November 29) Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/neisseria-gonorrhea-amp-chlamydia-trachomatis-26329
"Neisseria Gonorrhea & Chlamydia Trachomatis" 29 November 2008. Web.22 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/neisseria-gonorrhea-amp-chlamydia-trachomatis-26329>
"Neisseria Gonorrhea & Chlamydia Trachomatis", 29 November 2008, Accessed.22 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/neisseria-gonorrhea-amp-chlamydia-trachomatis-26329
Meningitis is an inflammation of the coverings of spinal cord and brain. Meningitis results from an infection to the cerebrospinal fluid in the spaces that surround the brain and spinal cord (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012). Either infections from viruses or from bacteria can cause meningitis; however, the viral form of meningitis is often significantly less severe than its bacterial counterpart and usually resolves without much treatment
Once a person has been infected, there is no known cure for this Herpes hence one becomes a carrier for life, only suppressing the effects that it has on him. Some of the more outstanding symptoms are blisters that are small and fluid filled around the genital area (vaginal lips, vagina, cervix, head/shaft/foreskin of the penis, scrotum, buttocks, anus or thighs). These small blisters are noted to burst leaving sores
Lesson Plan Amp; Reflection I didn't know what state you are in so was unable to do state/district standards! Lesson Plan Age/Grade Range; Developmental Level(s): 7-8/2nd Grade; Below grade level Anticipated Lesson Duration: 45 Minutes Lesson Foundations Pre-assessment (including cognitive and noncognitive measures): All students are reading below grade level (5-7 months) as measured by standardized assessments and teacher observation Curricular Focus, Theme, or Subject Area: Reading: Fluency, word recognition, and comprehension State/District Standards: Learning Objectives: Students will develop
Branding in Service Markets Amp Aim And Objectives Themes for AMP Characteristics Composing Branding Concept Branding Evolution S-D Logic and Service Markets Branding Challenges in Service Markets Considerations for Effective Service Branding Categories and Themes Branding Theory Evolution S-D Logic and Service Markets Branding Challenges in Service Markets Considerations for Effective Service Branding Branding Concept Characteristics Characteristics Composing Branding Concept Sampling of Studies Reviewed Evolution of Branding Theory Evolution of Marketing Service-Brand-Relationship-Value Triangle Brand Identity, Position & Image Just as marketing increasingly influences most aspects of the consumer's lives, brands
Workplace Violence Everyday in the United States millions of Americans leave their homes and enter the places of their employment. Captain Among these millions, most report to work unaware of the prevalence of workplace violence or fully understand the gamut of actions that represent such violence. It is typical of the media to only report high profile cases including a former employee or a worker losing control - the most
Neo-Confucianism is a philosophy which was born from the need to explain the existence of man and the universe in a manner which was just as complex as the Buddhist one. The philosophers which belong to this school of thought took the core of the Confucian philosophy and enriched it with contributions from other philosophies. It can also be stated that neo-Confucianism is a reaction to various provocations of philosophical
Chlamydia Screening Focus Groups of Healthcare Providers My research focus is the study of Chlamydia trachomatis. I am interested in Chlamydia because it is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Young adults have the highest rates of chlamydial infection and are at the highest risk for infection among all age groups. Yet, as a group, they do not use Chlamydia screening services. Why? Early diagnosis of