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Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:
The different ways they believed their gods intervened.
During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.
Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.
In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…
Dillon, Sheila. Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, And Styles. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Dillon, Sheila. The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Giannakopoulou, Liana. The Power of Pygmalion: Ancient Greek Sculpture in Modern Greek Poetry, 1860-1960, Volume 3 of Byzantine and Neohellenic Studies. Peter Lang, 2007.
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…
it's also important to note that Greeks brought metallurgy innovations to the non-Greek world: iron, which dramatically increased strength of metal tools and weapons and cupro-nickel (used in coining). A number of Asian peoples also adapted Greek alphabet and papyrus.
But in many cases influence of Greeks was considerably obvious only in Asian kingdoms, as most of Mediterranean non-Greek cultures stood on the same level of development as Greeks. For such peoples as Jews and Assyrians Greek colonization mainly meant the threat of assimilation and loss of identity. Assyrians and Jews who in their majority were monotheists could not adopt Greek religion of polytheist as it was against their religious traditions. All the attempts of Greeks to convert Jews to polytheism failed. For example the attempt to convert Jewish Temple to Temple of Greek god Zeus under Antiochus IV Epiphanes only led tot he revolt of Jews led by Maccabees,…
Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001
Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997
Shuckburgh. Evelyn S. Histories. Polybius. London, New York. Macmillan. 1889. Reprint Bloomington 1962.
As great as it is to have one thing that everyone shares, it's even better to have more than one to relate to. I think that makes people take their faith even more seriously.
I absolutely believe that misconceptions about people's beliefs are common. Protestants believe Catholics worship idols; Christians believe pagans worship demons and dance naked in the woods; believers think atheists are horrible, immoral people. From what I remember in history, part of the reason the Catholic Church was able to pull off the Crusades was by painting the non-Christians as evildoers who ate babies. hy does it happen? Because as human beings, we want to believe that we have a good deal on the afterlife. And I also think people often just want to think of themselves as "better" than others.
To fix this, I think people should be more willing to discuss their faith with others.…
A Dictionary of Orthodox Terminology - Part 2 -- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. (n.d.).
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith9152
No Author, Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches, National Council of Churches, 2000.
No Author. (1914). About Ascension Cathedral: Ascension Cathedral. Ascension Cathedral. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.groca.org/?page_id=334
For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.
But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.
Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…
Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001
Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…
Agony -- The Famous Group of Laocoon. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/rome-19.shtml
Haaren, J. (2000). Famous Men of Greece. Lebanon, TN: Greenleaf Press.
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
The Farnesse Bull. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/naples-5.shtml
Greek colonization, much like the colonization of Africa and Asia by European powers in the early twentieth century, was an act of achieving land, recourses, and influence, and thus, power. The eventual expansion of the Greek Empire was unique, however, in that it was one of the first major exercises of colonization ever noted in the history of civilization. A number of things, but most notably, the shortages in the existing territories (both land and recourses), the desire for new trade routes, and the re-emergence of the written language facilitated the Greek expansion.
Prior to the widespread colonization by the Greeks, existing cities were growing by population and exhausting the land around them. Traditional plots of land reserved for Greek citizens were becoming smaller, and in some cases, non-existent. It was clear to those in leadership positions that overcrowding was becoming a rampant problem for the Greek cities, and in…
Boardman, John. The Greeks Overseas. New York: Thames and Hudson. 1982.
Murray, Oswyn. Early Greece. Cambridge: Harvard UP. 1993.
Osborne, Robin. Greece in the Making. New York: Routledge. 1996.
Except for Miletus, which was sacked as an initiator of the revolt, the other cities were treated rather reasonably, going as far as recommendations for the settled Persians to respect local religious traditions (Herodotus VI 42-45).
This does not necessarily need to be seen only as a reasonable conquering policy, but also as a diplomatic and political approach: once Darius asked for the submissions of mainland Greek cities, many of them accepted, based on the previous behavior of the conquerors in Ionic cities. Athens and Sparta obviously remained aside, but this was also because they were also assuming a regional power status and would not find it calculable to surrender without a fight.
Reasonably enough, though, the Persian invasion could also be seen as a direct consequence in the involvement of the Athenians in the revolt of the Ionic cities and in their attempt to preserve a democracy here and…
Greek Concept to Movie Troy
Ancient mythology as never ceased to amaze and fascinate its readers and followers. Especially Egyptian and Greek mythology, having followers everywhere; in the current times it has found a new fan, that is the movie making business, with a special interest in Greek mythology. Nothing is better than watching your favorite characters brought up to life and actually see them doing all the things we had previously only imagined them doing. One such captivating movie is 'troy' based on the Greek Trojan war starring Brad Pitt. Various Greek concepts were shed light in this movie, which will be discussed, in relation to the movie.
The first concept is Fate, since in Greek mythology fate does not just happen. The gods make things happen, in their own engineered ways, and interfere to make things happen on their own account. Then there is MOIA, which means that…
Walter Benjamin "The Task of the Translator" vol 1: 1913-1926. Marcus Bullock. Pg. 256-259
Roman Jacobson "The World of Movies, Media and Multimedia: language, history, theory" Pg. 26-266.
James Monaco "How to Read a Film" 3rd edition, Pg. 250-255.
All of the Greek gods and their interactions were very similar to how humans would naturally act. They are all inclined to be jealous and vengeful of one another, along with having affairs that rival any daytime soap opera. They would choose sides and create massive wars on earth in order to win their way and prove their point.
Although the ancient Greek religion had fundamental elements which were very similar to other ancient religions, there is one thing that set it apart. The quarrelsome Greek gods did not try to teach their human subjects any kind of religious doctrine. Unlike Judaism and Christianity, with its strict rules and commandments, the Greek religion had no specific doctrines which it's followers needed to generally follow. Instead, the ancient tradition relied on mysticism, such as what was seen in the case of the Oracle of Delphi. Many researchers and scholars say that…
Following these rules, the formation of the numbers is intuitive: the number would be split into hundreds, tens and units and the letters combined to give the graphical representation. This was a derived version of the addition numerical system that was used in the ancient times.
An additional problem was the fact that the system proved difficult to use initially for numbers that were larger than 999. What the Greeks did was add an extra stroke before the letter to symbolize that the respective number would be multiplied by 1000. This meant that you would now be able to include any kind of larger numbers with that stroke.
With the fractions, there were different representations that the Greeks used. One of them involved marking the denominator with a double accent and sometimes writing it down twice. However, there was also the representation we are mostly used to nowadays by which…
1. Classical Greek numerals. On the Internet at http://www.sizes.com/numbers/greek_numeration.htm.Lastretrieved on February 28, 2009
2. Bunt, Lucas; Jones, Phillip. The Historical Roots of Elementary Mathematics. Dover Publications. 1988.
3. Hardegree, Gary. Numeration Systems. 2001. On the Internet at http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~gmhwww/382/pdf/05-numeration.pdf.Lastretrieved on February 28, 2009
Classical Greek numerals. On the Internet at
The vengeance of the gods is further underscored by the Chorus who warns that "But if any man comes striding, high and mighty, in all he says and does, no fear of justice, no reverence for the temples of the gods-let a rough doom tear him down, repay his pride, breakneck, ruinous pride!" Oedipus portrays tyranny and the people's greatest blessing becomes their worst curse.
In the last stage, Oedipus is a man who has become humbled with the pain and dejection of knowing the truth of reality as he is forced to admit his tragic destiny by the overwhelming evidence. The writer shows the sudden change in the protagonist's persona when Oedipus condemns himself by saying, "I stand revealed at last -- cursed in my birth, cursed in marriage, cursed in the lives I cut down with these hands!" (1309-1311) Oedipus's complete transformation is demonstrated when he gouged out…
The ancient Greeks pioneered philosophical rationalism, the practice of critically examining thoughts, ideas, and facts while discounting the importance of religious faith or emotionalism. A predecessor of hard science, rationalism underlies much of what we now call "Western Civilization." Rationalism implies that the powers of reason are sufficient to give human beings an understanding of the universe. Anything superstitious or fanatical would be anathema to the rationalist. Although a person can simultaneously believe in God and be a rationalist, in general, rationalism and religion propose conflicting worldviews. In fact, religion and rationalism often coexist peacefully in many parts of the modern world. For example, in religious countries like Italy, Ireland, Israel, and in some parts of the United States, people believe strongly in the tenets of their faith. However, in general religion remains separate from science. Rationalism dominates the worldview of most people in the modern world, at…
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
" In other words, he philosopher advocates temperance, especially as far as emotion is concerned. This is combined with actions or "habits," as Aristotle terms them. A person who is temperate while also engaging in "good" activities or habits can then be said to be virtuous. It appears that this definition fits well with what could constitute "good" even in today's terms.
A person who would disagree with the above might argue that both my and Aristotle's definition of "good" and "virtue" is far too vague to have any valid application. Neither definition, for example, acknowledges cultural variation in terms of what might constitute "virtue." A person from the Far East, for example, might consider it virtuous to obey one's parents in everything, including one's choice of a bride. In Western culture, on the other hand, and by the above definition, it is decidedly "bad" to make one's children miserable…
Thus, in 1 Kings 7:23, the word "line" is written Kuf Vov Heh, but the Heh does not need to be there, and is not pronounced. With the extra letter, the word has a value of 111, but without it, the value is 106. (Kuf=100, Vov=6, Heh=5). The ratio of pi to 3 is very close to the ratio of 111 to 106. In other words, pi/3 = 111/106 approximately; solving for pi, is pi = 3.1415094... (Tsaban, 78). This figure is much more accurate than any other value that had been calculated up to that point, and would hold the record for the greatest number of correct digits for several hundred years afterwards. Unfortunately, very few people know this fact.
Archimedes of Greece was the first person to make serious use of the pi calculation. In 287 to 212 BC, he focused on the polygons' perimeters as opposed to…
Archimedes. "Measurement of a Circle" in Pi: A Source Book. Heidelberg: Springer
Baumgart, J.K.J.K.)." The history of algebra: An overview." In Historical topics for the mathematics classroom. 31st National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Yearbook. Washington, DC: NCTM, 1969
Blatner, David. The Joy of Pi. Walker Publishing Company, Inc. New York, 1997.
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…
Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a .
John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world
Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from:
The birth of a male child is preferred because it ensures a family that the tradition of oikos is preserved, where it is preferred that a male will take over and control the household's property and wealth.
Women are also separated from the male members of the family and are put in a separate room in the house. This arrangement is tolerated in order to preoccupy the woman on her household chores, while the man (husband, father, and/or brother) goes on to enjoy the comforts that the women in his family provide for him.
It also did not help that women are also considered as 'scheming' and 'vile' individuals who bring about a man's downfall or death in life. Though in reality, women are more oppressed and subjugated than men, women are often portrayed as dangerous, as reflected in Clytemnestra's character in "Agamemnon" (by Aeschylus), where she schemed to have…
Like imhotep and Asclepius, though to a lesser degree, Hippocrates' life is so shrouded in myth that it is difficult to state many facts about the man. He certainly existed, hwoever, and was one of the first to apply true rules of logic and science to the practice of medicine. This was possible largely because of the changes made in philosophy both by the pre-Socratics, who determined that the gods were not responsible for the laws of nature, and the major Athenian philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who developed a system of rigorous logic that was attached to investigations of truth. Hippocrates focused on keeping the body healthy through preventative medicine, and that the body would often return to its natural state unaided -- thus the injunction to "do no harm."
Galen, a Greek physician arriving on the scene centuries later, learned all he could about the internal…
The nation of Greece is currently in debt to its creditors to the amount of 321 billion Euros -- "approximately 180% of its annual economic output" -- effectively making the nation a debt-colony (Rankin). As of 2015, the IMF had pledged nearly 50 billion Euros to Greece (and had leant the nation more than 30 billion up to that point -- with the rest contingent upon Greece making payments that were already due). By May 2016, Greece's creditors -- known in the media as the Troika (European Commission, the ECB, and the IMF) -- were meeting to discuss the issue of loaning another 10 billion Euros to the embattled nation (Rankin).
The nature of the crisis that prompted Greece to apply for aid was this: it had become a member of the EU in spite of having less than stellar fiscal discipline. It had a trade deficit and when the…
Greek legend of Prometheus, the god that defied Zeus and brought fire to humans, is one that figures largely in the imagery of the later Romantic poets. There's Byron's Prometheus, Percy Shelley's Prometheus Unbound, and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. For Percy Shelley and Lord Byron, Prometheus embodied the revolutionary, creative, and daringly original spirit, and a "courage and majesty and firm and patient opposition to omnipotent force" (Prometheus Unbound, Norton Anthology 734). Prometheus was the "champion of humanity" persecuted for his selfless desire to bring good to the world. Considering both men's hate for tyranny and zeal for social justice such a reading is not surprising.
However, Paul Cantor points out in Creature and Creator that, "the Romantics made a hero out of Prometheus by glossing over those aspects of the original legends which cast him in a bad light"(77). Mary Shelley's use of the Promethean legend,…
Brailsford, H.N, Shelley, Godwin, and Their Circle. New York: Henry Holt and Co., n.d.
Cantor, Paul Creature and Creator: Mythmaking and English Romanticism. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Of P, 1984.
____ "Mary Shelley and the Taming of The Byronic Hero: Transformation and The Deformed Transformed." The Other Mary Shelley: Beyond Frankenstein. Ed. Audrey A. Fisch. Oxford: Oxford U. Of P, 1993. 89-106.
Evslin, Bernard and Dorothy, and Ned Hoopes. The Greek Gods. New York: Scholastic Magazines, Inc., 1966.
The Greek government has faced an ongoing fiscal crisis for the past several years. ecently, for the third time, its Eurozone partners have been compelled to offer a bailout to the country. This is done to stabilize Greece's finances and to impose further measures on the Greek government to remedy the nation's budget and to ensure that there are no similar issues in future. The first part of the paper is a brief overview of the situation. The second part will outline some of the key issues that lead both to favor the bailout and to oppose it, and finally there will be analysis and a conclusion about whether or not bailing out Greece is the right thing to do. It will be argued that it is not, at least in the current form.
There are several key issues at work with the Greek bailout. Greece…
BBC. (2013). IMF admits mistakes on Greece bailout. BBC. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-22791248
Bloomberg. (2012). Greek crisis timeline from Maastricht Treaty to ECB bond buying. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-09-05/greek-crisis-timeline-from-maastricht-treaty-to-ecb-bond-buying.html
Chu, B. (2012). Interview with economist Paul Krugman: Greece will leave Eurozone within 12 months. The Independent. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/interview-with-economist-paul-krugman-greece-will-leave-eurozone-within-12-months-7804753.html
Esparza, A. (2013). Chinese investment in Greek port the biggest FDI after the crisis. Marketpulse. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.marketpulse.com/20131127/chinese-investment-greek-port-biggest-fdi-crisis/
Greek Crisis- Opportunity
Board of Directors
The Greek financial crisis is rooted in two decades of profligate spending which has ballooned the country's debt to GDP ratio to 124.9% of GDP in 2010 (The Wall Street Journal.com. May 7, 2010). Coupled with a stagnant economy, the risk of a Greek sovereign default is roiling markets and could cause a contagion across the Eurozone and ultimately the global financial system. Yet, Greece has a unique opportunity to emerge from this crisis stronger and able to compete competitively around the globe as a viable and prospering member of the Euro block. To do so they must embrace a mix of austerity and free market reforms to ensure liquidity and avoid default.
Greece had always been a weaker member of the Eurozone as compared with Germany, France, and Italy accounting for only 2.6% of the GDP of the Euro…
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.com. (2011). Economic
Survey of Greece. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.com. Retrieved December 1, 2011 from http://www.oecd.org/document/28/0,3746,en_2649_34327_48421852_1_1_1_1,00.html
Roscini, D. Schlefer, J. & Dimitriou, K. April 19, 2011). The Greek Crisis: Tragedy or Opportunity? Harvard Business School. Retrieved December 2, 2011
The Wall Street Journal.com. (November 26, 2011). Greece Faces 'Mortal Danger' Amid
Lotus-Eaters: From Literature to Television
Greek myths have long been utilized as backdrops and inspirations for various works of arts from literature to popular media such as television programming. The myth of the Lotus-eaters, or the lotophagi, was first popularized in the epic poem The Odyssey which details Odysseus's quest to return to Ithaca, his home, after having participated in the siege of Troy. Alfred Tennyson used the lotus-eaters myth as the basis for his 1832 poem "The Lotos-Eaters." Moreover, the lotus-eaters myth was referenced in the 2011 season premiere of the television show True Blood. The lotus-eaters have inspired great works of literature, such as Tennyson's "The Lotos-Eaters," as well as popular media as in the case of HBO's True Blood.
In Tennyson's "The Lotos-Eaters," the unnamed Odysseus addresses his crew and provides reasons as to why they would indulge in eating the lotus flower. The poem is written…
"She's Not There." True Blood. HBO. 26 June 2011. Television.
Tennyson, Alfred. "The Lotos-Eaters." Poet's Graves: Serious about Poets and Poetry. Web.
Accessed 11 July 2011, from http://www.poetsgraves.co.uk/Classic%20Poems/Tennyson/song_of_the_lotos-eaters.htm
astelands of Labyrinths, astelands of the Modern Past and Present
The wasteland of myth is a place where people have been mislead, where they dwell in a terrible half-existence, living a lie. Perhaps the most familiar modern expressions of the word 'wasteland' are those of T.S. Eliot's poem about "The asteland" and the idea of a modern, suburban 'teenage wasteland.' hen people speak about a teenage wasteland, they usually are referring to a group of disenchanted youths who have given up on their parent's values but cannot construct their own, new set of values. hen people speak of the "asteland" poem of Eliot, written during the early half of the 20th century, they are referring to Eliot's vision of modern life as a series of broken visions of past phrases, verses, and schemas of believe that no longer have a coherent form or provide moral guidance for people living today.…
Campbell, Joseph. Hero with a Thousand Faces. 1948.
"The Greek Myths: Theseus and the Minotaur & The Wasteland Motif." From The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Seventh edition. Volume 1. W.W. Norton & Co, 2001.
Historical Issues In Modern Education
There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.
Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also…
Reference and Research Book News, August 2005, Kids and Violence, the invisible school experience.
Gender bias in education means treating boys and girls differently at school. (Woodward, 1998)
Such a lifestyle is unrealistic and one that is not plausible for most members of society. Instead, what is necessary is a life where one acquires the social and emotional skills necessary to allow one to recognize what is morally right and then to live one's life in accordance with such recognition. This process does not require a constant introspective vigilance like the one that Socrates proposes. Most men are not philosophers like Socrates and are busy with their day-to-day lives. They do not have the time or inclination to spend their days contemplating their existence. As long as they live a good life, their lives are no less meaningful. In the end, Socrates would likely agree.
The importance of Socrates' statement is that he remained true to his beliefs to the very end. He had spent his life questioning everything including those in authority and, in the process, he…
Greek Myths and Human Nature
Ancient Greek myths represent the view of a previous culture that has influenced current beliefs. Greek culture was one based on the stories and moral lessons told and learned from older generations to more recent generations. The destruction of human kind and the honorable lessons learned from those myths define what human nature is all about; these destruction myths highlighted the positiveness of human nature. Although it may seem counterintuitive and difficult to think of destruction as a positive notion, the idea of cleanliness, rebirth, and immortality allow for this exact interpretation to be made. In Greek destruction myths, it is not about the destroying involved in the myth itself, but it is instead about the aftermath that this destruction may bring to its people, community, and society.
As is well documented in many Greek myths, there is one God that overpowers all others: Zeus.…
Lefkowitz, M. (2005). Greek gods, human lives: What we can learn from myths. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dewey, J. (2005). Experience and nature and human nature. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, LLC.
All respondents also engage in code-switching on a linguistic level to clarify meaning when referring to both stories. The linguistic responses were not culturally monolithic -- rather, bilingual speakers showed a remarkable ability to fuse the two cultures and languages in which they were fluent. Although the different English and Greek scenarios elicited different responses, when speaking about their feelings the study subjects were able to delve into both vocabularies to find the right word to express their ideas. The study suggested that "1) one's emotional reaction shifts with language (and cultural context) and (2) all emotion terms (and reactions) are available to bilingual speakers, almost regardless of the context" (Panayiotou 2004: 132). Their use of different linguistic tropes also highlighted how language and culture were inexorably intertwined, given that the subjects' expressed emotional responses were substantially different, depending on whether the scenario was presented as about a Greek or…
Bishop, M.M., & Peterson, M. (2010). Impact of media context on consumers' responses to code-switched advertising. Journal of Advertising, 39(3), 55-67.
Panayiotou, N. (2004). Switching code, switching codes: Bilinguals' emotional responses in English and Greek. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25 (2&3),
Qing, X. (2012). A tentative analysis of code-switching in college bilingual education.
Big Fat Greek Wedding directed by Joel Zwick [...] differences between Greek and American culture. "My Big Fat Greek Wedding" is a funny movie about the differences in culture that can lead to unhappiness and lack of self-esteem. The main character grows up in a Greek family that wants to protect her, but she manages to find love and happiness anyway. While the film uses stereotypical examples of Greek and American culture to make its points, it is still charming, funny, and entertaining.
This film really plays up the differences between Greek and American culture, and makes them charming all the same. Poor Toula Portokalos, the main character, is trapped in her father's Greek restaurant. Over 30, her family considers her an "old maid," and it is clear she is not happy under her father's thumb. She is dowdy and timid, and afraid to stand up to her very strong…
Deborah is believed to have played a key role in public arena.
Even in the male dominant society of Israel, Deborah's orders were followed and people looked up to her for advice. In the position of a prophetess, she could give orders which were readily followed: "She sent for Barak...and said to him, 'The Lord, the God of Israel, commands you: "Go, take with you ten thousand men..."" Barak was not willing to go alone and wanted Deborah to accompany him. Deborah is an important figure in ancient Hebrew culture and it is through her that we can see how this culture allowed women to have some freedom in their restricted sphere.
The daughter of Jephthah was another prominent figure. She was also a judge who ruled Israel as she was a woman of strong faith. After her father promised Lord that if he won, he would offer "whatever comes…
The Odyssey, the Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces, 6th ed. Vol 1, Ws. Norton & Co. Inc. New York
Book of Joshua" accessed online 16th april 2005:
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a, b_27.16)." In Heilbrunn Timeline
of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.
November 15, 2010.
Marriage in Greek Myth
efore we discuss the depictions of marriage in the Theogony, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and the Odyssey, perhaps we should first discuss the real- life ancient Greek marriage rituals and reveal their attitude towards marriage.
Indeed, many of the things we see in Greek myths happened in real life as well. For example, the Greek girls usually married quite young, around the age of 14, which was meant to ensure that the girl was a virgin and pure in mind and body. "Marriage to a family member was an acceptable alternative and occasionally encouraged in order to consolidate family wealth"- if we look at many of the marriages between gods (taking only this example), we will notice that many of them were affiliated. Remember, for example, that almost all of the Olympian Gods were in some way related, most of them being brothers and sisters,…
1. Roll, Rose. Gender Ideology in Myth: The Place of the Female Within Male Order. January 2003. On the Internet at http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/eumenides/essays/essay1.html
2. Ancient Greek Marriage. On the Internet at http://www.pogodesigns.com/JP/weddings/greekwed.html
Ancient Greek Marriage. On the Internet at
How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?
Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…
Bowra, C.M. (1957). The Greek Experience. New York: Praeger. In Steven Kreis, History Guide (2006).
Dunkle, R. (1986). The classical origins of western culture. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College, The City University of New York.
Mortgaged lands were marked by special debt-stones, named pillars and debtors had to pay 1/6 of their harvest or income to the creditor. The success of Athens can be explained by the fact that it was the first city to abolish practice of enslaving for debts. It raised city's prestige and authority in the region and in many respects stimulated economical and political stability. Since 6th century BC most of Athenian tyrants were making shifts towards democratic rule, balancing interests of elite and poor. The most important reforms in government were made by Solon, who was elected in 594 BC. Solon's reforms were directed on the consolidation of alienated Athenian society: he abolished pillar practices, proclaiming that all Greeks are free citizens. Solon liberalized political structure of Athens, expanding influence of ecclesia, giving it the right to participate in elections of archons. He reformed membership of Areopagus, which was no…
Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."
Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.
In asking him to stay with her and their family, she was practically betraying her country. Demeter cares for the earth in a way that no other gods did. She was actively involved with mortal affairs. However, she also cared for own, her daughter. She does what she feels what she must do in an act of revenge. These women demonstrate the complexity of the female in any era. Even in ancient texts, we see the female figure associated with the typical womanly things such as motherhood and fertility but she is also given characteristics that are strong, powerful, and dangerous. What these myths tell us about the role of the female is that it is constantly changing. The female is complex and while she will always associated with fertility, she should never be relegated to an inferior role. While we often see mythology as wild with fantastical elements, we…
Bullfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch's Mythology. New York: Random House Publishing. 1979.
Hesiod. Theogony. Perseus Digital Online Library. Information Retrieved August 7, 2009.
Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites
Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade is only recently being regulated and stopped. There are many problems with the methods used to stop the trade however and no one nation or regulatory body has been able to devise a solid means by which these treasures can be returned to the people who claim them as heritage. The heritage argument and the ability to return the artifacts becomes even more clouded when the items in question are found underwater. Although there has been a concerted…
AFP. "A Rich Greek Archeology Frontier Lying Underwater." Khaleej Times (2005, June 24).
Aiken, Jonathan. "Antiquities Diplomacy." The American Spectator 42.1 (2009): 58-60.
Akal, Tuncay. "Surveillance and Protection of Underwater Archaeological Sites: Sea Guard." (accessed November 2, 2012) http://www.acoustics.org/press/155th/akal.htm
Carver, Martin. "Editorial." Antiquity 82.315 (2008): 7-9.
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…
American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm
Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/
Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1
Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
Gradually the Greek hero recognizes (peripeteia) that his visitors are the hated Greeks who once abandoned him, in disguise. Philoctetes denounces the foul plot and demands back his bow, realizing once again he is alone in the world. (anagnorisis)
In Euripides, "Hippolytus," pity and fear (pathos) is evoked by Phaedra's unbridled passion for her stepson Hippolytus. The recognition element of the drama (peripeteia) comes when both Phaedra and Hippolytus see that their mutually incompatible desires both for others (in the case of Phaedra) and also to be removed from others (as expressed in the character of the young, title son of Theseus) are inescapable. This recognition is shortly followed by the terrible peripeteia of Theseus that his wife has lied to him and he has cast off his son as nothing, for nothing. The final tragic anagnorisis comes with Athena's visit. Athena exposes Theseus' folly of his love for his…
Helena Smith argues that money, not time, heals all wounds, at least when it comes to the conflict between Turkey and Greece. In her New Statesman article, Smith points out that tensions between the two Mediterranean nations is lessening mainly due to entrepreneurship and joint business ventures. In a remarkably symbolic gesture, the company that manufactures the Greek flag is now set to buy its fabric from Turkish factories. However, money isn't the only bond between these age-old rivals. Smith notes that humanitarian needs and causes has also helped mend the wounds between the two nations. They both agreed to cooperate in the Kosovo crisis and helped each other recover from recent earthquakes that affected both sides of the Aegean Sea.
Turkey is situated in a unique geographic locale: half Asia, half Europe. The Bosphorous demarcates the division between two continents and runs straight through Istanbul. Therefore, Turkey…
Smith, Helena. "An Affair Just Waiting to Happen." New Statesman. 6 Mar. 2000. Find Articles. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FQP/4476_129/60805685/p1/article.jhtml?term=turkey+greece+conflict
It is possible to read Plato's Apology as the best extant textual representation of the legacy of Athens in the fifth century CE in law and politics. The fact is that the Athenians, although they voted to put Socrates to death, might very well agree on principle with this evaluation. The Apology is, after all, a representation of the Athenian system of trial by jury, and it is worth recalling that this judicial system was considered to be a founding myth of Athens itself. Earlier in the century, roughly a decade before Socrates was born, the tragedian Aeschylus in the Oresteia would represent the mythological and divinely-sanctioned origins of the Athenian jury trial, as a replacement for the endlessly bloody cycle of the lex talionis, when the goddess Athena invites a group of Athenian citizens to sit in judgment on Orestes, who killed his mother in revenge for her…
Plato. The Apology. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Internet Classics Archive, 2009. http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
Minoan and Greek Pottery
The Vase as Theme
This essay is meant to address the different treatment of two works of art from different cultures which deal with the same theme. By comparing differing treatments of the same artistic theme, it is possible to get a glimpse into the mind of the artists whose differences are thus highlighted. For example, if one were to compare the famous Minoan Octopus Stirrup Jar (Heraklion Museum, Crete) with the Metropolitan Museum's Mycenean Terracotta stirrup jar with octopus (ca. 1200-1100), one would see dramatic differences in the level of anatomical accuracy vs. stylization, anamorphization vs. abstraction, and a preference for a utilitarian joie de vivre over an elite sense of design. In such a comparison, the subject of the art would be considered the theme. Yet what if one were not to consider the subject of the art as its theme, but rather consider…
Gospels Greek text a basis. The Bible on Luke Chapter 7: 1-10 Sample Essay Outline ( a guideline, adjust argument) ! short introduction (end statement thesis [, a summary interpretation passage]) ! body (argument support thesis) " summary passage " observations contents passage " observations literary, thematic, historical contexts " summary message original audience " explanation application context ! short conclusion (begin -stating thesis).
Jesus' healing of the Centurion's servant
The biblical text of Jesus healing a Centurion's servant is recognized for the numerous ways in which it can be interpreted and for being a significant pillar of faith in the Christian world. The story is particularly intriguing because it involves a Centurion turning to Jesus in order to get help and because it is one of the only two biblical accounts involving Christ performing a miracle meant to help Gentiles and in the presence of these people. This text…
Adam, D. "Growing in Awareness." (Kevin Mayhew Publishers)
Dick, A.K. "THE GOD VIRUS: THE PONTIUS PILATE REPORT (complete and unabridged American version)." (Anna K. Dick)
Hawkins, J.B. "Staying One, Remaining Open: Educating Leaders for a 21st Century Church." (Church Publishing, Inc., 1 Feb 2010)
John, J. "The Meaning in the Miracles." (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004)
There is a heavy emphasis on the vertical at work here; the lute in the foreground is directly vertical, with the line created by the neck traveling most f the way from the bottom to the top of the painting. The tree the man is leaning against, the tree behind that, and also a vertically jutting rock just beneath the tower of the distant building and a towering cloud just off the lute's neck all reinforce this sense of vertical.
Tone and line contribute greatly to the two most prominent principles of design at work in the Greek Lovers. Tone produces many instances of harmony, and several of disharmony. The female figure is generally harmonious with her surroundings; her light top flows into the lighter sky to her right (viewer's left), while her other side is slightly shadowed matching the darker value of the sky above it. The man, in…
Eleftria Greek Taverna estaurant Concept
The Eleftria Greek Taverna is a restaurant designed for upscale professional families where both husband and wife work, yet both still want to have fully cooked, ethnic dinners that are of high quality with excellent nutritional value. The concept is that of both sit-down informal Taverna where the dress code is flip-flops and shorts or even business wear. The food serve will be both counter ordering and a more formal area to sit down and have a nice dinner with family. This will be differentiated by a partition in the restaurant. Hours of operation will be oriented towards the business lunch and dinner customer segments, opening at 10 am and closing at 11 pm Monday -- Friday and open 11:30am to 12 am Saturday and Sunday.
Target Market - Upscale dual-income couples making a combined income of $100,000 a year or more and…
Berta, D. (2005). Daphne's Greek cafe. Nations Restaurant News, 39(5), 84-84,86.
Friedland, A. (2002). Your big, fat Greek menu. Food Management, 37(12), 34-38.
Snyder, D. (2005). Daphne's Greek cafe harnesses costs with MenuLink. Nations Restaurant News, 39(26), S10-S11.
Marble Statue of a Kouros, Greek, Archaic Period, c. 590-580 BCE
Ancient Greece was a place of incredible artistry in terms of architecture, playwriting, and sculpture. So much of what is known about the Greeks has been learned through their artwork. Many of the pieces of Ancient Greek art are available to be seen in history and art museums around the world. In the present moment, by looking at the artworks which have been discovered that date back to the period of the Ancient Greeks, modern scholars can interpret what differences occurred in the various epochs of the era, such as the types of artwork created, the subjects which were given the most importance, and the mediums employed. The subject of the sculpture in particular can explain a great deal about the specific epoch in terms of clothing, armaments, and other aspects. At the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New…
Will the Real Greek Homer Please Stand Up?
Homer is the name by which the legendary Greek poet of great fame is known. He is credited with the Greek epics The Iliad and They Odyssey, as well as with the authorship of the mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the corpus of the Homeric Hymns, and also the Margites. (Docu) Nothing about Homer's actual biographical information is known, (though he is commonly assumed to have been blind) and there are many theories that speculate Homer himself may have been completely mythological, or that he may have been more than one person. It is assumed, however, that Homer's works originated from the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor in the 9th century BC (Helenism), and several Ionian cities claim to be the birthplace of Homer. (Docu) Although Homer's works great works The Iliad and The Odyssey have shaped a great deal…
Aristotle on Incontinence
Incontinence is a term which is used by Philosophers. It stems from the Greek term, which is Akrasia, which means lack of mastery -- or when someone is not able to withhold his or her desires. It describes human passion and desires and giving in to one's pleasures, not considering if an act is the right thing to do, according to Aristotle. However, it is believed by Socrates that such a thing does not exist, because if one were to know what the right thing to do was, he would not go the opposite direction because judgment overrules all desires and pleasures. This term is often used to be seen when a person lacks moderation or any type of self-control -- this is because, it is only human to do so. Aristotle believes that incontinence is something which is not necessarily a bad thing, and…
Heraclitus was a Greek philosopher of the late 6th century BCE. His thoughts centered on criticizing his predecessors and contemporaries for their failure to see the unity in experience. His focus was on the idea of an everlasting Word (Logos) according to which all things are one, in some sense. Opposed to the Christian ideas of an everlasting God who represents the eternal truth, Heraclitus taught that opposites are necessary for life, and that the everlasting truth was a law of constant exchange between opposites, that the universe is unified in a system of balanced exchanges. The world itself consists of a law-like interchange of elements. Below are commentaries of come of his thoughts:
Immortal mortals, mortal immortals, one living the others death and dying the others life.
This idea tried to get a philosophical handle on the conflict which Greeks wrote into their mythology. The gods were constantly dragging…
Appiah concluded by remarking that, 'it is a pallid version of cosmopolitanism that barely deserves the name, and if we can excuse ourselves because others are shirking their responsibilities, we are barely principled' (Anthony, 2006).
Assessment of Theories
The contemporary political theorists considered cosmopolitanism as 'citizenship of the world, which is a critique of ordinary theories of political obligation, with their tendency to focus on our duties to fellow citizens, not to people elsewhere' (Patrick, 2005). The consequence of the cosmopolitanism is expected to be 'single world government with corresponding global citizenship' (Patrick, 2005). Surprisingly such aspirations have not discussed by the serious circles. The modified and renewed version of the cosmopolitanism includes 'everyone in the world in a single global web of mutual obligations' (Ulrich, 2006). However the reservations and criticism mounted against cosmopolitanism is relevant to the negligence of the 'obligations of reciprocity'; there has been consensus on…
Noah Feldman. Cosmopolitanism Law. Cambridge University Press. 2006.
Ethan J. Leib. Rooted Cosmopolitans. Policy Review. Issue: 137. 2006. Hoover Institution Press.
Luis. Political Theory of Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Case for the World State. Routledge. 2004. pp. 32-46.
Patrick Hayden. Cosmopolitan Global Politics. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2005. pp. 176-189.
Archimedes was a Greek scholar born in 287 BCE in Syracuse, which is modern-day Sicily. His father was an astronomer, but not a very famous one, whose name was Phidias. Archimedes studied in the great ancient center of learning Alexandria, Egypt. He went on to study a broad range of fields in science and math such as hydrostatics, geometry, and calculus (orres, 1995). He also studied astronomy like his father and helped to invent the planetarium (orres, 1995). Furthermore, Archimedes is known as the father of integral calculus (orres, 1995). Archimedes is famous in part because he developed the method to measure the density of objects (orres, 1995). This method is sometimes known as pycnometry or as the Archimedes' Principle (orres, 1995). In addition to his work on calculating density, Archimedes invented many important things including advanced pulley systems and some war machines (orres, 1995). Archimedes is considered to be…
"Archimedes," (n.d.). Famous Scientists. Retrieved online: http://www.famousscientists.org/archimedes/
"Archimedes Biography," (n.d.). About.com. Retrieved online: http://math.about.com/library/blbioarchimedes.htm
Day, M.M. & Capri, A. (2002). "Density," Visionlearning Vol. SCI-1 (4), 2002. http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=37
Rorres, C. (1995). Archimedes. Retrieved online: https://www.cs.drexel.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/contents.html
Plato on Justice
he Greek word which Plato uses to mean "justice" -- dike or dikaios -- is also synonymous with law and can also mean "the just"; as Allan Bloom (1991) notes, Plato uses a more specific term -- dikaiosyne -- in the Republic, which means something more like "justice, the virtue" (p. 442). Gregory Vlastos (1981) goes even further to note that, with Plato's very vocabulary for these concepts of justice, "the sense is so much broader: they could be used to cover all which is morally right" (p. 111). his terminology links it with justice as it would be conceived within Plato's theory of forms, and Dominic Scott (2006) notes that -- following that theory -- this introduces "another connotation of virtue" as being "a genus of which such qualities as justice, courage, temperance and wisdom are species" (p. 14). Slippage of terminology seems to be looming…
That even those who practice it do so unwillingly, from an incapacity to do injustice, we would best perceive if we should in thought do something like this: give each, the just man and the unjust, license to do whatever he wants, while we follow and watch where his desire will lead each. We would catch the just man red-handed going the same way as the unjust man out of a desire to get the better; this is what any nature naturally pursues as good, while it is law which by force perverts it to honor equality. The license of which I speak would best be realized if they should come into possession of the sort of power that it is said the ancestor of Gyges, the Lydian, once got. They say he was a shepherd toiling in the service of the man who was then ruling Lydia. There came to pass a great thunderstorm and an earthquake; the earth cracked and a chasm opened at the place where he was pasturing. He saw it, wondered at it, and went down. He saw, along with other quite wonderful things about which they tell tales, a hollow bronze horse. It had windows; peeping in, he saw there was a corpse inside that looked larger than human size. It had nothing on except a gold ring on its hand; he slipped it off and went out. (1991: 37)
As it turns out, the so-called ring of Gyges -- like that of Bilbo Baggins -- confers invisibility. Of course, Glaucon goes on to narrate the horrible things that this lucky shepherd went on to do -- including copulating with the queen, then committing regicide to usurp the throne as a post-coital divertissement -- but Glaucon is interested in pursuing the difference between the just and the unjust man, if both had access to such a magical ring:
Now if there were two such rings, and the just man would put one on, and the unjust man the other, no one, as it would seem, would be so adamant as to stick by justice and bring himself to keep away from what belongs to others and not lay hold of it, although he had license to take what he wanted from the market without fear, and to go into houses and have intercourse with whomever he wanted, and to slay or release from bonds whomever he wanted, and to do other things as an equal to a god among humans. And in so doing, one would
Desire, Emotion, and Knowledge: Greek Society and Culture in the Classical Period (480-338 .C.)
Following the aftermath of Greeks' victory over Persians during 480-479 .C., Greek society has undergone rapid changes and revival in its political, economic, and cultural structures, called the Classical period of Greek society and culture. This period, 480-338 .C., is characterized by the emergence of new reforms in the society, such as the establishment of a new Athenian democratic government, the gradual assertion of women equal treatment in a patriarchal Greek society, and the flourishing of the arts through philosophy, literature, mathematics, and science.
Indeed, the Classical period is more appropriately described as a time wherein human potential and intelligence is at its highest. As Plato had stated, "Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, knowledge." This statement from the Greek philosopher brings into lucidity the important works of literature that had…
Kagan, D., S. Ozment, and F. Turner. (1995). The Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Odyssey: Daily Life for Women
When it comes to the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey is recognized as a piece of literature that was not just about gods, men, and creatures, this historical read served as a cultural example about the women and their place in society. This book, provides a wide-ranging view of the Achean's peacetime people. Throughout Odyssey, a person is able to pick up some understanding of what is appropriate or inappropriate in relationships among servant and master, father and son, guest and host, god and mortal, and--notably -- woman and ma. It is clear that the women are the ones that perform an important role in Odyssey. With that said, this essay will explore the daily life of women from the literature Odyssey.
Social customs, marriage, rights and freedoms
While Odysseus is looked at as being an interesting figure, the women persons in the Odyssey are just as…
Austin, Norman. Helen of Troy and Her Shameless Phantom. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,, 2009.
Cahill, Jane. Her Kind: Stories of Women from Greek Mythology. Peterborough, Ont: Broadview Press, 2005.
Cohen, Beth. The Distaff Side: Representing the Female in Homer's Odyssey. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
DeBois, Page. Centaurs and Amazons: Women and the Pre-history of the Great Chain of Being. Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.
omen in Ancient Tragedy and Comedy
Both the drama of Euripides' "Medea" and the comedy of Aristophanes' "Lysistrata" seem unique upon a level of even surface characterization, to even the most casual students of Classical Greek drama and culture. Both in are female-dominated plays that were produced by male-dominated societies and written by men. Both the drama and the comedy features strong women as their central protagonists, whom are depicted under extreme circumstances, in relatively positive lights. And both plays, despite their very different tones, also have an additional, unique feature in that they show 'the enemy' -- or the non-Greek or non-Athenian, in a fairly positive and humane fashion.
The sympathies of the viewer for female's plights are immediately arisen by Aristophanes from the first scene of "Lysistrata," as Cleonice, the friend of Lysistrata, and a common Athenian housewife states, regarding the lateness of the other women that frustrates…
Arkins, Brian. "Sexuality in Fifth-Century Athens." Ancient History: Journal of University College Dublin, Ireland, Volume 1: 1994. http://ancienthistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.ucd.ie/%7Eclassics/94/Arkins94.html
Aristophanes. "Lysistrata." Retrieved on 6 November 2004 from Exploring World Cultures Website, 1997. http://m3.doubleclick.net/875354/freeze10012004.html
Euripides. "Medea." MIT Classics Archive, 2001. Retrieved on 6 November 1997 at http://classics.mit.edu/Euripides/medea.html
Hemminger, Bill. "Why Study Ancient World Cultures?" Retrieved on 6 November 2004 from Exploring World Cultures Website, 1997.
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…
Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html .
Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site: http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .
Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.
Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site: http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/.
Greek Classical Era on Christian Art
The fifth century B.C.E. initiated a new philosophy in Greek art. hile before this era, Greek representations of the human form tended to be static and relatively stylized (much like Egyptian art), the Classical era exhibited a notable break with previous artistic images. Representations of the human form became much more realistic. Knowledge of anatomy combined with an ideology that celebrated and idealized the human form (while still keeping it recognizably human) characterized the style of this era, as can be seen in one of the wonders of the ancient world, the Tomb of Mausolus (Asia Minor, 359-351 B.C.E.). One famous relief on the Tomb depicts Greek warriors and Amazon women in combat. Both the soldiers and the women are intricately detailed in terms of the folds of their clothing and musculature. Both sides are also perfectly proportioned and while all look recognizably human,…
"Art of the Crusades Era." University of Michigan. 8 Dec 1997. Web 28 Dec 2015.
Boardman, John. "The Classical period (5th - 4th century BC)." Classical Art Research Centre.
Oxford University. 26 Oct 2012. Web 28 Dec 2015.
Cartwright, Mark. "Ara Pacis Augustae." The Ancient History Encyclopedia. Web 28 Dec 2015.
Thucydides Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War history is based on the historical account of Peloponnesian War between 431 and 404 C. The war was led by Athens (the Delian League), and the other led by Sparta within the Peloponnesian League. Thucydides (an Athenian historian) serving as a general in the war developed the focus of the battle.
Together with a lack of trust in Thucydides' information, the narration is not a firsthand experience as Homer's did. However, he uses poet's epics in inferring facts about Trojan War. For example, while Thucydides valued the amount of Greek ships to be over 1,000 towards Troy as poetic exaggeration, he engages Homer's ships catalog when approximating the presence of Greek soldiers. In addition, Thucydides claims that Homer refuses reference for United Greek states for pre-Hellenic nations through disjointed while organizing the launch of effective campaigns. Thucydides adds that Troy was to be conquered…
1. Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. New York: Free Press, 1998.
Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 502.
Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 231.
Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 132.