The muscle-related side effects common to these medications are called Extra-Pyramidal Side effects, or EPS. Thus, atypical neuroleptics can be considered the newer drugs and these drugs target specific dopamine receptors and/or may block or inhibit re-uptake of serotonin.
b. "The mechanism of action of Abilify, as with other drugs having efficacy in schizophrenia, is unknown. However, it has been proposed that the efficacy of Abilify is mediated through a combination of partial agonist activity at dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin 5HT1A receptors, and antagonist activity at serotonin 5HT2A receptors. Partial agonism refers to the ability to both block a receptor if it is over stimulated and stimulate a receptor when activity is needed." (Abilify)
9. The entire nervous system is made up of individual units of nerve cells which serve as our body's communication network. To communicate with each other, nerve cells use a variety of chemical messengers or neurotransmitters which carry messages between the nerve cells by crossing the space between cells, called the synapse. One especially important messenger is dopamine, which is manufactured in the substantia nigra. Dopamine is crucial to Parkinson's sufferers because it helps transmit messages to the striatum that both initiate and control movement and balance. These dopamine messages make sure that muscles work smoothly, under precise control, and without unwanted movement.
10. The bacteria could build a resistance to the antibiotics if they are not killed off prior to the completion of the medication or antibiotic.
11. A superinfection can be caused by multiple organisms with one or more resistant to all forms of known medications and antibiotics.
12. a. "The CDC also reported that 1.3% of tuberculosis cases in the U.S. were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin." (American Lung Association) b & c. "In June 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first new drug for pulmonary tuberculosis in 25 years. The drug, rifapentine (Priftin), has been approved for use with other drugs to fight TB. One potential advantage of rifapentine is that it can be taken less often in the final four months of treatment --once a week compared with twice a week for the standard regimen." (American Lung Association)
14. a. "Cancer patients who take antioxidant vitamins such as A and E. may want to reconsider taking them, especially during chemotherapy or radiation treatment. A study in mice found that a deficiency of those vitamins helped the body kill tumor cells more efficiently." (American Cancer Society, Inc.) b. "Realize that your sexual desire may decrease due to the fear of having cancer and treatment, as well as because of treatment itself: Chemotherapy can make you very tired or sick; Radiation therapy to the genital area can sometimes cause pain during intercourse; Hormonal therapy, or removal of ovaries and testicles, will change your body's hormone levels. This can affect sexual desire. If you've had radical surgery, ask your doctor about the possibility of implants or reconstructive surgery." (American Cancer Society, Inc.)
17. "Early enthusiasm for angiogenesis inhibitors waned after several promising drugs failed to meet increased survival endpoints in pivotal phase III trials in cancer patients. The survival benefit seen with Avastin in the colorectal cancer trials is important in demonstrating proof of principle, as well as increasing treatment options for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Over 400,000 people die from colorectal cancer each year. Any treatment with potential to extend the lives of patients with metastatic disease represents an important development. Avastin has made an impressive start since its launch as a treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Despite safety concerns, Genentech remains confident about Avastin's long-term prospects." (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
Abilify (2004) Unique Pharmacology. Abilify. Retrieved on 12 Jan. 2005 from http://www.abilify.com/abilify/channels/hcpcontent.jsp?BV_UseBVCookie=Yes&channelName=Left_Navigation//.
American Cancer Society, Inc. (2005) A Caution Against Self-Prescribing Vitamins American Cancer Society, Inc. Retrieved on 12 Jan. 2005 from American Cancer Society, Inc. At http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_A_Caution_Against_Self_Prescribing_Vitamins.asp.
American Lung Association (2004 November). Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Fact Sheet. Retrieved on. 12 January 2005 from American Lung Association at http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=35815.
Avastin (Bevacizumab) - Angiogenesis Inhibitor And Cancer Therapy Genentech. Retrieved on 12 Jan. 2005 from drugdevelopment-technology.com at http://www.drugdevelopment-technology.com/projects/avastin/.
P03-106 (December 30, 2003.) "Consumer Alert: FDA Plans Regulation Prohibiting Sale of Ephedra-Containing Dietary Supplements and Advises Consumers to Stop Using These Products." Retrieved on 12 January 2005 from FDA.gov at http://www.fda.gov/oc/initiatives/ephedra/december2003/advisory.html.