Presence of Multiple Views and Term Paper

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However, the researchers can visualize the 'holistic' strategies even involve wide scope for utilization of computing resources as the basic instruments for collection and analyzing the data. (Willis; Jost, 2000)

The usage of computers has played a significant role in quantitative research; likewise they have the ability to offer considerably to qualitative research. The quantity of data that is regularly gathered is the main restriction in carrying out successful qualitative research, as researchers tend to be intimate to a phenomenon of interest. The quantity is such that it can lead to data asphyxiation, restricting the accomplishment of a central purpose of qualitative research, the close participation of a researcher with his/her data such that all related data affects analysis and successive summarization. With the text volume, there is an exponential raise of the variety of construct classifications and of patterns of constructs, which can come out from qualitative data. The quantity and intricacy of formless qualitative data can result in pressures to resolve for easy, rigid, indexing systems and can support themes that appear early in the research process to manage analyses. Glaser and Strauss suggest that analyses can be curtailed before attaining the redundancy and finality. These trials have inspired efforts to make use of the computer in the analysis of qualitative data. (Wolfe; Gephart; Johnson, 1993) Additionally scanners now allow copies of documents to be positioned in computer text files, swiftly augmenting the probability of more methodical and in detail uses.

Several digital recorders have been planned explicitly to cater to the needs of the journalists with regard to documentation of the interviews and conferences and are considered costly and complex. Other forms of digital recorders are considered simple and cost effective and basically prepared to cater to the needs of mobile music players and also for transcription purposes. Such recorders have considerable weaknesses while recoding the interviews and meetings. Some of the prevailing devices are being adopted widely and new tools are persistently emerging. The efficacy of Pocket PC and Palm devices are widely adopted for recording of the audios, but this has the significant limitations with regard to the use external microphones. The notebook computing devices are emerging to appear with input jacks or add-ons facilitating supplementation of the external microphones. The most cost effective method to record the interviews digitally is to resort to direct computer recording with the use of a powerful telephone coupler, soundcard or USB audio input tools and the program for recording. (Stockdale, 2002)

However, onsite recordings are not considered feasible through the computers. The most updated ultra sub-notebooks appear to be of a tiny size and light weight, however is of limited circulation beyond the borders of Japan. This is considered to be a costly affair. However, people generally are having a computer and if not may necessitate one for some other tasks. Some small sized mobile tools basically meant for listening to the music can also be utilized for recording speech. Presently, such tools are planned along with a small hard drives or solid state memory storage. Its dependability, however, is a matter of concern. In most of the cases the devices are found to be deficient of microphone input jacks as well as other features necessary to make it suitable for the field recorders. However, some of these instruments are considered to have great prospective and its eventual development counts much.

The Mini Disk audio recorder is quite significant in fetching 'near CD' class recording, suitable for mobility, lengthy recoding time, and also cost effective, even though, the recorders having microphone jack is little costlier. MiniDisks are mostly employed by the broadcast journalists and others as a cost effective substitute for more costly field recorders. However, it suffers from the weaknesses of poor computer interface, the feasibility of uploading of audio files only through the simultaneous re-recording. MiniDisk also necessitates meticulous use keeping in view the saving status of the directory information in order to avoid data loss. The Voice Recorders are small solid state instruments meant for recording of the memos, dictated letters, and the like. Some costly models however, incorporate microphone jacks and linked to computers through USB connection or through removable flash memory cards. Most of these instruments record audio in compact formats having low sampling frequencies and limited frequency sensitivity. However, such elements affect the audio quality. The eventually improved models are considered to be compatible to the high quality audio. (Stockdale, 2002)

The benefits of swiftness with which the computers manipulate the numerical data analysis have been exploited by the organizational researchers for a considerable period. The studies with the textual data contrarily are being regarded as delayed, labor oriented and not appropriate for computer operation. The attributes of complicacies and the large scale associated with the textual data more often been acknowledged as offering of the specific challenges to the research analysts. Currently, the advent of specific word processing software and more resourceful computers have re-inculcated the interests on the feasibility of research involving the analysis and representation of the textual data. The swiftness and data management skills of the specific software and computing resources also assist in the investigation and patterns in textual data that might alternatively have ignored. Wolfe, Gephart and Johnson emphasized on the prospective applicability of the qualities of computing resources like text retrieval, text studies, and data base management differentiations etc. In the sphere of organizational research. Wolfe and others have pointed out that even though some of the fascinating textual studies by manual coders exist in some of the organizational analysis, the utilization of the computer assisted qualitative data analysis makes feasible the wider exploration of the data. (Mossholder; Settoon; Harris; Armenakis, 1995)

Normally, the textual data analysis - TDA is concerned with the methodical selection, recovery and handing out of textual data with a view to make it more understandable and representative. The data collection involves different methodologies like interview transcripts, responses to the questionnaires, printing medium, organizational texts etc. On the basis of the nature of the research. Even though, the analytical methodologies are different according to the goal of the specific TDA, there exists a basic generality in such studies that leads to the computer processing. Such actions involve listing, counting, sorting of words, phrases and statements in the text, matching of the words with dictionary terminology, supplementation of the referral information, identification of the keywords and key text fragments etc. The use of the computer assisted TDA is evident in most of the current analysis that evaluated the theoretical construction behind the textual data. (Wolfe; Gephart; Johnson, 1993)

To illustrate Namenwirth and Weber narrated several analyses in which the computer assisted TDA procedure is utilized to examine the cultural motives relating to reverence and well being. Kabanoff utilized computer assisted TDA to group 88 organizational documents into four cultural types associated with ten value themes, in respect of the analysis of the organizational differences in the various types of values in annual reports, mission statements and other public organizational documents. The organizational researchers have examined corporate social liability and factors of organizational commitment to the health innovations of the employee by utilizing the TDA in respect of the analysis of annual report letters to shareholders. Moreover, Ritchie, Meglino, and Ravlin assumed the positive outputs are associated with the employees that described organizational incidents and conditions in the methods that specify a similarity with the high management objectives. They performed a TDA that recommended the employees familiar with the value similarities were considered to be higher performers and professed themselves to have greater awareness and control in the organization. (Wolfe; Gephart; Johnson, 1993)

Finally, Gephart extended the use of various computer assisted text processing methodologies exemplifying the use of TDA in making aware the organizational attitude on risk and blame. Two strategies have been identified for examining the textual data in the literature. Firstly the inductive method that is devised to demarcate the second order theoretical constructions of the textual data and second one is deductive regarded as the construct measurement approach that affords to numerical express the textual data with the help of the existing theoretical concepts. The inductive method of TDA takes for granted the variation of the language in meaning across the groups or contexts. The inductive method particularly involve theory-based surveys, with assistance of the computer-based qualitative data analysis tools that disintegrate the text and bring out the terms, concepts and vocabularies for use by the organizational members and the researchers along with the conceptual representation of the theoretical meanings.

The rising interest in computer-facilitated qualitative data analysis - CQDA has been generated by the commencement of comparatively low-cost optical scanning devices which can read nearly all kind of printed or typed text and convert it to an electronic form, and the general decrease in computer costs have offered an approachable technological base. While theoretically many CQDA methods are likely without…[continue]

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