Psychoanalysis According to Shultz and 'Discussion and Results' chapter
- Length: 13 pages
- Subject: Children
- Type: 'Discussion and Results' chapter
- Paper: #19495614
Excerpt from 'Discussion and Results' chapter :
Erikson believed that having faith in others is key at this developmental stage. During this stage, the adolescent and/or young adult continually attempts to make the different aspects of oneself congruent (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). A person who successfully negotiates this stage has a clear understanding of who they are and all of the many facets of their personality. This person will have a clear identity and sense of self (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). This identification was helpful as it motive me to begin to envision as well as set career goals for myself.
Model 6: Topic 2
The life stage proposed by Erickson that best matches my own current situation is that of generativity vs. stagnation. Generativity is concerned with establishing and guiding the next generation (Slater, 2003). During this stage the individual develops an understanding of the importance of giving of oneself to others and ensuring the success of future generations (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). Examples of this include child bearing and raising, community service, becoming a foster or adoptive parent, etc. According to Slater (2003), a sense of generativity is vital for both the person and society. In a healthy family, parents demonstrate generativity through caring for and guiding their children. In organizations, leaders demonstrate generativity by caring for their mission as well as their employees (Slater, 2003). A person who does not successfully negotiate this stage may experience feelings of worthlessness and boredom. Even if the person finds them self successful, they may experience underlying feelings of insignificance (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). It is clear that an ability to meaningfully contribute to society is integral to this approach.
Each stage is comprised of a conflict between opposing forces and resolution of this conflict in a healthy manner lives the individual with a healthy balance of both traits (Slater, 2003). One of the major barriers to resolution of the crisis at this stage is my tendency to overextend myself to others which leaves me with a significant lack of my own time and feelings of being overwhelmed with all of the commitments that I have made.
Model 7: Topic 1
The idea that research develops out of insight into oneself as well as personal experiences can be seen through the examination of the lives of major contributors in the field of psychology. As individuals we are most interested in the things that impact us directly and we frame our world and work around these things. The same can be observed in the major contributors to the field of psychology. For example, Freud's theories of childhood were designed from his adoration of his mother and his strained relationship with his father who was twenty years her elder. Further, Freud experienced sibling rivalry when his parents gave birth to his sister. His theories on sexual urges and how they impact the lifecycle were drawn directly from his own experiences. He is just one example of how the direct experiences of the psychologists are what interests them in the field and therefore frames the lens through which their beliefs and theories are formed.
Model 7: Topic 2
Most theorists would concede that individuals behave differently in different environments. Further it has been proposed that individuals respond differently at different times, with different groups of people, and at different stages of development. Although Allport saw this rational, he also believed that there were aspects of the individual that were intrinsically consistent and these traits were rooted deep within the individual. Allport believed that each person had key characteristics that determined their behavior and thought processes. Therefore when thinking about criminal behavior, if a person is imprisoned wrongfully and exposed to criminal behaviors and situations the innocent individual still may not engage in criminal acts. This is due to the unique features that make up this individual which exposure to stimuli cannot take away. Allport referred to this as personal disposition (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). These dispositions are believed to significantly impact behavior and the choices made by the individual.
Model 8: Topic 1
There is a tendency to mentally classify and analyze persons that we encounter each day. There are some aspects of the Big Five dimensions that we automatically notice such as extroversion or agreeableness. These dimensions are easy to identify in others and are often our first impression. The other three dimensions require more exposure to the individual in order to truly understand such as neuroticism. Many of the traits that lead to emotional instability are difficult to pick up when first encountering an individual. However, the process of classification of individuals does not stop at the first encounter. We continue to analyze individuals in all future encounters as well and our perception of their personality may change over time. While an accurate classification of the individuals personality may be difficult to initially achieve, our beliefs about the personality of another certainly impact whether or not we choose to start or continue a relationship with that person.
Model 8: Topic 2
Many theorists believe that the Big Five personality traits sufficiently cover most circumstances and describe individuals appropriately. The concept of trait theory implies that traits are deeply embedded inside the individual. However, traits alone cannot depict what it means to be a person (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). While trait theories do a nice job of covering the major aspects of individual personality, particularly that which has a biological orientation there are still shortcomings to this approach. Trait theories often fail to recognize the spiritual aspects of the individual which can influence the morals and values of the individual. There is also a lack of understanding of how the influences of a particular situation can influence behavior. Situational influences explain why the same individual may behave differently in specific situations or during particular periods of time. A theory that integrates traits with these factors would more closely depict the human character.
Model 9: Topic 1
The concept of self-actualization is at the peak of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. It describes an individual who is continually striving to reach their natural potential. While this may be the case in many celebrities or politicians, the characteristics described by Maslow are hard to achieve for anyone. When we think about people who are in the public eye such as Tiger Woods one has to question whether fame is in any way related to self-actualization. A self-actualized person has a realistic perception of themselves and others around them. Further they are able to focus on solving the problems of the world around them rather than their own issues and are often motivated by personal responsibility and ethics. While we cannot pretend to understand the intricacies of his marriage, Woods certainly has not emerged as someone whose focus is on personal responsibility or ethics considering the numerous affairs that he has had during his marriage.
Model 9: Topic 2
Humanistic psychology focuses on the innate good in all people and views any social or mental problems as deviations from this natural tendency toward good. However, the ability to measure good and the other humanistic concepts are difficult therefore taking away from the validity and applicability of such a theory. Behaviorism on the other hand brings with it measurable objectives in which behaviors can be measured and quantified whereas humanistic psychology must rely on the individual observations of the person being studied. In behaviorism observable behavior is measured and decisions and theories can be derived from this scientific evidence. Psychoanalytic theory pays attention to the manner in which our unconscious drives influence our behaviors. While humanistic psychology has a very positive way of viewing the individual, it needs to be combined with these other approaches so that one can truly have a full picture of what it means to be a person.
Model 10: Topic 1
Rogers's theory includes core conditions that are integral in developing and strengthening the therapeutic connection including unconditional positive regard and empathy. Empathy can be defined as the ability to view the world through the eyes of the client working with them father than for them (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). While persons of different races may not have the same lens through which they view the world, the therapist is capable of symbolically placing themselves in the mindset to understand the world in which the client operates. While traditional counseling programs teach empathy in a manner that is geared toward the mainstream population the therapist will need to take into consideration cross cultural factors that impact the manner in which the client views the world. In order to truly be empathic, the counselor needs to be able to communicate to the client an understanding of their worldview which can be accomplished through the acknowledgement of the differences that exist between them. This will include an understanding of the cultural values, beliefs, and practices that exist for the…