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New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do with the corrections part of the criminal justice system are having prisons that are clearly overcrowded and not having enough in the budget to make some adjustments. If these concerns and issues are not talked about or even looked into, it is a strong possibility that they will continue to have some kind of an effect on operations in the near future of corrections. Community and restorative justice programs are options being looked at when it comes to the future of corrections as legislators, activists and administrators, debate philosophies to speak about these concerns and issues brought about from past and present trends.
The "get tough" approach against crime, long ago, was once preferred by the national political climate. It was thought that treatment programs were not able to do things such as bring down repetition. What's more, it was also believed to keep the national crime rate down and make sure that the public was protected and that those doing the crimes would be punished to stop crime. Therefore, reforms for instance truth-in-sentencing and three-strike legislation were applied into the law. These improvements targeted persons caught up in drugs and repeat offenders of crime. These types of reorganizations powered an escalation in higher conviction rates, arrests, and lengthier phases of imprisonment bringing about the imprisonment rates to shoot up. As said by Specter (2010), we have an imprisonment rate in the United States that is five times greater than the rest of the world. By 7% of the world's population, our nation now keeps 25% of the world's reported prisoners (Specter, 2010).
Presently, past trends have led to present concerns and issues that are going on within the corrections part of the criminal justice system. One of the present concerns and issues regarding the corrections part of the criminal justice system is the correctional population us way too much. There is too many of them being locked up. Now a lot of these facilities have become brutally overcrowded. Incarcerations being overcrowded can cause many problems. The research shows that one of many vital concerns had a lot to do with the fact that these prisons had too many people and that the space was limited to accommodate offenders (Appelbaum, 2011). Without having the accurate spacing so that the offenders will have some room, they have to be placed in double-celled. Offenders should not have to be squeezed in an uncomfortable position where they have barely enough space to move around in. Because the required amount has not been handled properly, it has led to some legal issues.
In 1981, a legal case that spoke to the overcrowding issue made the point that it is cruel (Pearl, 2009). Having prisons that are overcrowded have likewise been causing stress among offenders along with staff. In 2007, there was a study conducted that discovered that a high prison population has can cause inmates to suffer from psychological pressure (Pontell, 2004). This strain eventually starts putting a pressure on the officers and offenders, which at times can guide to not good reactions among both increasing the risk of violence endangering the safety of those that are on staff. Also, the staff's safety is put in danger for the reason that they are being out numbered in the offender to officer proportion (Specter, 2010).
As said by Appelbaum (2011), the inmate to correctional officer ratio went up from 9.9 prisoners for each correctional officer in 2012 to 10.2 prisoners per correctional officer in 2011; nonetheless this is down from a high of 10.9 prisoners for every correctional officer in 2012. The ratio of offenders to officers is important for the fact that it can cause the officers to be stunned by offenders increasing the chances of an intense act to take place. Research shows that just one percentage point rise in a facility's prison population over its regarded size matches with an increase in the prison's once a year severe assault rate by 5.09 for every 7,000 prisoners; and an growth of one convict in an establishment's prisoner-to-custody-staff ratio raise the penitentiary's once a year serious assault percentage by just about 5.3 for each 7,000 prisoners (Pearl, 2009).
Further investigation shows that as the criminal justice system encounters the problem of dealing with congested prisons because of trends in the par, it like wise will encounter a lessening operating financial plan. It has become more costly to maneuver and maintain a prison unit for the reason that the capita budget of imprisonment has gone up. As stated by Specter (2010), it costs, on average, $80.95 for each day to keep a single prisoner locked up. Therefore of extended eras of imprisonment, health care price has also intensified.
In the Federal and private and Federal sector, health care costs during the course of the United States are anticipated to go up between nine and ten percent in the next year, and this has a lot to do with the increased prescription drug prices, shortages in health care, and endeavors of private insurers to raise their earnings (Pontell, 2004). This trend is projected to remain and double down the road. On account of overcrowded prison populations and decreases in the budget, offenders are not getting rehabilitation or the proper treatment. As stated by the Mental Health Services Administration and Substance Abuse (2010), the most talked about motives mentioned by the prisons for the restricted accessibility of treatment were financial restrictions accounting for 81% and space that is limited accounting for roughly 60%.
Trends far down the road are something to anticipate because of previous and present trends are the utilization of community and restorative justice programs. Community and restorative community justice services are choices being looked into for the prospect of corrections. Each of the programs give the assumption that crime messes up the communities, individuals living in them, and relations and provide new methods of looking at the justice system and giving some kind of a reply to crime. Community and Restorative justice programs look to discover answers that endorse repair, resolution, and hope between the offender, the victim, and those living in the community.
Research shows that community corrections have at the moment are becoming more advanced when it comes to developing an effective treatment plan for offenders (Appelbaum, 2011). The crucial modules to community corrections are making sure that there are strong ties among the community and law enforcement, providing a full-service model of management as well as both surveillance and services endeavoring to change the lives of offenders through family, personal, and neighborhood involvements. Instead of handling offenders in the predictable caseload model, supervision go-betweens are accountable for more aggressively overseeing offenders; problem solving to start changes in offenders; and assisting offenders when comes to getting employment, needed treatment and social support (Pearl, 2009).
Budget implications of future trends to look forward to because of previous and present trends are cuts across almost every one of the government purposes. With that being said, this has caused the budgets of many subdivisions of corrections to be expurgated or cut. In order to get a handle on the declining budgets, agencies are declining operating competences, working out reoffending reduction strategies, and reconsidering strategies. Lessening operating competences saves the criminal justice system money. One way this is occurring is through reduction of services, benefits and staff. On the word of Pearl (2009) states are dropping healthcare programs or joining in buying contracts so that they can bring down the cost of inmate drugs. A lot of states have diminished corrections staff, established freezes in hiring, decreased profits or benefits, and/or got rid of increases in pay…[continue]
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