Nonverbal Communication in 1969 Ekman and Friesen Term Paper

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Nonverbal Communication

In 1969, Ekman and Friesen delineated communicative nonverbal behavior as those actions that are evidently and knowingly planned by the sender to send out a stipulated message to the receiver. Their delineation does not take up the sharing aspect even though it takes up the aspect of purpose. They elucidate that there is no compulsion that communicative actions should have a common decoded definition; there could be communicative actions without information where the sender planned to send out a message but no one recognizes him. (Function and Impact of Nonverbal Communication in a Computer Mediated Communication Context: An Investigation of Defining Issues)

Non-verbal behavior associated with movement, which might be of any portion of the body, or the complete body is known as Kinesics. (Kinesics: http://stephan.dahl.at/nonverbal/kinesics.html) Kinesics points to posture, bodily movements, viz. gesticulations, and the manner in which the body is used in a particular circumstance. Posture is manifestation of concentration, association, mutual standing among the persons, and the extent to which the person is preferred. The depth of emotional conditions can also be manifested through posture. The realm of posture is more or less studied usually in combination with other types of nonverbal communication behaviors. Gesticulations can be classified into types that are linked with speech and those which are not. Gesticulations associated with speech are employed to enhance vocal communication by exemplifying the spoken expressions. Showing something, making sketches, showing a pulsating movement or stressing on a point and some others like "discussing with your hands" actions are gesticulations connected with verbal communications. Gesticulations devoid of speech are simply like that -- free from spoken signs. Instances of these gesticulations are "flipping the bird," "peace" or "V signifying victory," "hook them horns:" and so forth. These gesticulations have a vocal appeal and a connotation that is broadly approved. (Channels of Nonverbal Communication)

In a nutshell every bodily action is commonly assorted as kinesics. Kinesics interaction is perhaps one of the most discussed, and the most evident non-vocal type of communication. Unluckily, it is even one of the most baffling realms of non-vocal communicative action as the different connotations conveyed by physical actions appear to be infinite throughout different cultures. Usually, physical actions, which are unmistakably comprehensible in a particular culture, are unintelligible in a different culture. Still time and again, regularly practiced kinesics actions in a given culture might be extremely provocative in a different culture. (Kinesics: http://stephan.dahl.at/nonverbal/kinesics.html)

In their influential research on kinesics, Ekman and Friesan in 1969 have given two broad classifications for behavioral messages, which is Informative act and Communicative act. Informative act are certain elucidation by the receiver in the absence of any serious or cognizant intention by the sender. Communicative act on the contrary is dispatching messages consciously meant for a receiver. A complexity lies in telling apart different extent of conscious intention as against sudden / non-purposely guided actions. (Verbal and Nonverbal Communication) Ekman and Friesen have divided kinesics into five groups: emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators and adapters. Emblems are non-vocal messages possessing a vocal equivalent. Emblems constitute a mystifying collection of diverse connotations. The record of probable explanations and various connotations is, unluckily, absolutely never-ending. But since they happen just intermittently and normally in an extremely precise milieu, an erroneously used emblematic kinesics movement may comparatively recognize with less effort.

Due to their wide acceptance, it is comparatively simple, and normally the opposite party is able to comprehend it with ease, that the intention of the movement was not in the manner it would have been comprehended. On the other side of the spectrum, illustrators are less noticeable associated to particular utterances or expressions being used. Illustrators are employed more persistently to exemplify what is being uttered. Yet again, the practice and the quantity of illustrators employed vary across cultures. As regards the impact on corporate communications, the value of illustrator's usage is reasonably vital. Affective Displays emanate from body, or more often facial, movements that exhibit a certain affective condition, which is emotions. Affective presentations are usually less cognizant compared to illustrators, however also happen less often. The fundamental affective displays are usually comprehended without much difficulty, since they communicate widespread emotional feelings. But the extent and incidence with which affective displays might well be comprehended as a dearth of feelings that is possibly erroneous. (Kinesics: http://stephan.dahl.at/nonverbal/kinesics.html)

Regulators are non-spoken signals, which control, adapt and keep the stream of dialogue at the time of a discussion. These can be kinesic, like moving the head from side to side as well as nonkinesic like the eye movements. Regulators are crucial to the stream of information. Hence, a misconstrued regulatory non-spoken signal might be increasingly perplexing in global corporate communications, and result in severe dilemma, like the difficulty cited above. Adaptors are changes in the postures and other movements at a deceased state of consciousness, often made to experience more relaxed or to carry out a particular physical function. It is because adaptors are performed at a low stage of consciousness; they have been acclaimed as the covert to comprehend what your discussion co-worker actually has in his mind.

The value accorded to adaptors appears nevertheless loud, as also oversimplified. A lot of adaptor movements, like swiveling in a chair, might be used for often to determine a particular physical condition, somewhat than being a signal of 'concealed beliefs'. Adaptors in general might not hold any important significance, neither pertaining to the culture to which they belong nor across cultural limits. But, adaptors might be intelligible with ease as emblems throughout cultural borders, although not planned. Since adaptors are generally done with low intensity of consciousness, a misconstrued concept like this can be extremely important as the person doing the adaptor movement might not be consciousness that he is doing any specific movement. (Kinesics: http://stephan.dahl.at/nonverbal/kinesics.html)

Ekman and Friesen stress the usage of face and hands. Their suggestion consists of three methods for analysis of non-spoken behavior. These are Origin, Coding and Usage. Origin is the initiation of the act that is inherent, linked to the species or an alternative. (Nonverbal Communication Theories) Several non-spoken behaviors find their source in the nervous system, which are reflex actions. Other actions are slowly acquired and employed in associating oneself with the environment. Social practices entail welcoming one another, conveying consent or otherwise and maintaining suitable space from one another. (Verbal and Nonverbal Communication)

Coding is an action, which signifies relationship that can be random, iconic and inherent. (Nonverbal Communication Theories) Extrinsic actions imply something other than that and might be randomly or iconically implied. Arbitrary actions state no pictorial similarity to their depiction e.g. thumbs-up does not carry any idea by itself. But when it is iconically coded it is akin to what it stands for e.g. slicing the neck movement using a finger. Inherently coded movements are what they symbolize i.e. humorously striking somebody in the arm, it is inherent as the action is a type of violence. (Verbal and Nonverbal Communication) Usage -- what is the role of behavior, what is the manner in which it communicates information that comprises communicative actions and interactive actions? (Nonverbal Communication Theories) It entails outside circumstances like physical locations. It suggests relationship of roles like therapist-client, interviewer-interviewee, and husband-wife and so forth. It entails a sentimental attitude like formal/informal, worrying/stress-free and welcoming/antagonistic. The kind of information is instructive, communicative or interactive. (Verbal and Nonverbal Communication)

There are many ways by which speech can be followed. Ekman and Friesen categorize hand and arm movements into eight "illustrators:" The types are not independent of each other, that is, a specified illustrator may perform as a group of types. Batons are a kind of illustrator, which emphasize a word or phrase. An illustration of a baton would be an orator's hand hitting the table when he said 'not' in the following sentence, "I shall not endure this any longer!" The actions that signify the course of thinking are Ideographs. One example where ideographs can be put to use is adding up the stages with one's hand when verbally explaining the stages of a process. Deictic movements identify objects, places, or events. Spatial movements demonstrate spatial interactions like the places of two objects relating to one another. Rhythmic actions illustrate the swiftness of an incident. Cracking one's fingers while expressing, 'It happened just like that', shows that the incident being talked about happened rapidly. The finger cracking is a rhythmic action. (A Nonverbal Communication)

Kinetographs explain the passage of somebody or some object. A mimicry performer telling that he is going to call a person with phone in his hand is an illustration for a kinetograph. Pictographs are actions of sketching pictures in the air. For instance, pictographs can be used to show the outline of a window. Lastly, symbolic actions are symbols working as illustrators. (A Nonverbal Communication) These actions use hands for maximum comprehension. One can easily understand the route to see when somebody identifies an object while talking. In this case, the recipient comprehends…[continue]

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