Pericles Role in the Expanding Power the Athenian Empire Essay
- Length: 8 pages
- Sources: 5
- Subject: Drama - World
- Type: Essay
- Paper: #64642838
Excerpt from Essay :
policies of Pericles contributed to the expanding power and influence of the Athenian Empire
Pericles was an Athenian political leader mostly accountable for the complete growth in the 5th century, of both the empire and democracy of Athens. As a result, Athens became the political and social focus of Greece. His success involved the development of the Acropolis, started in 447. During the Athens' golden era, philosophy, sculpture, drama, poems and technology all achieved new levels. After fifty years, Athens underwent an expansion in artistic and intellectual learning. The creative fictional legacies of this time keep motivating and instructing people all over the globe. Fair and honest, Pericles held onto well-known assistance for 32 years. He was a competent, politically motivating orator, and a well-known general. He ruled over the life of Athens from 461 to 429 B.C. that this era often is known as the Age of Pericles (Aird, 2009). He had three goals:
(1) To enhance Athenian democracy
(2) To keep and strengthen the kingdom and (3) To glorify Athens
His reign and policies
Pericles had all the intentions of extending his aggressive policy throughout the region, but the activities in subsequent years absolutely frustrated him. Later on, an Athenian military, aimed at quelling an invasion, had to give up in at Coronea, and their ransom was substituted by the Boeotia evacuation. Upon information of this catastrophe Locris, Phocis, and Euboea led a revolt and the Megarians killed the Athenian garrison as a Spartan military occupied Attica. In this disaster, Pericles caused the military leaders to the runway, obviously through a bribe, and sped to re-conquering Euboea. However, other land belongings could not be retrieved. After a 30-year truce organized in 445, Pericles eventually renounced the predominance in Greece. Pericles' foreign policy henceforward went through a powerful change-to negotiate the supremacy of the navy, or to improve it by a careful advance, remained his only aspirations. While seeking the projects of the Radicals due to their interference in distant nations, he sometimes created a show of Athens' power overseas, which represented the Western policy resumption (Samons, 2014).
The rebel of Samos disturbed the peaceful growth of Athenian power. Pericles organized a navy against the seceders, after winning an initial engagement, unwisely separated his armament, and permitted one squadron to be directed. In a subsequent fight, he recovered this crisis, and after a prolonged obstruction reduced the city itself. A requirement for help, requested by the Samians, declined instantly. Switching to Pericles' policy regarding the associates of the Delian League, we discover that he seriously endeavored to acquire the allies as his subjects. A unique function of his policy was the dispatching of several clergies. This served the dual purpose of obtaining Athenian strategic points and transforming the desperate proletariat of capital into entrepreneurs of actual estate. The area was acquired through confiscating the disaffected states and in return for a reduction of tribute.
Following Pericles' home policy, he implemented Ephialtes' project of converting Athenians into self-governing. His primary innovation was the launch of treasury payment for the state services. Notably, he offered a compensation for court services. In the same way, he designed a "theoricon" fund, which allowed the poor to visit the impressive representations of the Vionysia. In his regards, we may also feature the pay, which the military obtained during the Peloponnesian War moreover to the archaic provision fund. Pericles perhaps compensated for the Archons and associates of the bowl, certainly obtaining compensation in 411, and some minimal magistrates, initially. In connection with this program of incomes should be described a somewhat reactionary policy launched by Pericles, whereby an Athenian parentage on both ends was created a direct situation of maintaining the franchise and the right to sit on compensated juries. The opening of the archonship to the third and to all classes of citizens has been attributed to Pericles' policy (Aird, 2009).
The home policy introduced by Pericles has been much discussed since golden days. His primary enactments are related to the payment of people for State service. These actions have been considered as an appeal the baser intuition of the mob. However, such a supposition is entirely out of maintaining with the well-known mindset of Pericles towards the people, over whom researchers claim he essentially ruled as a king. We must, then, confess that Pericles genuinely considered the good of his other fellow citizens, and it is argued that he endeavored to recognize that perfect Athens. This, Thucydides portrays in the Memorial Speech -- an Athens, where intelligence and free obedience is delivered to a reasonable code of rules, where merit penetrates to the top side, where army performance is discovered along with a free growth in other guidelines and strangles neither business nor art. According to this policy, Pericles desired to educate the society to political wisdom by providing to all an effective share in political institutions, among such as the government and to practice their aesthetic preferences by making available the best music and drama. The Peloponnesian War damaged the great venture by redirecting the large supplies of funds, which were important to it, and confronting with the redesigned the democracy of Athens, before spreading it with his tutelage.
Restoring Athens' supremacy
The warfare among the Ancient states had ended in 451. Pericles adopted a policy development aimed at protecting Athens' political and cultural leadership in Greece. He had already taken over the partnership that had continued the Parsian War after Sparta's drawback in 478. In 454, the leadership was strengthened by the exchange of the alliance's significant finances from Delos to Athens. If serenity with Persia did not end the partnership, it may have finished the yearly tribute given to that treasury (Spielvogel, 2009).
Whether to restore this honor, or basically to claim Athenian leadership, Pericles called a meeting of all Greek citizens to reflect on the concerns of restoring the Greek temples or temples damaged by the Napoleons, the payment of sacrifices because of the gods for salvation, and the independence of the oceans. Sparta failed to cooperate, but Pericles proceeded with the narrow reasons for the Athenian partnership. Tribute was to proceed, and Athens would draw intensely on the reserves of the partnership for a spectacular building program centered on the Acropolis (Spielvogel, 2009). In 447 BC, the project began on the Parthenon temple and the ivory sculpture in Athena housing it. The Acropolis venture was to consist of, among other factors, a temple to Success and the Propylaea, the gateway for entry, far grander and more costly than any past Greek secular building.
There was domestic critique. Thucydides denounced both the extravagance of the venture and the unethical behavior of using allied resources to fund it after inheriting his father's political backing. Pericles claimed that the allies had to pay for their protection, and, if that was confident, Athens lacked accountability for how the money was actually invested. The discussion later led to ostracism. Thucydides took a 10 years' exile and left Pericles unopposed. It cannot be identified whether the attractiveness of the venture had absolutely captured Athenian desires or whether Pericles was believed to be indispensable. Pericles had a wish to activate employment and business activities in Athens. However, these inspirations may be anachronistic and in reality may not have driven the voters very much.
The war drift
Despite a serious probability, Sparta and its friends were highly involved in this event, but they did not, and the 30 Years' peace was sustained until the 430s. Tension increased as the years progressed, particularly with respect to Corinth, Sparta's friend, whose passions conflicted more obviously with those of Athens. By 433 BC, the scenario forced Athenian leaders to invest its reserves in to war foundation that eventually became costly.
Pericles' policy was related to strength along with cautious adjustment of the diplomatic position to keep an Athens office on the right. The firmness was a challenge to competitors, particularly Pericles' dedication to implementing the decrees not including Megarian business of the Athenian Empire. Thucydides informs just enough to create his own presentation possible that Megara was a minor issue in itself, but essentially as an icon of Athenian dedication to sustaining its position. The concern of Megara's strategic significance may recommend the chance that the Megarian declarations were not the primary causes of the war. In fact, the first strike in the inevitable war was started in 431 BC (Aird, 2009).
Pericles' primary strategic policies are obvious. He was an admiral rather than a general, and Athens' naval forces were greatly excellent in its land power. He would leave the Athenian landscapes, move the citizens past the Long Walls, and decrease the fight with the Sparta military. He also depended on the navy to guarantee Athenian food supplies and protect the kingdom with the costly naval policy. Expenses on the building had been counterbalanced by yearly benefits from the tribute, and adequate capital had been arranged. He believed, for an extended war, though expenditure became heavier…