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The EMDR technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in Returning Combat Veterans with MDMA
A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.
It is not necessarily never appropriate to treat PTSD with MDMA after all other therapeutic modalities have been exhausted unsuccessfully. However, it behooves all stakeholders to limit that use of MDMA by criteria that are sufficiently strict to exclude those prospective patients whose other risk factors for negative responses to MDMA treatment may preclude that approach. It is appropriate that the potential benefits of MDMA in this application are being examined critically; likewise, it is appropriate to limit any approved use of this nature to patients receiving intensive monitoring and concurrent psychotherapy. In that regard, there is a strong argument against prescribing MDMA for any patients with any prior history of illicit drug use, or dependence on alcohol. However, assuming only that the use of MDMA in this application can be properly regulated and that patients are carefully screened and then monitored closely, the use of MDMA may be appropriate to treat combat veterans and others suffering from PTSD despite traditional forms of treatment for the disorder.
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While there are approximately 5 million people suffering from the illness at any one time in America, women are twice as likely to develop PTSD as compared to men. In relation to children and teens, more than 40% has endured at least a single traumatic incident contributing the development of the disorder. However, PTSD has occurred in nearly 15% of girls as compared to the 6% of boys. Causative Factors
Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than research that was compiled by Occupational Medicine. Where, they found that various factors can help trigger those who are suffering from PTSD including: a lack of support and traumatic disassociation with the events. (Bisson 399 -- 403) in the Death of Ball Turret Gunner, the author is experiencing a lack of support and is having their traumatic disassociation,
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The unstated biases are that each person has some kind of social problems and were forced to go through added amounts of therapy to address them. A large segment was selected from different gender groups, ethnic and racial backgrounds. In general, the study results are concentrating on understanding specific factors impacting the population sample. It is based upon the challenges impacting everyone and the way they are adjusting with
, 2010). This point is also made by Yehuda, Flory, Pratchett, Buxbaum, Ising and Holsboer (2010), who report that early life stress can also increase the risk of developing PTSD and there may even be a genetic component involved that predisposes some people to developing PTSD. Studies of Vietnam combat veterans have shown that the type of exposure variables that were encountered (i.e., severe personal injury, perceived life threat, longer duration,
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction Narrative Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The Role of Trauma Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion Genetic and Environmental Influences Models of Assessment/Conclusions Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1" This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to