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The issue that is most often associated with the diagnosis of PPD is the time frame, however Records notes that there are major discrepancies between the maternity and psychiatric literature making a 2-12-month diagnosis difficult (Records pp). The subjects in Records's study described how their past abuse experiences affected their thoughts and view of their labor, delivery, and postpartum experiences (Records pp). Records revealed that "all of the subjects felt that the combined recall of trauma events and the labor and delivery experience provided the foundation for the PPD...perceived negative labor and delivery experience as the basis for their PPD" (Records pp).
In the May 01, 2002 issue of OB GYN News, Erik L. Goldman cites Dr. Diana Dell's press briefing sponsored by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. According to Dell, women are under tremendous pressure to "make perfect babies and to be perfect mothers and perfect wives...and she's got huge expectations about what it will be like," and reality is less like a Gerber baby food commercial and more like Marine boot camp than most new mothers expect (Goldman pp). Being a new mother means that there is an incessant demand, the woman must obey every order, and there is "no rest, no mercy and no concern" for her feelings (Goldman pp). Yet this does not mean that false expectations cause postpartum depression, however in a woman with a history of depression or other risk factors, the "discord between longstanding expectations and the realities of early parenthood can trigger episodes of depression which can sometimes tailspin very quickly" (Goldman pp). Dell estimates that up to 70% of all pregnant women experience some symptoms of depression during their pregnancy or in the postpartum periods, but only 10-16% of them meet the criteria for major depression (Goldman pp). Up to 20% will have an episode of major depression before the end of the first year, and the numbers are even higher, up to 25%, for first time adolescent mothers (Goldman pp). Dell advised being especially concerned about women with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, and although psychosis is very rare among the general female population, it has a prevalence of 25-35% among women with these conditions (Goldman pp).
In the April 15, 1999 issue of American Family Physician, C. Neill Epperson reports that postpartum major depression, PMD, occurs in approximately 10% of childbearing women, and may begin anywhere from 24 hours to several months after delivery. Epperson cautions that before a definitive diagnosis of PMD is made, it is important to rule out any medical condition such as thyroid dysfunction or anemia (Epperson pp). Women who lose an excessive amount of blood during delivery may complain of fatigue as a result of anemia, and a number of depressive symptoms such as "a low mood, a lack of motivation, weight gain, anxiety and fatigue can be symptoms of thyroid dysfunction" (Epperson pp). Epperson reports that roughly "5% of postpartum women have transient hypothyroidism, sometimes preceded by hyperthyroidism, during the first year postpartum, and in others, permanent thyroid dysfunction develops" (Epperson pp).
Lee Cohen reports in the February 01, 2002 issue of OB GYN News, that antidepressants for postpartum depression should be considered the treatment of choice, and that nonpharmacologic therapies, such as interpersonal psychotherapy may also help. Although all antidepressants are secreted into breast milk, the amount of infant exposure is extremely low thus nursing mothers should not be concerned (Cohen pp).
David R. Offord reports in the January 01, 2002 issue of Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry that there is substantial empirical data to support that postpartum depression is an important risk factor in poor child outcomes.
Cohen, Lee. "Treating postpartum depression." OB GYN News. February 02, 2002.
Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Epperson, C. Neill. "Postpartum Major Depression: Detection and Treatment."
American Family Physician. April 15, 1999. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Goldman, Erik L. "Prenatal reality check may cut risk of postpartum depression."
OB GYN News. May 01, 2002. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Offord, David R. "Should postpartum depression be targeted to improve child mental health?" Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. January 02, 2002. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Records, Kathie. "The lived experience of postpartum depression in a…[continue]
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, 2009, 239). When women begin to feel depressed, they often do not go find help or understand that this is an event that is more common than one would think. They tend to isolate their depression, which accelerates it even more. Advanced nurse practitioners and other nursing and clinical staff can help better provide for women by being accepting of their depression, rather than questioning it. Nursing staff can
If that is indeed the case, again her societal position afforded her this opportunity although it was in no way an intervention. She voiced some concern through tears in the quiet of the night. However, Scott points out that this submissive positioning exemplified in the story only served to support the diminished position of women during the time. Ecological adaptation equates to diminished female capacity for Scott and any
Postpartum depression is a serious problem among women. Once thought of as a relatively minor phase within the postpartum cycle, it is now known that it can seriously impair the individual woman's ability to function under the stress of new parenthood and can seriously erode the family, at a point of foundational transition. Over the last twenty years doctors and the general public have demonstrated greater knowledge of the problem
Admissions Summary and Analysis Postpartum depression (PPD) represents increased symptoms of depression that are correlated to having recently given birth. Although rather un-discussed in mainstream social communications, it often tends to have a relevantly strong presence in new mothers. Its recorded prevalence has ranged dramatically, from some reports of as low as 5.5%, and others as high as 25% (Lee et al. 2011). Various literature also poses the idea that rates
(Mason, Rice & Records, 2005, p.52) The literature dealing with postnatal depression has sought over many years to understand the phenomena of postnatal depression and to find causal links to external and internal environments that could cause it in certain women. In Grote and Bledsoe the goal of the work was to study the influence of optimism and stress in the life and mind of the new mother and determine
birth of a child is often a time of anxiety for both parents and a source of physical, emotional, and mental strain for the soon to be mother. Within a short amount of time however, family members usually become accustomed to new sleeping schedules, different routines, and even occasional moments of mild depression or mood swings. Their lives quickly return to normal, and their emotions become stable, which allows
PPD Literature Review This work in writing seeks to answer the question of what the relationship is between domestic violence, sexual abuse, and women with depression during the postpartum period. Toward this end, this work will involve the conduction of an extensive review of literature in this area of study. The literature reviewed will be that located in scholarly publications and journals and other publications of a professional or academic and